Küberkiusamise fenomeni tajumine Eesti õpilaste seas: sooline võrdlus kiusamise kriteeriumite ja liikide alusel

Karin Naruskov, Piret Luik


Küberkiusamise sügavama mõistmise, sealhulgas mõõtmise seisukohalt on oluline teada, kuivõrd sarnaselt või erinevalt poisid ja tüdrukud küberkiusamise fenomeni tajuvad. Teema põhjalikuma käsitlemise vajalikkusele viitab ka asjaolu, et varasemad küberkiusamise valdkonnas tehtud soolise võrdluse uuringud on andnud üsna vastuolulisi tulemusi. Uurimistöö eesmärk on võrrelda poiste ja tüdrukute vahelisi erinevusi küberkiusamise fenomeni tajumisel kiusamise kriteeriumite ja liikide alusel. Uuringus osales 336 Eesti õpilast vanuses 11−17 eluaastat: 163 tüdrukut ja 173 poissi. Instrumendina kasutati Euroopa projektis COST Action IS0801 valminud ankeeti. Andmeid analüüsiti võrdlustestide, täpsemalt χ2-testi, mittepaarisvalimi t-testi ja Manni-Whitney U-testiga. Küberkiusamiskäitumist defineerivate kriteeriumite ja liikide puhul ei tuvastatud poiste ja tüdrukute hinnangute vahel ühtegi statistiliselt olulist erinevust. Seevastu küberkiusamise kriteeriumite ja liikide tõsidust tajusid poisid ja tüdrukud erinevalt.



küberkiusamise kriteeriumid, küberkiusamise liigid, taju, soolised erinevused

Full Text:



Ang, R. P., & Goh, D. H. (2010). Cyberbullying among adolescents: The role of affective and cognitive empathy, and gender. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 41(4), 387−397. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10578-010-0176-3

Beaton, D. E., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. B. (2000). Guidelines for the process of cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. Spine, 25(24), 3186–3191. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007632-200012150-00014

Beckman, L., Hagquist, C., & Hellström, L. (2013). Discrepant gender patterns for cyberbullying and traditional bullying − An analysis of Swedish adolescent data. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 1896−1903. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.03.010

Berne, S., Frisén, A., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Naruskov, K., Luik, P., ... Žukauskienė, R. (2013). Cyberbullying assessment instruments: A systematic review. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18(2), 320−334. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2012.11.022

Connell, N. M., Schell-Busey, N. M., Pearce, A. N., & Negro, P. (2014). Badgrlz? Exploring sex differences in cyberbullying behaviors. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 12(3), 209–228. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204013503889

Dehue, F., Bolman, C., & Völlink, T. (2008). Cyberbullying: Youngsters’ experiences and parental perception. CyberPsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual, 11(2), 217–223. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.0008

Dooley, J. J., Pyżalski, J., & Cross, D. (2009). Cyberbullying versus face-to-face bullying: A theoretical and conceptual review. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie, 217(4), 182–188. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.182

Frisén, A., Berne, S., & Marin, L. (2014). Swedish pupils’ suggested coping strategies if cyberbullied: Differences related to age and gender. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55(6), 578–584. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sjop.12143

Gradinger, P., Strohmeier, D., & Spiel, C. (2010). Definition and measurement of cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology, 4(2), 1−13.

Grigg, D. W. (2010). Cyber-aggression: Definition and concept of cyberbullying. Australian Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 20(2), 143−156. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1375/ajgc.20.2.143

Gross, E. F., Juvonen, J., & Gable, S. L. (2002). Internet use and well-being in adolescence. Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 75−90. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1540-4560.00249

Haddon, L., & Livingstone, S. (2012). EU Kids Online: National perspectives. London: EU Kids Online, The London School of Economics and Political Science. Retrieved from http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/46878/

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2008). Cyberbullying: An exploratory analysis of factors related to offending and victimization. Deviant Behavior, 29(2), 129−156. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01639620701457816

Hinduja, S., & Patchin, J. W. (2009). Bullying beyond the schoolyard: Preventing and responding to cyberbullying. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Juvonen, J., & Gross, E. F. (2008). Extending the school grounds? − Bullying experiences in cyberspace. Journal of School Health, 78(9), 496–505. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00335.x

Kowalski, R. M., & Limber, S. P. (2007). Electronic bullying among middle school students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(6), S22−S30. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2007.08.017

Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S. P., & Agatston, P. W. (2008). Cyber bullying: Bullying in the digital age. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470694176

Kumpulainen, K., Räsänen, E., & Henttonen, I. (1999). Children involved in bullying: Psychological disturbance and the persistence of the involvement. Child Abuse & Neglect, 23(12), 1253–1262. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(99)00098-8

Langos, C. (2012). Cyberbullying: The challenge to define. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(6), 285−289. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2011.0588

Li, Q. (2006). Cyberbullying in schools: A research of gender differences. School Psychology International, 27(2), 157−170. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0143034306064547

Menesini, E., & Nocentini, A. (2009). Cyberbullying definition and measurement: Some critical considerations. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie, 217(4), 230−232. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/0044-3409.217.4.230

Menesini, E., Nocentini, A., Palladino, B. E., Frisén, A., Berne, S., Ortega-Ruiz, R., ... Smith, P. K. (2012). Cyberbullying definition among adolescents: A comparison across six European countries. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(9), 455−463. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2012.0040

Mesch, G. S. (2009). Parental mediation, online activities, and cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual Reality on Behavior and Society, 12(4), 387–393. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2009.0068

Mishna, F., Saini, M., & Solomon, S. (2009). Ongoing and online: Children and youth’s perceptions of cyber bullying. Children and Youth Services Review, 31(12), 1222−1228. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.05.004

Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., Pilla, R. S., Ruan, W. J., Simons-Morton, B., & Scheidt, P. (2001). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment. JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, 285(16), 2094–2100. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.16.2094

Naruskov, K., Luik, P., Nocentini, A., & Menesini, E. (2012). Estonian students’ perception and definition of cyberbullying. TRAMES: A Journal of the Humanities & Social Sciences, 16(4), 323−343. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3176/tr.2012.4.02

Nocentini, A., Calmaestra, J., Schultze-Krumbholz, A., Scheithauer, H., Ortega, R., & Menesini, E. (2010). Cyberbullying: Labels, behaviours and definition in three European countries. Australian Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20(2), 129–142. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1375/ajgc.20.2.129

Olweus, D. (1999). Sweden. In P. K. Smith, Y. Morita, J. Junger-Tas, D. Olweus, R. Catalano, & P. Slee (Eds.), The nature of school bullying: A cross-national perspective (pp. 7–27). London: Routledge.

Olweus, D. (2011). Bullying at school and later criminality: Findings from three Swedish community samples of males. Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health: CBMH, 21(2), 151−156. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbm.806

Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A preliminary look at cyberbullying. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 4(2), 148−169. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204006286288

Pieschl, S., Porsch, T., Kahl, T., & Klockenbusch, R. (2013). Relevant dimensions of cyberbullying − results from two experimental studies. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 34(5), 241−252. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2013.04.002

Seals, D., & Young, J. (2003). Bullying and victimization: Prevalence and relationship to gender, grade level, ethnicity, self-esteem, and depression. Adolescence, 38(152), 735–747.

Shariff, S. (2008). Cyber-bullying: Issues and solutions for the school, the classroom and the home. Abington: Routledge (Taylor & Frances Group).

Slonje, R., & Smith, P. K. (2008). Cyberbullying: Another main type of bullying? Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(2), 147−154. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2007.00611.x

Smith, P. K., Cowie, H., Olafsson, R. F., Liefooghe, A. P. D., Almeida, A., Araki, H., ... Wenxin, Z. (2002). Definitions of bullying: A comparison of terms used, and age and gender differences, in a fourteen-country international comparison. Child Development, 73(4), 1119−1133. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00461

Smith, P. K., Mahdavi, J., Carvalho, M., Fisher, S., Russell, S., & Tippett, N. (2008). Cyberbullying: Its nature and impact in secondary school pupils. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49(4), 376–385. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01846.x

Snell, P. A., & Englander, E. K. (2010). Cyberbullying victimization and behaviors among girls: Applying research findings in the field. Journal of Social Science, 6(4), 510–514. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3844/jssp.2010.510.514

Vaillancourt, T., McDougall, P., Hymel, S., Krygsman, A., Miller, J., Stiver, K., & Davis, C. (2008). Bullying: Are researchers and children/youth talking about the same thing? International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32(6), 486−495. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165025408095553

Vandebosch, H., & Van Cleemput, K. (2008). Defining cyberbullying: A qualitative research into the perceptions of youngsters. CyberPsychology & Behavior: The Impact of the Internet, Multimedia and Virtual, 11(4), 499−503. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.0042

Willard, E. N. (2007). Cyberbullying and cyberthreats: Responding to the challenge of online social aggression, threats, and distress (2nd ed.). Champaign, IL: Research Press.

Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004). Youth engaging in online harassment: Associations with caregiver-child relationships, internet use, and personal characteristics. Journal of Adolescence, 27(3), 319–336. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2004.03.007

DOI: https://doi.org/10.12697/eha.2015.3.2.07


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 2346-562X

Journal DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12697/issn2346-562X