Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis 2019-11-21T14:46:06+02:00 Jaak Jürimäe Open Journal Systems <p><em>Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis</em> is a multidisciplinary journal publishing papers on diverse subjects from sports and exercise sciences.</p> Changes in leisure-time physical activity levels and perceived barriers among Estonian adults over a two-year period 2019-11-21T14:46:06+02:00 Peeter Lusmägi Kerli Mooses Eve-Liis Roosmaa Merike Kull <p>The aim of this study is to describe the changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) levels among the Estonian adult population in the years 2013–2015 in order to examine the relationships between LTPA level and socioeconomic status (SES) and health indicators, and also to explore perceived barriers to LTPA. Data from the National Physical Activity Survey were used. The sample consisted of 1009 participants aged 15–69 in 2013 and 1004 respondents in 2015. The proportion of Estonian adults exercising regularly at least four times per week increased from 39% in 2013 to 45% in 2015. Being in the older age groups increased the odds for physical inactivity 2.07–4.74 times compared to the youngest age group (15–24) (p&lt;0.01). Having primary, basic, or secondary education increased the odds of being inactive 2.33–3.14 times compared to respondents with higher education (p &lt; 0.01). The most prevalent barriers to physical activity reported by inactive adults were: 1) the absence of interest or unwillingness to make an effort, 2) tiredness at work, and 3) lack of time. In conclusion, despite a slight positive trend, LTPA levels are low. As the perceived barriers depend on age, public health strategies should involve age-specific solutions, especially for older adults.</p> 2019-01-02T17:38:36+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effect of peers’ autonomy-supportive behaviour on adolescents’ psychological need satisfaction, intrinsic motivation and objectively measured physical activity 2019-11-21T14:46:04+02:00 Henri Tilga Hanna Kalajas-Tilga Vello Hein Lennart Raudsepp Andre Koka <p>Based on self-determination theory, adolescents’ leisure-time (LT) physical activity (PA) behaviour may depend on the extent by which they perceive an environment as autonomy-supportive. The present study aimed to investigate whether adolescents’ perception of autonomy-supportive behaviour from their peers is related to adolescents’ objectively measured LT moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) through perceived psychological needs satisfaction and intrinsic motivation towards PA. School students (n=215) aged between 12 to 15 years old (age: 13.20±0.96 yrs) completed self-reported measures of perceived peers’ autonomy support, psychological needs satisfaction, and intrinsic motivation in the context of LT PA. In addition, study participants wore an accelerometer (Acti-Graph GT3X) to monitor their MVPA. Results of the structural equation modelling revealed that perceived autonomy support from peers had a significant and positive effect on perceptions of all three psychological need satisfaction in LT, which, in turn, had a significant and positive effect on adolescents’ intrinsic motivation. Adolescents’ LT PA was significantly predicted by their intrinsic motivation towards PA. Only one pathway through autonomy need satisfaction was revealed by which adolescents’ perception of their peers’ autonomy-supportive behaviour is related to intrinsic motivation and MVPA. The findings of the current study highlight the role of peers’ autonomy-supportive behaviour on adolescents objectively measured PA through motivational processes in the context of LT.</p> 2019-01-02T17:47:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effect of different environmental conditions on the physical activity of preschool children in Estonia 2019-11-21T14:46:02+02:00 Sirle Nekraš Mikola Misjuk <p>The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of different environmental conditions on the physical activity of preschool children. The experiment took place in Estonian childcare centre during the free playtime. Fifteen children aged 6–7 years from childcare centre participated in the research. Physical activity was measured using pedometers Fitbit Zip™. Results show that in comparison to the usual free play the physical activity of children increased statistically significantly by 83% when background music was played, by 50% when sport equipment was provided and by 101% when both environmental conditions were combined. It was found that compared to the usual free play, children’s activity increased the least when only sport equipment was provided, while children’s activity increased more when background music was played and increased the most when music with sport equipment was combined. Physical activity did not differ when only background music and music with sport equipment were used. It can be summarised that the background music and opportunity to use portable sport equipment increases the physical activity of children during free play. Background music has greater impact on the activity than portable sport equipment. Children’s physical activity can be effectively increased in childcare centre by using simple modifications such as background music and portable sport equipment during free play.</p> 2019-01-02T17:52:58+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Physical fitness in preschoolers according to body composition 2019-11-21T14:46:00+02:00 Eva-Maria Riso Lisette Toplaan Piret Viira Sille Vaiksaar Jaak Jürimäe <p>The objective of this study was to investigate physical fitness of preschoolaged children just before entering school according to their body mass index, and to examine possible associations of body mass index, fat mass and fat-free mass with physical fitness in preschool-aged children. Two hundred and fifty-six preschoolers aged 6 to 7 years participated in the study. Physical fitness was assessed using PREFIT test battery and body composition was estimated using four skinfold thickness parameters. Overweight children had lower cardiorespiratory fitness and lower results in all weight-bearing fitness tests, and better handgrip strength test result in comparison with normal-weight children. Significant associations were found between body composition indices and the results of physical fitness tests. Higher BMI associated negatively with weight-bearing physical fitness tests. The results of the research indicate that weight-status and body composition have significant effect on physical fitness in 6–7 years old preschoolers.</p> 2019-01-02T18:02:27+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bicycle usage among inactive adults provided with electrically assisted bicycles 2019-11-21T14:45:58+02:00 Stian E. Lobben Lena Malnes Sveinung Berntsen Leif Inge Tjelta Elling Bere Morten Kristoffersen Thomas Mildestvedt <p>In the present study we aimed primarily to examine cycling time and distance when inactive subjects were provided with electrically assisted bicycles. Secondly to evaluate changes in maximal oxygen uptake. Inactive employees in a selection of public and private corporations in three Norwegian cities were invited to participate. Inclusion criteria were: a desire to cycle to work, residence more than 3 km from the workplace, and not physically active according to guidelines. There were 25 participants in the study and we provided them all with electrically assisted bicycles fitted with GPS bike computers to record usage. The participants were followed for three to eight months, 226 days on average. Measures of maximal oxygen uptake were performed before and after the intervention. Demographic characteristics and prior transportation habits were reported in a questionnaire at baseline. Participants cycled for 107.1± 62 min per week covering 37.6 ± 24 km per week. The distances cycled were significantly greater in the autumn (47.4 km/week, p=0.035) than in the spring (32.1 km/week). Participants cycled more on weekdays (7.1 km/day, p &lt; 0.001) compared to weekends (0.9 km/day, p&lt;0.001). Maximal oxygen uptake improved significantly, 2.4 ml/min/kg (7.7 %), p&lt;0.001 and this was associated with cycling distance (r=0.49, p=0.042) and self-reported commuting distance (r=0.51, p=0.018). Offering electrically assisted bicycles to inactive employees may initiate transport-related physical activity and may give positive health effects.</p> 2019-01-02T18:11:43+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The acute and post-activation potentiation effects of the SPEEDMAKER™ on step-by step kinematics, muscle activation and performance in 30-m sprints 2019-11-21T14:45:57+02:00 Hågen Fjørkenstad Dybdal Roland Van Den Tillaar <p>The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of using the SpeedMaker™ on step-by-step kinematics and muscle activity in 30-m sprints and if it is possible to elicit a post-activation potentiation stimulus with the SpeedMaker™ upon subsequent 30-m sprint performance. Thirteen male soccer players (age: 22.8±1.8 yr, body mass: 75.1±11.9 kg, height: 1.80±0.08 m) participated in a repeated measure and cross-over design consisting of two conditions: three normal 30-m sprints (control) and two normal 30-m sprints divided by one 30-m sprint with the SpeedMaker™ (intervention). Kinematics were measured for each step together with the peak muscle activity of the hamstrings, quadriceps and gluteus during each stride of each 30-m sprint. The main findings were that sprinting with the SpeedMaker™ increased sprint times by 1.7% compared to normal 30-m sprints. However, no occurrence of a postactivation potentiation (PAP) response was found when performing a 30-m sprint with the SpeedMaker™ prior to a normal 30-m sprint in male soccer players. Furthermore, no detectable differences in step-by-step analysis on kinematics and muscle activity were found between the sprints with and without the SpeedMaker™. Only hamstrings and gluteus activity increased per stride over 30-m. It was concluded that the SpeedMaker™ did influence sprint times, but only in a small way that kinematics and muscle activity did not change detectable. Furthermore, that the SpeedMaker™ did not elicit a PAP effect. In addition, increased hamstring and gluteus maximus activation during the 30-m sprints suggests that these muscles are very important for acceleration, and that it is likely that acute hamstring strains occur when a soccer player is close to maximal velocity, as hamstring activation is maximal at that point.</p> 2019-01-02T18:20:37+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Aerobic training combined with nutritional guidance as an effective strategy for improving aerobic fitness and reducing BMI in inactive adults 2019-11-21T14:45:55+02:00 Merete H. Helland Gerd L. Nordbotten Cathrine N. Hagum Leif Inge Tjelta <p>The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a 33-week program, which included two weekly intensive running sessions, on aerobic capacity, BMI, waist circumference and body composition in overweight and obese, inactive adults. An additional aim was to examine the additional impact of lifestyle modification education. Twenty-four participants in the Training Group (exercise only) and 27 in the Nutritional Guidance and Training Group (exercise + nutritional guidance) completed the study. Anthropometric measurements (BMI, waist circumference, visceral fat, muscle mass and fat percentage) and 3000 m running time were measured at start, after 15 weeks (BMI, waist circumference and 3000 m running time) and after 33 weeks of intervention. Significant reductions in BMI, waist circumference, fat percentage and 3000 m running time were found for both groups. A small, but insignificant, increase was found for muscle mass in both groups and visceral fat in the training group. A significant interaction effect for visceral fat was also found. Both groups improved their running time and anthropometric measurements. No significant differences were found between the groups.</p> 2019-01-02T18:27:56+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The effect of isometric handgrip training on blood pressure 2019-11-21T14:45:53+02:00 Silvia Piikmann Kirkke Reisberg <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effect of single-bout isometric handgrip training on systolic (BPS) and diastolic blood pressure (BPD). Healthy normotensive (BP&lt;120/80 mmHg) (n=6) and prehypertensive (BPS 120–139 mmHg and/or BPD 80–89 mmHg) (n=6) women with mean age of 47.3±14.0 years, who did not take antihypertensive medicine, participated in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured with aneroid sphygmomanometer Riester Precisa N (Germany). Thereafter with the JAMAR hydraulic hand dynamometer (USA) maximal isometric contraction (MVC) was recorded. After a rest of 3 min, the subject was asked to perform the isometric contraction at 30% of MVC for 2 min and that was repeated for four times with rest of 1 min after each bout of contraction. BP was measured again after a rest of 3 min and 3 hrs. <strong>3 min</strong> after isometric exercise no statistically significant changes in BPS and BPD was observed. But clinically meaningful BPS decrease was observed and confirmed by subgroup analysis with decrease in BPS among prehypertensive subjects. <strong>3 hrs</strong> after isometric exercise BPS and BPD were significantly reduced and the decrease in BPS was also clinically meaningful. Subgroup findings showed among normotensive significant and clinically meaningful reduction in BPS and BPD, respectively, as well as clinically meaningful reduction in BPS among prehypertensive subjects. According to this study we suggest that isometric handgrip training could be considered as BP lowering training method.</p> 2019-01-02T18:32:53+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of ACSL (rs6552828) polymorphism among runners 2019-11-21T14:45:51+02:00 Sigal Ben-Zaken Yoav Meckel Dan Nemet Alon Eliakim <p>The ACSL A/G polymorphism is associated with endurance trainability. Previous studies have demonstrated that homozygotes of the minor AA allele had a reduced maximal oxygen consumption response to training compared to the common GG allele homozygotes, and that the ACSL A/G single nucleotide polymorphism explained 6.1% of the variance in the VO2max response to endurance training. The contribution of ACSL single nucleotide polymorphism to endurance trainability was shown in nonathletes, however, its potential role in professional athletes is not clear. Moreover, the genetic basis to anaerobic trainability is even less studied. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence of ACSL single nucleotide polymorphism among professional Israeli long distance runners (n=59), middle distance runners (n=31), sprinters and jumpers (n=48) and non-athletic controls (n=60). The main finding of the present study was that the ACSL1 AA genotype, previously shown to be associated with reduced endurance trainability, was not higher among sprinters and jumpers (15%) compared to middle- (16%) and long-distance runners (15%). This suggests that in contrast to previous studies indicating that the ACSL1 single nucleotide polymorphism may influence endurance trainability among non-athletic individuals, the role of this polymorphism among professional athletes is still not clear.</p> 2019-01-02T19:00:06+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Associations between inflammatory markers and bone mineral density in lean pubertal girls 2019-11-21T14:45:49+02:00 Jaak Jürimäe Anna-Liisa Tamm Liina Remmel Vallo Tillmann <p>We investigated whether common inflammatory markers are associated with bone accumulation in lean pubertal girls. Thirty-four 10–12-yearold lean girls at pubertal stages 2–4 were studied. Twelve inflammatory parameters [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, vascular endothelial growth factor, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), tumour necrosis factoralpha, IL-1α, IL-1β, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and epidermal growth factor] were measured from plasma samples. Whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (BMD), and WB bone mineral content (BMC) were assessed by DXA. Plasma IFN-γ concentration was negatively correlated (p&lt;0.05) with WB BMC (r=–0.45), WB BMD (r=–0.46) and FN BMD (r=–0.43). In addition, plasma IL–6 (r= –0.37; p&lt;0.05), IL-1α (r=–0.40; p&lt;0.05) and MCP-1 (r=–0.38; p&lt;0.05) concentrations were also negatively correlated to measured BMD values. The stepwise regression analysis showed that IFN-γ alone and together with IL-1α explained 18.6% and 27.6%, respectively, of the variability in WB BMD, while IL-1α and MCP-1 together explained 25.5% of the variability in LS BMD, and IL-1α together with IFN-γ explained 34.1% of the variability in FN BMD. In conclusion, plasma IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-1α and MCP-1 concentrations were associated with BMD variables, suggesting that these cytokines may participate in bone accumu lation in lean pubertal girls.</p> 2019-01-02T19:10:04+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##