Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis <em>Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis</em><span> is a multidisciplinary journal publishing papers on diverse subjects from sports and exercise sciences.</span> University of Tartu Press en-US Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis 1406-9822 Monitoring training load: necessity, methods and applications Regular physical activity and participation in organized sports is important contributor to performance and for overall health and fitness in humans of various age range. In performance related areas, every detail in the training sessions is important for the athlete to be in the best shape the chosen competition day. Sport scientists have been making hard effort to find out how the training has the influence on performance. Thus, training monitoring is important tool to evaluate an athlete’s response to training. Banister developed the ‘training impulse’ (TRIMP) as a method to quantify training load. The TRIMP consists of the exercise intensity calculated by the heart rate (HR) reserve method and the duration of exercise. Foster et al. [23] developed a modification of the rating of the perceived exertion method, which uses Rated Perceived Exertion (RPE) as a marker of training intensity within the TRIMP concept. For quantifying and calculating training load, the athlete’s RPE (1–10pt scale) is multiplied by the duration of the session. Ideally, the perceptions of training load should match between athlete and coach to have optimal adaptation. Thus, this brief review article is evaluating training monitoring opportunities without the need of expensive equipment. Rasmus Pind Jarek Mäestu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 23 7 18 10.12697/akut.2017.23.01 Acute effect of resisted sprinting upon regular sprint performance The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of resisted sprinting upon running sprint performance. Thirty male athletes from track and field (age: 21.2±2.9 yrs, body mass: 69.8±9.8 kg, height: 1.75±0.08 m) performed two different test sessions (one day of 7×60 m runs alternating between regular and resisted sprinting and the other day 7×60 m of regular sprints) with 5 min between each run. Sled towing individually weighted to 10% of each participant’s body mass was used as resistance for the resisted sprints. It was found that training with or without resistance had the same effect; there is no acute effect of resisted sprinting upon sprint performance after using resisted runs. It was concluded that resisted sprinting does not have any acute positive effect upon regular sprints of 60 m, but only a fatiguing effect. Roland Van Den Tillaar Amaro Teixeira Daniel Marinho ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 23 19 33 10.12697/akut.2017.23.02 The AGT M235T (RS699, 4072T>C) polymorphism is not associated with elite weightlifting performance It is now well established that genetic background influences an athlete’s ability to excel in different sport disciplines. Previous studies have demonstrated that among power athletes, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the <em>AGT</em> genotype (Thr-Thr), was significantly more prevalent among weightlifters compared to sprinters and jumpers indicating that despite the common features of these sport subtypes (short and very intense), they vary in their strength and speed abilities, as well as in their genetic make-up. The aim of the present study was to assess whether the <em>AGT</em> SNP can be used also to distinguish elite from national levels weightlifters. The <em>AGT</em> M235T genotype frequencies were assessed in 47 weightlifters (30 elite, 17 national level) and 86 non-athletes control. The Thr-Thr genotype was significantly higher among weightlifters (29.8%) compared to controls (12.8%) (p=0.048). Thr allele frequency was significantly higher among weightlifters (55.3%) compared to controls (37.8%) (p=0.021). However, there was no difference in the prevalence of the polymorphism between national level and elite athletes. In conclusion, the results suggest that the <em>AGT</em> polymorphism cannot predict elite competitive weightlifting performance. Sigal Ben-Zaken Yoav Meckel Dan Nemet Michal Pantanowitz Alon Eliakim ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 23 34 41 10.12697/akut.2017.23.03 The half-marathon participants, who are they and what motivates them for training and competition? The purpose of the present study was to investigate the motives for training and competing among participants in a half-marathon race. A descriptive quantitative research design was developed using a questionnaire to examine the half-marathon runners’ interest in running and competition. The total number of participants presented in this study were 862, 331 female and 531 male with a mean age 41.8±10.4 years. The major reasons for the participants to regularly practice running were because of its importance to their physical and psychological health, because it is fun, and for other health reasons, respectively. Comparing the motives for running between males and females showed that males scored higher on health, losing weight and to be able to measure their running abilities with others. Comparing the main reasons among age groups for participating in half-marathon competition, the majority of the 40 years old. The results indicate that the major reasons for regularly practice running are that running as activity is important for maintaining physical and physiological health. Leif Inge Tjelta Per Erik Kvåle Shaher Shalfawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 23 42 51 10.12697/akut.2017.23.04 Physical activity and functional motor skills of primary school children in Estonia The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity (PA) and functional motor skills in 7–9-year-old children, and to find out whether participation in organized sport enhances their motor skills and fulfils the requirements for PA. To assess PA, all 38 participants (18 boys, 20 girls; mean age 8.1±0.7 years) used accelerometer and accelerometer diary during one week. Average time per day spent in sedentary, light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was calculated. To measure motor skills, MABC-2 was used. Also, parental PA and educational level were recorded with questionnaire. PA of children was not associated with their motor skills (p&gt;0.05). Recommendations for daily PA were fulfilled by two children (5.3%), seven children (18.4%) did not meet the recommendations in any of the measured days. Both, boys and girls spent significantly more time in sedentary on schooldays than on weekend-days (F=23.122, p0.05) with PA or motor skills. Also, parent and child PA were not significantly correlated. Average PA of children is lower than recommended. However, PA was not correlated with motor skills. The higher was parental educational level, the higher were motor skills of their child. Liis Süda Kerli Mooses Iti Müürsepp ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 23 52 63 10.12697/akut.2017.23.05 Physical fitness among 6th grade students and evaluation with the normative reference values The objective of this study was to compare Estonian 6th grade students’ physical fitness level with normative values from ALPHA fitness test and international normative 20 m shuttle run values. The following healthrelated fitness components were assessed: cardiorespiratory fitness, flexibility, muscular strength, muscular endurance and speed, as a skillrelated fitness component. Physical fitness results were evaluated with the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents and with normative 20 m shuttle run values. Students from 6th grade (n=178) participated in the study. Physical fitness performance was not signi ficantly different between boys and girls, except for flexibility and upper body muscle strength and endurance. Boys’ percentage in very low and low level was higher on every test compared to girls’ results based on normative values. The results of the research indicate the importance to measure the physical fitness of schoolchildren and to compare them with the evaluation scales to plan and carry out more PE lessons focusing on physical fitness development. Further research is needed to evaluate students’ physical fitness levels among different age groups. Physical fitness development is urgently needed and should be included in school curriculum. Eilin Sepp Eva-Maria Riso Sille Vaiksaar Maret Pihu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 23 64 73 10.12697/akut.2017.23.06 Motor performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis after 8-week home exercise program On patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) the muscle strength, gait and  everyday activities performance capacity decreased, though patients care started many years before. Patients care includes supervised physio therapy sessions and home exercise performing. Research goal was to assess the improvement in patients with knee OA motor performance with home exercise program (HEP) 8-weeks before total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Hypothesis: 8-week HEP improve legs motor performance in patients with knee OA. Ten female patients with knee OA with the mean (±SE) age of 62.7±2.3 yrs; ten age- and gender-matched healthy controls with the mean (±SE) age of 62.6±1.1 yrs. Motor performance was assessed by isometric strength of the quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstring (HM) muscles, gait, Five-Time-Sit-to-Stand (FTSTS) test and knee active range of motion (aROM) before and after 8-week HEP. Outcome was measured by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). After 8-week HEP, QF and HM isometric strength, knee aROM during flexion and the gait stride length for the involved leg increased (p&lt;0.05) compared to pre-exercising level. The WOMAC score increased and FTSTS test time shortened (p&lt;0.05) after 8-week HEP. Difference in measured parameters between the patients involved leg decreased as compared to uninvolved leg and controls. Study showed that after 8-week HEP improved involved leg thigh’s muscle strength, knee aROM, and stride length. Sit to stand test performance and patient’s self-assessed condition improved. In conclusion, HEP with at least 8 weeks should be recommended for patients with knee OA before TKA. Jelena Sokk Monika Rätsepsoo Tatjana Kums Jaan Ereline Tiit Haviko Helena Gapeyeva Mati Pääsuke ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 23 74 85 10.12697/akut.2017.23.07 Microsoft Kinect-based differences in lower limb kinematics during modified timed up and go test phases between men with and without Parkinson’s disease <p>The aim of the study was to analyse with Microsoft Kinect (Kinect) the differences in lower limb kinematics during sub-phases of modified Timed Up and Go test (modTUG) in men with Parkinson’s disease (PD) compared to healthy age-matched male individuals. Eight men with mild-to-moderate PD (age 67.5±4.5 yrs) and eight healthy men (age 69.8±8.0 yrs) participated. Kinect along with KinectPsyManager (v1.0) and Matlab2016b software was used for data collection. Selected lower limb kinematics and gait speed (GS) were calculated during sittingto- walking (STW) transition while performing modTUG. According to Kinect men with mild to moderate PD did not differ from healthy counterparts in aspects of postural characteristics of STW, with the exception of smaller distance between knees while sitting (p&lt;0.001). Men with PD were found to perform the walking phase of STW transition slower (p&lt;0.01) and with slower GS (p&lt;0.01) comparing to healthy men. In conclusion, compared to healthy men, Kinect detects smaller distance between knees during sitting before transitioning from STW in men with mild to moderate PD. In addition, men with PD also demonstrated slower GS and a longer walking phase of STW transition in comparison to healthy men. </p> Hedi Kähär Pille Taba Sven Nõmm Kadri Medijainen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-18 2018-01-18 23 86 97 10.12697/akut.2017.23.08