Effect of single vs. multi joint ballistic resistance training upon vertical jump performance
Keywords: coordination, specificity, biarticular, squat
AbstractThe present study aimed to examine the effects of two different ballistic resistance training regimens, with and without the possibility to utilize the proximal to distal coordination between knee and ankle, upon maximal vertical jump performance. Changes in 1 repetition maximum (1-RM) squat performance, as well as power, force and velocity variables during the vertical jump were used to predict maximal vertical jump performance. Thirteen sport science students divided into two groups performed a five week training study. The multi joint group (n=7) exercised ballistic squat with plantar flexion in one movement, while the single joint group (n=6) exercised ballistic squat and plantar flexion separately, three times per week. The main finding was that only the multi joint training group improved their maximal vertical jump performance and not the single joint training group. Both groups improved in 1-RM squat weight, but for the single joint training group this improvement was not associated with an increase in maximal vertical jump performance. It was concluded that to enhance vertical jump height by training ballistic squats one should train multi joints exercises to accomplish a transfer of power from proximal to distal joints.