Comparative analysis of physical development and functional capacity of different sports athletes during competition period
Keywords: athletes of different sports, physical development, functional capacity
AbstractThe aim of this study was to compare physical fitness of high performance canoeists, rowers, Greek-Roman style wrestlers, basketball players and skiers during their competition period. Indices of physical development, muscle and fat mass and their ratios were obtained. Single muscular contraction power (SMCP) and anaerobic alactic muscular power (AAMP) were also measured. The anaerobic glycolytic power (AGP) was estimated by ergometer. The Bosco methodology was used to estimate the activity of fast twitch fibres (FTF). The psychomotor response time (PRT) and movement frequency (MF) per 10 s were estimated and Roufier index (RI) was applied to measure functional capacity of circulatory and respiratory systems. The examination of athletes specialising in five different sports allowed for identification of the peculiarities of sports specialisation. The distinctive height, highest body weight and static hand power values characterised rowers and basketball players; while canoeists had the highest muscle mass. Only canoeists achieved high SMCP during the competition period. The SMCP of rowers and skiers was optimal, whereas the basketball players and wrestlers demonstrated an insufficient single muscular contraction power. The highest anaerobic alactic muscle power was observed in basketball players and canoeists, whereas in the muscles the basketball players and wrestlers the activity of FTF was insufficient. Though its parameters were approximate to endurance-trained rowers, they considerably fell behind those of canoeists. The functional capacity of circulatory and respiratory system of skiers was highest. The research revealed that the majority of indices of skiers and wrestlers’ physical fitness were lowest among the other studied athletes. Such results reflect their limited potential to achieve high results in international competitions.