http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/issue/feed Interlitteraria 2020-07-02T17:26:46+03:00 Jüri Talvet juri.talvet@ut.ee Open Journal Systems <table style="background-color: #ffffff;" border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td width="25%">Founded in 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> is the peer-reviewed journal of the Chair of Comparative Literature of the University of Tartu and the Estonian Association of Comparative Literature. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publishes original articles in English, French, German and Spanish, in the field of comparative literature.</td> <td width="25%">Revue à comité de lecture fondée en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> est publiée par la chaire de Littérature comparée de l'université de Tartu et l'Association estonienne de littérature comparée. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publie des articles originaux en anglais, en allemand, en français et en espagnol, touchant princi­palement le domaine de la littérature comparée.</td> <td width="25%"><em>Interlitteraria</em> wurde im Jahr 1996 als international begutachtete Zeit­schrift am Lehrstuhls für ver­gleichende Literatur­wissen­schaft der Universität Tartu und der Assoziation der Vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft in Estland gegründet. <em>Interlitteraria</em> ver­öffent­licht englische, franzö­sische, deutsche und spanische Original­artikel, vor­nehmlich aus dem Bereich der vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft.</td> <td width="25%">Fundada en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> es la revista con arbitraje de expertos promovida por la Cátedra de Literatura Comparada de la Universidad de Tartu y la Asocia­ción Estonia de Literatura Com­parada. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publica artículos originales en inglés, francés, alemán y español rela­tivos al campo de la litera­tura com­parada.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.1 Editors’ Preface 2020-07-02T17:26:46+03:00 Jüri Talvet juri.talvet@ut.ee Katre Talviste katre.talviste@ut.ee <p>Editors’ Preface</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-30T21:20:06+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.2 For a Reappreciation of the Literary in Literary Studies: Poetic Thinking 2020-07-02T17:26:46+03:00 Marko Pajević Marko.pajevic@ut.ee <p>As a literary scholar based in German Studies outside of Germany, I am confronted with German being considered a minor subject matter. There are evidently clear differences between the German departments within German-speaking countries and abroad. The latter are shrinking considerably almost everywhere and need to focus on few aspects, often related to historical issues and some general successful movements, such as gender or postcolonialism. In Germany, there seems to be a preoccupation with didactics and media.</p> <p>But since I consider these symptoms part of a wider issue, I prefer making some more general observations. World literature is – at least in the dominant anglophone cultures – increasingly identified with English language literature. Comparative literature programmes mostly work with translations as if those were original literary texts which – roughly speaking – reduces literature to its plot and, possibly, its structure. This is also reflected in the tendency in literary studies to be oblivious of the poetic approach.</p> <p>Philologies are often subservient to outer goals (history, sociology, psychology), and, in their efforts to justify their existence in the eyes of the market economy, they believe they cannot afford to deal with the core of what litera ture is about, the literary. In my view, this is one of the reasons for the difficulties of the philologies and possibly Humanities altogether. Literary studies, despite the various enriching overlaps with various other disciplines, should not forget this specificity, which I call poetics, the interaction of the form of language and the form of life. By making a strong case for the relevance of an understanding of what language is and does – and literature is the privileged field of observation – philologies would be of obvious importance for society as a whole.</p> 2020-06-30T21:25:33+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.3 I. V. Arnold’s Theory of Foregrounding and Its Application to Text Analysis 2020-07-02T17:26:45+03:00 Vera Meniailo menyaylo917@mail.ru <p>The theory of foregrounding, developed by St. Petersburg scholar Irina Vladimirovna Arnold in the middle of the 20th century, was rather revolutionary for its time as it aimed to establish connection between formal levels of the language and textual meanings that allowed the reader to decode the author’s message. Arnold identifies four principal elements of foregrounding that disclose conceptual textual meaning: the strong position of a text, repetitions on different levels of language, the convergence of stylistic devices and defeated expectancy. The professor states that these elements of the text are always intentional and, thus, give a key to understanding the author’s message and position. This theory, being universal and easy to apply, has been widely used by Russian scholars working in the domain of textual linguistics and stylistics until nowadays. Such an approach increases the objectivity of the scientific findings in this area and enriches the overall text analysis with extra details and more meanings disclosed. The paper gives an overview of the theory of foregrounding, emphasizing the role it plays in text analysis and stylistics of decoding, and illustrates its principles with examples of practical analysis of the text conducted by the author of the paper.</p> 2020-06-30T21:29:10+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.4 Deictic Close Reading 2020-07-02T17:26:45+03:00 Arne Merilai arne.merilai@ut.ee <p>Inspired by practical didactics, this article suggests using pragmapoetic deictic analysis as a method to enrich close reading of poetry. When applying the pragmalinguistic theory of deixis and the analytic philosophical theory of indexicals to poetic texts, it soon becomes apparent that, in addition to traditional spatial, temporal, and personal deixis, it is also necessary to speak about emotional, or modal, deixis. The latter functions on a scale of positive and negative connotations, or, of subjective distance, which is the mental counterpart to spatial relations. In addition, poetry amplifies the intuitive deictic and egocentric quality of ostensive words of natural kind. On a formal level, however, we notice a congenital enhancement of discourse (or text) deixis, which manifests itself via self-reference using linguistic equivalence. This theory is exemplified by a deictic analysis of a short poem by Ene Mihkelson, which reveals the poem’s orientational reference system as a deictic network onto which an imaginary plot of the poem is projected. It should be noted that a deictic plot is wider than a lyrical/poetic plot, the latter being a concretization of the deictic potential created in the author’s or reader’s consciousness through the course of reading. Accordingly, we pass through three levels of analysis: (1) deictic network as the orientational frame of reference in the analyzed text, (2) deictic plot as the possible spatial and temporal dynamics of poetic thought within that frame of reference, and (3) lyrical plot as the concretization of a potential deictic plot in the conscious mind of the author or reader.</p> 2020-06-30T21:32:27+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.5 Some Comments on the Changes, Contradictions and Connections of Literary Theories in Lithuania 2020-07-02T17:26:44+03:00 Aušra Jurgutienė ausra.jurgutiene@gmail.com <p>The paper presents a brief history of literary theories that have been used in Lithuania for the last century (1918–2018). Certain general patterns of development are visible in Lithuanian literary studies: movements from positivist (M. Biržiška) to anti-positivist (V. Mykolaitis-Putinas) history and from Marxist history (K. Korsakas) to postmodern New Historicism. The mid-20th century marked the first applications of modern literary theories (first in exile, later among those who stayed in occupied Lithuania). A. J. Greimas became an eminent theoretician in exile, having established a world-famous school of semiotics in Paris. A large number of Lithuanian scholars worked in this field in Lithuania and abroad (J. Ambrazevičius-Brazaitis, Rimvydas Šilbajoris, Vytautas Kavolis, Bronius Vaškelis, Violeta Kelertienė, Ilona Gražytė-Maziliauskienė, Viktorija Skrupskelytė, Tomas Venclova, Vanda Zaborskaitė, Kęstutis Nastopka, Albertas Zalatorius, Vytautas Kubilius, Viktorija Daujotytė, Irena Kostkevičiūtė), but except for the Greimas Paris School of Semiotics, which created its own field, literary theories had mostly a practical and educational impact on interpretations of Lithuanian disciplines.</p> <p>After the restoration of Lithuanian independence in 1990, the renewal of literary theory reached its peak that lasted for about two decades. The J. Greimas Semiotics Studies and Research Centre (now the A. J. Greimas Centre for Semiotics and Literary Theory) was established at Vilnius University in 1992, books written by A. J. Greimas were translated into Lithuanian and the publishing of academic journals “Semiotika” and “Baltos lankos” started. The so-called second wave of postmodern theories (intertextuality, narratology, feminism, postcolonialism, sociology, anthropology, new historicism deconstruc tion, reader response) has attracted the attention of literary scholars, bringing discussions about literature back to the fields of history, culture and politics (Nijolė Keršytė, Paulius Subačius, Irina Melnikova, Marijus Šidlauskas, Birutė Meržvinskaitė, Eugenijus Ališanka). Theories have updated the concepts and vocabulary of literary studies and reading strategies and helped literary scholars integrate themselves into international research more successfully. Along with the hermeneutics of trust, the hermeneutics of suspicion – questioning and complicating interpretations and identities of all texts, was taking an increasingly important place in Lithuanian literary research. Nevertheless, at this time the strengthened position of post-theoretical criticism cannot be anti-theoretical, ignoring the entire heritage of the 20th century.</p> 2020-06-30T21:59:48+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.6 Mapping Literature Through Quantitative Instruments. The Case of Current Romanian Literary Studies 2020-07-02T17:26:44+03:00 Daiana Gârdan alexandra.gardan@gmail.com Emanuel Modoc ermodoc@gmail.com <p>Following a two-pronged line of argumentation, our article seeks to analyze and evaluate the current state of quantitative approaches applied to Romanian literature within the context and framework of one of the most prominent emergent fields of literary studies: quantitative formalism. Thus, on the one hand, the paper will attempt to present the most well-known lexicographic instruments currently used in quantitative studies in Romania (<em>The Chronological Dictionary of the Romanian Novel from its Origins to 1989</em>, <em>The Chronological Dictionary of Translated Novels in Romania from its Origins to 1989</em>, and <em>The Bibliography of the Relations between Romanian Literature and Foreign Literatures in Periodicals 1919–1944</em>), and, on the other, to employ the emerging methods that make use of these instruments, alongside their inherent limitations and the pragmatic issues that concern them) as a starting point for a debate on the current state of theoretical and critical approaches to the study of literature in the Romanian academic field. A selective and detailed application of the quantitative methodologies in question, as they are theorized by scholars such as Franco Moretti (“distant reading”) or Matthew L. Jockers (“macroanalysis”) will be another focal point of our paper, as it will seek to further illustrate the manner in which a meta-reflection on the approach itself can encourage the further development of quantitative methods in the study of Romanian literature.</p> 2020-06-30T22:14:44+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.7 Littératures migrantes: concept d’un champ littéraire excentrique 2020-07-02T17:26:43+03:00 Sara Bédard-Goulet sara.bedard-goulet@ut.ee <p><strong>Abstract. Migrant Literatures: Concept from an Excentric Literary Field.</strong> This article focuses on the concept of migrant literatures as it was developed by literary studies in Quebec at the beginning of the 1980s. It examines the conditions that led to the emergence of the notion, such as the historical evolution, immigration policies and linguistic specificity, and compares it with the situation in France, where such a concept was not considered by literary theory until recently and still meets with a certain resistance to multiculturalism. Hybridity is a key term to define migrant literatures, a term that emerged alongside postmodernism, and contributes to reconsidering the traditional boundaries of national literatures, often based on a uniform vision of history and a territorial perspective of space. On a literary level, the emergence of migrant literatures can be attributed to the tendency, in Quebec literature, towards exile, as it represents itself in an excentric perspective. As such, it fosters a close relationship with alterity and welcomes multiple identities. Quebec literature has also been described as adventureless, mostly representing an idyll sheltered from the outer world. This paper suggests that this also can promote a fertile ground for migrant writers, whether they need a refuge from a difficult experience or can offer the adventure missing from the general trend of works.</p> 2020-06-30T22:20:51+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.8 Writing of Contemporary National Literary History in Finland and Hungary – a Comparative Approach 2020-07-02T17:26:43+03:00 Renáta Balázs reni9424@gmail.com <p>The discourse on the writing of national literary histories is still in progress due to the postcolonial and transnational turn. In the frameworks of these literary theories, the meaning of <em>national</em> has been reshaped by focusing on the territorial, ethnic and language borders of contemporary literature. The theory of literary history writing had to face the issues of defining the phenomenon of migrant, emigrant and minority literature. A new Hungarian book titled <em>Kik vagytok ti? Kötelező magyar irodalom – Újraélesztő könyv</em> (Who Are You? Compulsory Hungarian Literature – A Revitalizing Book) (2019), also evoked a debate concerning the theoretical issues of Hungarian literary history writing. In this debate, not only the author and his critics confronted but also the critics with one another. By analysing the critiques and the author’s answers, the fundamental questions of the national literary history writing can be identified. With this metadiscursive approach, I aim to present the current state of Hungarian national literary history writing focusing on the minority and emigrant literature. I will compare the questions generated by the migrant literature in Finland to the issues emerging in the debate about Hungarian literature. This comparative and metadiscursive approach helps to understand the shaping process of the national literature in the dynamics of canonizations and marginalisation.</p> 2020-06-30T22:31:31+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.9 Twenty Years of Literature at University. An Insider’s Perspective 2020-07-02T17:26:43+03:00 Anneli Niinre anneli.niinre@gmail.com <p>Taking the Estonian philology BA curriculum as an example, the article analyses the changes in literature courses in 1998 and 2018 at Tallinn University (former Tallinn Pedagogical University). The year 1998 marks the beginning of my student life, the year 2018 marks the last full year as a lecturer. The 20-year period shoes vividly the changes that have taken place in the Estonian educational system. The overview is based on Estonian literature and world literature courses included in the Estonian philology BA curriculum. The article gives an overview of the periods, topics, themes, authors, theories and methods discussed in literature courses. The emphasis is on the changes that have taken place.</p> 2020-06-30T22:35:15+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.10 Cinderella and Pandora’s box – Autoethnographic Reflections on My Early Career Research Trajectory between Australia and China 2020-07-02T17:26:42+03:00 Jinjin Lu helen820919@sina.com <p>In the last decade, the world has witnessed significant changes in terms of economic, educational, and cultural development both inside and outside China, creating valuable opportunities to better understand the cultural stereotypes Asians and Westerners have regarding each other. In this paper, I examine my immigrant experiences as a female, bilingual early-career researcher in multilingual and multicultural environments and my subsequent re-entry into China to work as a leading researcher within a span of ten years. My series of auto-ethnographic dialogues between a cast of characters, in which they recall experiences, perceptions, and emotions, provides readers with ample opportunities to actively respond to the text. Through this autoethnographic memoir and performance, I hope to contribute to new directions for narrative research in intercultural contexts.</p> 2020-06-30T22:41:03+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.11 Mediated World and Attention Crisis: Unhappy Consciousness a Hundred Years Ago 2020-07-02T17:26:42+03:00 Tanel Lepsoo tanel.lepsoo@ut.ee <p>The atmosphere of the 1920s in many ways resembles that of today. The accelerated technological development and the loss of previously stable points of reference led to the emergence of literary characters who were suffering from an identity crisis and delved into themselves, characters who could not adjust to a dominant value system that fell short of their standards but whose intellectual acumen did not allow them to resort to mere nostalgia for the past. Philippe Chardin, inspired by Hegel, has named them characters with an “unhappy consciousness”. This article focuses on the work of Estonian writer Reed Morn, specifically one of her novellas. It argues that aesthetic experience and spatial distance from the homeland may allow a character with an unhappy consciousness to find a positive solution that could be described as an ecology of attention. Such an approach can also be productive in today’s hypermedia age.</p> 2020-06-30T22:45:41+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.12 Representation of Places in Etel Adnan’s In the Heart of the Heart of Another Country and Of Cities & Women (Letters to Fawwaz) 2020-07-02T17:26:41+03:00 Laure Zarif Keyrouz laurekeyrouzarts@gmail.com <p>This article will take a close look at two books of Etel Adnan which are strongly tied to the representation of places. References to nature found in both books link the places she is physically present in to her inner-spaces. Additionally, the people she encounters in these locations also become elements with which she weaves different places together. In <em>Of Cities &amp; Women (Letters to Fawwaz)</em>, the notion of place is particularly enriched by the different qualities of the women she finds in each location, comparing the situation of women in the Orient and the Occident. The shadow of recent wars hangs heavy in the memories of Adnan as she travels between these different places in both books – the thought of which never abandons her.</p> 2020-06-30T22:50:14+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.13 War is (not) Our Home. Andrei Konchalovsky’s House of Fools (Dom Durakov, 2002) as a Russian Literary and Cultural Archive 2020-07-02T17:26:41+03:00 Beata Waligorska-Olejniczak beata.waligorska@amu.edu.pl <p>The article focuses on the film <em>House of Fools</em> (<em>Dom Durakov</em>, 2002) of Andrei Konchalovsky, who is one of the most recognized contemporary Russian directors. The selected work is analyzed from the point of view of its intertextual relationships with Russian literary texts and cultural phenomena. The motif of the train, the paradigm of <em>jurodivyj</em> and the reference to the artistic worlds of acclaimed Russian writers (Anton Chekhov, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Ivan Vyrypaev) are among the main parallels which are discussed in the publication. The eclectic nature of the film allows treating it as a cultural archive founded on the storage capacity of the cultural memory. In the context of war, the sphere of art and the imagined can be seen as the most stable reality.</p> 2020-06-30T22:54:43+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.14 Quelle littérature pour l’évaluation des professeurs de français dans la Roumanie communiste ? Canon scolaire, savoirs disciplinaires et interactions institutionnelles 2020-07-02T17:26:40+03:00 Dragos Jipa dragos.jipa@g.unibuc.ro <p><strong>Abstract. Literature in the Assessment of Teachers of French in Communist Romania: School Canon, Disciplinary Knowledge, and Institutional Interactions.</strong> Drawing on a series of original sources (the tenure exam syllabi for the teachers in the Romanian system of secondary education), the article aims to analyze the ways in which literature was employed in the assessment and ranking of teachers who wanted to become tenured in this discipline. The development of the syllabi in question represents an instance of codifying and standardizing knowledge about literature (authors, works, and critical metadiscourses), a process whereby a literary canon made up of inclusions and exclusions becomes the mandatory reference point for the teachers working in this field. The first part describes the evolution of the canon of French literature by comparing the syllabi from 1960 and 1983, tracing a shift from an understanding of French literature through a Marxist lens (as illustrated by the choice of authors, bibliography, and critical commentary) to a discursive perspective on literature aiming to depart from the instrumentalization of the previous decade via references to French literary theory. The second part focuses on the “construction” of the 1989 syllabus, showing the various stages of its development and the institutions involved in it (the University of Bucharest, other Romanian universities, etc.). As such, it shows that what might have seemed, in the eyes of the teachers taking the tenure exam, a universally valid discourse on French literature (authors, works, concepts) was in fact the result of previous negotiations among various decision-making factors. The article thus captures the interactions among the producers of meta-discourse who try to assert their own perspectives in defining a canon of French literature in accordance with their respective positions in the national academic field. The University of Bucharest seems to have monopolized the legitimate discourse on literature, as it emerges from the process of accepting and especially refusing the suggestions made by the other universities. If, during the communist regime, French literature – as constructed in Bucharest – occupied an important place in the training and assessment of teachers of French, thus continuing an inter-war tradition, in the post-communist age, the teaching of French evolved towards a communicative approach, thus losing the patrimonial and normative dimension in which literature held an essential place.</p> 2020-06-30T22:59:43+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.15 Metamorphoses of Oedipus in Modern French Literature. From an Intellectual Drama to a Psychoanalytical Reflection on Ideal Love 2020-07-02T17:26:40+03:00 Marcin Klik klik@uw.edu.pl <p><em>Oedipus Rex</em>, a tragedy created twenty-five centuries ago, is still a source of inspiration for many writers. However, the overall message of modern interpretations of the Oedipus myth differs considerably from the message of Sophocles’ play; these works are no longer the stories of a man punished by gods for his haughtiness (<em>hybris</em>). André Gide modernizes Sophocles’ tragedy, transforming it into a lesson in secular humanism. The play by Jean Cocteau focuses on the transition from ignorance to awareness. Alain Robbe-Grillet creates an anti-story about the contemporary version of Oedipus, whose lot is determined, not by gods, but by chance and unconscious desires. As for the psychoanalytical interpretation of the myth by Jacqueline Harpman, it is first of all the reflection on ideal love, fully realized in an incestuous relationship between the son and his mother.</p> 2020-06-30T23:05:02+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.16 ’Oh, of course, one accepts the Gospels, naturally’: Subversive Use of the Bible in Graham Greene’s Monsignor Quixote 2020-07-02T17:26:40+03:00 Beatriz Valverde bvalverd@ujaen.es <p>When Graham Greene wrote <em>Monsignor Quixote</em> (published in 1982), one of his aims was to reflect critically on the role of the Catholic Church in the Spain of the late 1970s, as well as on the support this institution offered to the former dictatorship of Franco within the so called ‘National Catholicism.’ In this novel, the reader witnesses the evolution of the protagonist, Father Quixote, from a religious living a complacent life in a small village in La Mancha to a priest in rebellion against the conservative hierarchy of the Catholic Church in Spain. Drawing upon Gerard Genette’s theory of transtextuality, I will examine Greene’s use of different religious texts to fight a model of conservative Catholic Church that he rejects. I will focus my analysis especially on the intertextual and metatextual references to the Gospels that the Bishop of La Mancha/Father Herrera and Father Quixote make in their dialogic interactions, references that portray their different vision of the role that the Church should have in society.</p> 2020-06-30T23:08:34+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.17 Enchanted: Aino Kallas’s Legatonland Memoirs of London between the Wars 2020-07-02T17:26:39+03:00 Pilvi Rajamäe pilvi.rajamae@ut.ee <p>The Finnish-Estonian writer Aino Kallas lived in London between 1922 and 1934, being the wife of the first Estonian ambassador to the Court of St James’s. In 2011 her memoirs of these years were published in Estonian translation under the title <em>Londoni võlus</em> (Enchanted by London). Being a romantic and a modernist, Kallas in her memoirs combines a heightened sensitivity with the rigours of the modernist style in order to convey in striking images what she recalls about persons and events in London between the wars. The article below will look at some of these characteristic images that convey her vision of London that is full of enchantment.</p> 2020-06-30T23:12:55+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.18 Ubi caritas et amor. Une lecture comparée du Baiser au lépreux et de O Veleiro de Cristal 2020-07-02T17:26:39+03:00 Samuel Bidaud bidaudsamuel@gmail.com <p><strong>Abstract. Ubi caritas et amor. A Comparatist Reading of <em>Le Baiser au lépreux</em> and <em>O Veleiro de Cristal</em>.</strong> <em>Le Baiser au lépreux</em> (The Kiss to the Leper), by François Mauriac, and <em>O Veleiro de Cristal</em> (The Crystal Sailboat), by José Mauro de Vasconcelos, are a priori aimed at two different audiences. <em>Le Baiser au lépreux</em> is indeed generally considered to be Mauriac’s first important book, whereas <em>O Veleiro de Cristal</em> belongs to “children’s literature”, like <em>O Meu Pé de Laranja Lima</em> (in English “My Sweet Orange Tree”), by the same author, which was very successful in Brazil but also in France. However, the two stories share deep similarities, so we can draw parallels between them. As far as the narrative level is concerned, both of the books tell the story of a human being who suffers because of his physical appearance; Jean Péloueyre in <em>Le Baiser au lépreux</em> and Eduardo in <em>O Veleiro de Cristal</em> are rejected by their close relatives and hide from other people. They try to escape from their painful experience, thanks to the religion in the case of Jean Péloueyre, even if the latter gives rise to an existential drama, and thanks to the imagination in the case of Eduardo, who discovers in the house where his aunt Anna has led him animals who are able to talk. In both stories, eventually, the theme of charity is fundamental: in Mauriac’s novel, Noémi marries Jean and ends up loving him with a love based on charity and that can be defined as <em>agapè</em>, while in <em>O Veleiro de Cristal</em> Anna renounces all vanity to devote herself to her nephew, her charity echoing the one of the animals who live in the Crystal Sailboat.</p> 2020-06-30T23:18:44+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.19 First as Creon, then as Chorus: Slavoj Žižek’s Antigone 2020-07-02T17:26:38+03:00 Matic Kocijančič matickoco@gmail.com <p>The article critically evaluates <em>The Three Lives of Antigone</em>, Slavoj Žižek’s first dramatic work. Žižek’s polemical rewriting of Sophocles’ tragedy is examined in the broader perspective of Žižek’s philosophy and other <em>Antigones</em>: those of Sophocles, Jean Anouilh, Bertolt Brecht and Dominik Smole. Slavoj Žižek has interpreted Sophocles’ <em>Antigone</em> in numerous philosophical works. In his earlier treatises, he mainly gave a cautious summary of Hegel’s, Heidegger’s and Lacan’s theses on <em>Antigone</em>; lately, however, Žižek’s attitude to Sophocles’ <em>Antigone</em> has grown decidedly negative. The main point in Žižek’s critique of Sophocles’ tragedy is that his Antigone is not an appropriate symbol of genuine social revolt. Based on this conviction, Žižek contrived his own version of <em>Antigone</em> with an alternative ending in which the choir carries out a revolution and condemns Antigone to death. It is argued in the article that Žižek’s dramatic project fails to convince. It is essentially a superficial apology for political violence, which can ultimately only be understood as a veiled defence of the political status quo.</p> 2020-06-30T23:24:26+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.20 Metamodern Gaming: Literary Analysis of The Last of Us 2020-07-02T17:26:38+03:00 Simon Radchenko Simon.radchenko@gmail.com <p>Among numerous ways to describe the culture and literature after postmodernism metamodern is becoming more and more popular. Its main features – oscillation, affect, desire for structure and (re)construction etc. – appear in many products of contemporary culture. This article reflects the endeavour to apply metamodernism and its trends to the literary analysis of cybertext. Crucial trends of metamodernism are briefly described and implemented in the analysis of a video game. The features of cybertext that influence the analysis are considered. All these instruments were used to show the metamodern nature of the game by Naughty Dog, <em>The Last of Us</em> (2013). The article attempts to analyze a cybertext through the methods of literary analysis and reveal metamodern ideas in <em>The Last of Us</em> using main metamodern categories as a tool for text study.</p> 2020-06-30T23:28:08+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.21 Contemporary Drama and Theatre in Estonia. Conversing with Drama Directors Lembit Peterson, Tiit Palu and Ivar Põllu 2020-07-02T17:26:38+03:00 Jüri Talvet juri.talvet@ut.ee Chen Dahong dahonghelena2019@yeah.net <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-30T23:33:57+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.22 Comparatisms Compared: Stirring the Appetite 2020-07-02T17:26:37+03:00 Caius Dobrescu caius.dobrescu@gmail.com <p><em>Comparative Literature in Europe: Challenges and Perspectives</em>. Edited by Nikol Dziub and Frédérique Toudoire-Surlapierre. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2019.</p> 2020-06-30T23:36:42+03:00 Copyright (c) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2020.25.1.23 About Authors 2020-07-02T17:26:37+03:00 About Authors tyk@ut.ee <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-06-30T23:40:42+03:00 Copyright (c)