Interlitteraria 2020-01-18T14:37:52+02:00 Jüri Talvet Open Journal Systems <table style="background-color: #ffffff;" border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td width="25%">Founded in 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> is the peer-reviewed journal of the Chair of Comparative Literature of the University of Tartu and the Estonian Association of Comparative Literature. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publishes original articles in English, French, German and Spanish, in the field of comparative literature.</td> <td width="25%">Revue à comité de lecture fondée en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> est publiée par la chaire de Littérature comparée de l'université de Tartu et l'Association estonienne de littérature comparée. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publie des articles originaux en anglais, en allemand, en français et en espagnol, touchant princi­palement le domaine de la littérature comparée.</td> <td width="25%"><em>Interlitteraria</em> wurde im Jahr 1996 als international begutachtete Zeit­schrift am Lehrstuhls für ver­gleichende Literatur­wissen­schaft der Universität Tartu und der Assoziation der Vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft in Estland gegründet. <em>Interlitteraria</em> ver­öffent­licht englische, franzö­sische, deutsche und spanische Original­artikel, vor­nehmlich aus dem Bereich der vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft.</td> <td width="25%">Fundada en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> es la revista con arbitraje de expertos promovida por la Cátedra de Literatura Comparada de la Universidad de Tartu y la Asocia­ción Estonia de Literatura Com­parada. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publica artículos originales en inglés, francés, alemán y español rela­tivos al campo de la litera­tura com­parada.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Introduction 2020-01-18T14:37:52+02:00 Aušra Jurgutienė Katre Talviste <p>Introduction</p> 2020-01-15T13:10:12+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Small Literature as a Problem. Could It Be Solved? 2020-01-18T14:37:51+02:00 Dalia Satkauskytė <p>Th e article discusses the status and functioning of so-called small literatures, including Lithuanian literature, in the global system of world literature. Referring to Franco Moretti and Pascale Casanova’s interpretation of world literature system as based on the principle of inequality, the author discusses the conception of belonging to small literatures as a destiny and interprets the onecentric world literary system as hegemonic. Being dominated by grand literatures, small literatures have very restricted possibilities of gravitation towards the center of world literature. In that theoretical context, the article considers the following issues: is it possible and how is it possible to avoid the destiny of small literatures staying in the periphery of world literature, what role in this situation plays the writer himself, what depends on the culture and research politics, could literary scholars play the role of mediators and what could be the alternatives for onecentered world literary system.</p> 2020-01-15T13:19:53+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## “Black Balts” Abroad: White Racism, Homosexuality and (Non-)Tolerance in Lithuanian and Latvian Emigration Narratives 2020-01-18T14:37:50+02:00 Laura Laurušaitė <p>The present article will use the method of literary imagology in order to study the 21st-century Lithuanian and Latvian (e)migration literature and experiences in the context of racial, sexual, and cultural otherness. It will discusses marriage to a foreigner as something more than an official legitimation of one’s love for a person of other ethnicity, the introduction of foreignness into the world of one’s own culture, and the ideological penetration of the other into that which is inherited, ordinary and familiar. Provinciality, intolerance, and inability to admit and accept the <em>Other</em> or perceive oneself as a sexual <em>Other</em> remain an important part of Lithuanian and Latvian identity. In turn, emigrants in the host communities are a minority with counter-negative images, especially social ones.</p> 2020-01-15T13:23:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Crossroads of Global and Local Identity in Contemporary Latvian Migrant Literature: Reflections on the Novel Stroika with a London View by W. B. Foreignerski (V. Lācītis) 2020-01-18T14:37:48+02:00 Ojārs Lāms <p>This paper deals with the contemporary migration experience as seen through the subjective lens of a literary text. The analysis focuses on the novel <em>Stroika with a London View</em> by the Latvian diaspora writer William B. Foreignerski (Vilis Lācītis in the Latvian version). Foreignerski combines the portrayal of proletarians’ survival with entertaining and comical scenes from daily life. In the novel the story is told from the perspective of the narrator in the first person singular, thus the different relationships between the protagonist and the surrounding environment are already defined by this choice.</p> <p>In the novel the image of London is of great significance as a metropolis and multicultural city in which most of the events described in the novel occur. London is the key determinant for the poetics of intercultural literature in the novel – London can be a labyrinth, an initiation, a trap or a springboard. London as a city that can provide everything that life can offer gives one a chance not only to break away from the economic limitations at home but also from the ideological narrowness of the protagonist’s homeland as it is depicted in the novel. The start of the quest for a new life at the beginning of the novel is to a certain extent traumatic as it is characteristically in traditional emigrant literature. However, with the intercultural approach used by Foreignerski, the migration experience results in the freedom to accept new ideas and in gaining new horizons for the protagonist as well as for the reader.</p> <p><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=LOADED&amp;;custom2=%2Findex.php%2FIL%2Fworkflow%2Findex%2F16332%2F5&amp;t=1579204776904"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=BEFORE_OPTOUT_REQ&amp;t=1579204776905"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=FINISHED&amp;;t=1579204776906"></p> 2020-01-15T13:30:30+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Taking Back Europe in Valdas Papievis’s Novels 2020-01-18T14:37:47+02:00 Aušra Jurgutienė <p>The novels of contemporary Lithuanian writer Valdas Papievis <em>Eiti</em> (To Go) and <em>Odilė, arba oro uostų vienatvė</em> (Odile, or the Solitude of Airports) – are two of the most successful variants of Lithuanian literature elicited by globalisation and the end of the Cold War. Not only because after the fall of the Iron Curtain that divided the West and the East and the declaration of Lithuania’s independence the author now lives and writes in Paris, but also due to the fact that his novels written in Lithuanian and describing contemporary Paris and Provence create topical and artistically mature narratives about the newest transformations of the European identity into an intermediate state.</p> <p>The article discusses the author’s uniquely romanticized tradition of existen tialism and emphasises the moments of Lithuanian and French communi ca tion that establish the three main motifs of an individual’s migration: <em>home</em> / <em>to go</em> / <em>solitude</em>, refining their existential and aesthetic meanings. The novels remind the reader that the forgotten natural and cosmic dimension of a human life is of no less importance than the social, historical and national environment determining it. The novels erase the ancient boundaries between the Eastern and Western European stereotypes; therefore, their French and Lithuanian origins are not noticeably in conflict, rather they merge into a common European memory, marked by sadness and disquietude.</p> 2020-01-15T13:34:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## French-Lithuanian Universe of Literary Critique by Greimas 2020-01-18T14:37:46+02:00 Loreta Mačianskaitė <p>The idea for the present article came from the doubt expressed in the thesis of the world-renowned Algirdas Julius Greimas (1917–1992) that there is an unbridgeable gap between his Lithuanian essays and French semiotics. The analysis of texts written in Lithuanian in 1943–1955, dedicated to Cervantes, Verlaine, and Corneille unveils the most important methods of his analytical work: prioritizing the text over its context; the aim to uncover the author’s authenticity. Greimas used the model of structural similarities between French and Lithuanian literatures for constructing Lithuanian literary history. In his estimation of Lithuanian poets, Greimas aimed at finding authors of the European level; a principle of analogies is fruitfully used for understanding their works. Lithuanian essays show that Greimas also wrote them as a semiotician. Some of Greimas’s contemplations about literature also indicate the limits of his thinking, but the body of his works still reveals a surprising integrity of his personality.</p> 2020-01-15T13:47:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mapping the Estonian Literature of the Selfie-era 2020-01-18T14:37:45+02:00 Anneli Kõvamees <p>We live in the era of selfies as making photos of oneself and sharing these in social media has become extremely popular if not even a norm. The perceiving and experiencing subject is in the foreground. This is also valid in the field of literature, which has been democratized as anyone can make a book and anyone can write a book, as seen by the boom of biographies of all kinds. The My-series published by the Estonian publishing company Petrone Print illustrates these tendencies. The publishing company was founded in 2007 by Epp Petrone who had moved back to Estonia from the United States. Her <em>My America</em> was the first book in the series. In this series of books authors describe their lives and activities in one country or city. The series has a firm position in the Estonian literary field: the books are constantly in top ten lists and are in high demand in libraries. Taking the My-series as an example, the article maps tendencies in contemporary Estonian literature. The subject-centeredness is one of the characteristics of contemporary literature as the amount of books concentrating on one’s life experiences is quite noteworthy. The exact genre of this type of literature is ambiguous, which is another characteristic of contemporary literature. I would define the My-series books as ‘literary selfies’ as the person portrays him/herself setting the world in the background. Another issue discussed in connection with the series is migration. The demographic situation in Europe has changed and continues to change; various nationalities can be found in the world metropolises, and the shift from the monocultural and monolingual world to the multicultural and multilingual one is obvious. Therefore, more and more people have a ‘hyphenated identity’; consequently, one’s national identity may not be as clear as before. Over the last decade, a large number of Estonians have left their homeland and settled down in other countries, an aspect illustrated by the My-series.</p> 2020-01-15T13:52:04+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lithuanian Literature and Shakespeare: Several Cases of Reception 2020-01-18T14:37:44+02:00 Eglė Keturakienė <p>The article is based on the reception theory by Hans Robert Jauss and analyses how Shakespeare’s works were read, evaluated and interpreted in Lithuanian literature in the 19th to 21th centuries. Some traces of Shakespeare’s works might be observed in letters by Povilas Višinskis and Zemaitė where Shakespearean drama is indicated as a canon of writing to be followed. It is interesting to note that Lithuanian exodus drama by Kostas Ostrauskas is based on the correspondence between Višinskis and Zemaitė. The characters of the play introduce the principles of the drama of the absurd. Gell’s concept of distributed personhood offered by S. Greenblatt is very suitable for analysing modern Lithuanian literature that seeks a creative relationship with Shakespeare’s works. The concept maintains that characters of particular dramas can break loose from the defined interpretative framework.</p> <p>Lithuanian exodus drama reinterprets Shakespeare’s works and characters. The plays by Ostrauskas and Algirdas Landsbergis explore the variety of human existence and language, the absurd character of the artist, meaningless human existence and the critique of totalitarianism. Modern Lithuanian poetry interprets Shakespeare‘s works so that they serve as a way to contemplate the theme of modern writing, meaningless human existence, the tragic destiny of an individual and Lithuania, miserable human nature, the playful nature of literature, the clownish mask of the poet, the existential silence of childhood, the topic of life as a theatrical performance, the everyday experience of modern women in theatre. The most frequently interpreted dramas are <em>Hamlet</em>, <em>King Lear</em> and <em>Macbeth</em> – Lithuanian literary imagination inscribed them into the field of existentialist and absurd literature.</p> 2020-01-15T14:03:40+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Contemporary Finnish drama in Estonian Theatre in the 21st century 2020-01-18T14:37:42+02:00 Luule Epner <p>After regaining independence in 1991 Estonia, like other Baltic states, went through a transition period which can be described as a return to the West, i.e. Europe. By now, Estonia has joined European community and is successfully integrated with Europe. However, in regard to the country’s cultural and political identity, the process of self-determination continues, particularly on the level of regional identity: whether the newly independent Baltic countries belong to Eastern or Northern Europe? Estonia tends to position itself among Nordic countries, primarily by reason of close historical ties and linguistic kinship with Finland.</p> <p>In the light of current identity processes the cultural interaction between Estonia and Finland deserves attention. This paper examines only one aspect: the reception of contemporary Finnish dramaturgy in the 21st century Estonian theatre. Finnish dramas had been staged in Estonian theatres since the end of the 19th century. However, it is noticeable that their number has significantly increased since the 2000s, and the repertoire of the major Estonian theatres contains far more new, contemporary Finnish plays than well-known classics. Plays by Leea Klemola, Sirkku Peltola, Juha Jokela, Mika Myllyaho, Pipsa Lonka and others enjoy great popularity among Estonian audiences. How do these plays represent Finnish society? How were they interpreted and received in Estonian theatre? How do stage productions of Finnish plays contribute to the construction of shared Nordic identity? The paper looks for answers to these questions.</p> 2020-01-15T14:06:42+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Folk Tradition and Multimedia in Contemporary Estonian Culture 2020-01-18T14:37:41+02:00 Anneli Mihkelev <p>The legends of the <em>kratt</em> or the treasure-bearer have existed in lively oral tradition in Estonian culture for a very long time. These myths and legends have traversed from the oral tradition to literary works, visual culture and music. All these texts on the <em>kratt</em> exist in the culture as metatexts which create the world of the <em>kratt</em>, where different cultural memories and interpretations are intertwined. This means that the <em>kratt</em> as a cultural text is also a multimedial text. Different media use different tools and this makes the interpretations more playful and interesting. Andrus Kivirähk’s novel <em>Rehepapp</em> (<em>The Old Barny</em>, 2000) is the central literary work on the kratt in contemporary Estonian literature. Kivirähk combines the mythical <em>kratt</em> with the figure of Old Barny (<em>rehepapp</em>), who is the unofficial leader of the village and a cunning manor house barn-keeper. There are several cultural texts based on Kivirähk’s novel, but the most important are the opera <em>Rehepapp</em> (2013) by Tauno Aints, libretto by Urmas Lennuk, and the film <em>November</em> (2016) by Rainer Sarnet. The 2015 production of the ballet <em>Kratt</em> (1943) by Eduard Tubin is more contemporary in its setting and represents everyday life in the modern factory. The article analyses how different multimedial texts about the <em>kratt</em> and Old Barny use and combine multimedia to create and convey the social meaning of the <em>kratt</em>, and how multimedia use audio-visual poetics to convey a greater number of emotions and aesthetic values in the cultural text. The film by Rainer Sarnet and the ballet by Eduard Tubin represent harmony with different poetics factors and the meanings of the cultural texts.</p> 2020-01-15T14:11:58+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Soviet Colonial Modernity and the Everyday in Twenty-First Century Latvian Literature 2020-01-18T14:37:40+02:00 Benedikts Kalnačs <p>This paper intends to discuss the case of Latvia in comparison with other European postcolonial situations and to trace the problems which determine the complexity of self-consciousness of the inhabitants of the country from postcolonial and post-Soviet perspective. The focus of this investigation is on the series of novels which deal with twentieth-century history and memory in Latvia. Due to the fact that the chosen texts attempt an evaluation of the Soviet past, an attention is paid to those aspects of representation of the everyday which considerably distinguish contemporary fiction from literary works created during the period of socialist realist dominance. The importance of history and of different everyday practices in forming specific features of national identity is also seen in the context of the attempts of contemporary authors to discover and define themselves as part of today’s global community as they try to position themselves within world literature. In this perspective, the contemporary as well as the historical experience of the Baltic nations testifies to the common roots of European society helping to build bridges between different ethnic and social groups and their members.</p> 2020-01-15T14:15:43+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In The Eye of the Beholder – Attitudes towards Visual Poetry in Latvian Literature 2020-01-18T14:37:39+02:00 Mārtiņš Laizāns <p>Visual poetry in Latvian literature is still an extraordinary phenomenon. In this case, by extraordinary is meant its scarce appearance among the corpus of Latvian literary texts – only very few examples of it exist in Latvian literature even in the 21st century, though it has gained a visible presence in other literatures of the world since at least the era of Modernist poetry, and experienced in most cases a turn of critical attitude towards it from disregard or denial to acceptance and consideration. At first evaluated only as a pastime on the margins of serious literature, since Apollinaire it has evolved into a serious genre of poetry and art of its own, and is no longer considered a childish game. Given this situation in contemporary criticism, it is quite a peculiar situation that Latvian literature and literary criticism still does not pay adequate attention to it, thus visual poetry has stayed an outsider genre up to this day.</p> <p>In this paper a concise historical account of Latvian visual poetry will be given and some examples of visual poetry from various decades of Latvian literature will be given, as well as quotations from Latvian literary critics and scholars regarding visual poetry will be provided, in order to illustrate the overall situation in Latvian visual poetry and the possible reasons why it is still being mostly neglected and disregarded both by poets/artists and critics, though there seems to be slight indications of a <em>visual turn</em>.</p> 2020-01-15T14:18:55+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethnolinguistic Nationalism and Other Political Contexts of Maironis 2020-01-18T14:37:38+02:00 Manfredas Žvirgždas <p>Widely acclaimed as the Lithuanian national poet, the Catholic clergyman Jonas Mačiulis-Maironis (1862–1932) in his canonical poems of the epoch of national revival expressed his romantic primordialist point of view that every nation has an inherent right to its independence that had been given by divine institution. Linguistic factors determined national identity in Eastern Europe of the late 19th century. Maironis as a follower of linguocentric nationalism modelled the conditions for the elite Lithuanian culture which would be significant at the European level. The longing for the so-called European virtues (universally based on Christian ethics) penetrated through all the poet’s world-view, therefore he was impressed by the diligence and activism of Western nations but did not support the ideas of social activism and individual liberties, opposed the ideas of secular philosophical trends, especially socialism and scientism. Eurocentrist motives in his rhetoric did not mean any challenge to the governing conservative Russian regime because they did not invoke opposition to the ideology of Pan-Slavism which was supported by the Tsarist ideologues. The poetical archetype of springtime awakening was related to the youthful activism of the “new” political nations of Eastern and Central Europe. Maironis was one of the first Lithuanian authors who openly criticized ideas of socialism and positivism; on the other hand, he provoked discussions of the enlightened group of the developing Lithuanian-speaking elite. He regarded the slogans of liberty, equality and fraternity as deceptive justification of populism and collective violence. Sceptically regarding parliamentary democracy, he emphasized the principles of Classical-Christian law and justice and the need for solidarity, consciousness and creativity. Maironis related the ideological dispute of conservative and radical trends to the decisive struggle of Christianity and atheism. He was a consistent and orthodox Catholic thinker, the opponent of any revolutionary upheavals; discussing social questions he emphasized that politicians should take into account doctrine of the Holy See on the obligations of Christians and principles of charity.</p> 2020-01-15T14:22:07+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Latvian Comic Science Fiction 1960–1990 2020-01-18T14:37:36+02:00 Bārbala Simsone <p>The theme of the present paper is a tendency in Latvian literature that flourished from 1960s to the late 1980s and has so far not been subjected to research. It is the phenomenon of short stories with science fiction elements appearing in humor magazines of Soviet Latvia, mainly in <em>Dadzis</em> (The Thistle) and <em>Dadža kalendārs</em> (The Thistle’s Almanac) as well as in the short story collections by the regular authors of these periodicals. In these stories renowned Latvian satirists such as Andrejs Skailis, Žanis Ezītis, Miermīlis Steiga and others use the disguise of science fiction to ridicule the negative aspects of Soviet reality that the authors of “serious literature” rarely dared to touch upon. Although this phenomenon obviously existed only for a couple of decades, it must be recognized as a specific hybrid genre the writers created and used to talk about problems everyone knew and almost nobody talked about.</p> 2020-01-15T14:26:10+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Two Cultures Revisited. Stanisław Lem’s His Master’s Voice 2020-01-18T14:37:35+02:00 Dominika Oramus <p>I would like to take, as my starting point, the famous 1959 lecture of C. P. Snow, <em>The Two Cultures</em>, where science fiction is by and large ignored, and see how the consecutive points Snow is making are also discussed in the following decades of the 20th century by other philosophers of science, among them Stanisław Lem, Steven Weinberg, and Jonathan Gottschall. In 1959 Snow postulated re-uniting the two cultures through the reform of education. In the 1960s and 1970s Lem did not believe in any reform, but prophesied that science left alone would procure the final war and, probably, the self-inflicted technological death of the West. I am then going to juxtapose Snow’s argument with a science fiction novel concerned with the same civilizational crisis: Stanis law Lem’s <em>His Master’s Voice</em>.</p> <p><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=LOADED&amp;;custom2=%2Findex.php%2FIL%2Fworkflow%2Findex%2F16345%2F5&amp;t=1579204740917"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=BEFORE_OPTOUT_REQ&amp;t=1579204740917"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=FINISHED&amp;;t=1579204740919"></p> 2020-01-15T14:29:24+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Metaficción historiográfica y autoficción: diferentes compromisos con la referencialidad en Estação das Chuvas de José Eduardo Agualusa y Soldados de Salamina de Javier Cercas 2020-01-18T14:37:34+02:00 Mauro Cavaliere <p><strong>Historiographic metafiction and autofiction: different commitments with the referentiality in <em>Estação das Chuvas</em> by José Eduardo Agualusa and <em>Soldiers of Salamina</em> by Javier Cercas.</strong> This article offers a comparative analysis of the novels <em>Estação das Chuvas</em> (1996) by the Angolan writer José Eduardo Agualusa (born in 1960) and <em>Soldados de Salamina</em> (2001) of the Spaniard Javier Cercas (born in 1962). The two novels belong to different geographical and cultural contexts. Nevertheless, a common sensibility – due perhaps to the same generational affiliation or to the prevalence of topics in force in the 1990s – makes evident the emergence of both a historical theme and the presence of a subject involved in historical processes. Ultimately, in both novels, we come across a subject that makes history although in quite different ways: involved firsthand in historical events with tragic implications, in the case of Agualusa, and absorbed in a reflection on apparently distant events in the case of Cercas. However, the result of the emphasis on the presence of a subjectivity within historical processes causes the two novels to share a common element, that is, a double generic affiliation. Both <em>Estação das Chuvas</em> and <em>Soldados de Salamina</em> actually share semantic traits that make it possible to classify them at the same time as autofictional novels and historiographic metafictions.</p> <p>Despite their common architectural matrix, the two novels represent two very different expressions within these genres. This manifests itself at different levels: first, the treatment of the autofictional character and, secondly, the treatment of the other characters. Through the analysis of the characters that populate these two novels, I will try to show how the two writers adopt divergent attitudes regarding the degree of referentiality in their works and how they end up proposing two different poetic options. In the analysis of the characters, I consider it useful to introduce a taxonomy that, in addition to including already existing types (referential, historical, fictitious characters), introduces other types hopefully useful to the study of the currently abundant number of fictions that, through an ambiguous narrative pact, are located between fiction and faction.</p> <p><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=LOADED&amp;;custom2=%2Findex.php%2FIL%2Fworkflow%2Findex%2F16346%2F5&amp;t=1579204694922"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=BEFORE_OPTOUT_REQ&amp;t=1579204694922"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=FINISHED&amp;;t=1579204694923"></p> 2020-01-15T14:33:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bleeding Edge of Postmodernism: Metamodern Writing in the Novel by Thomas Pynchon 2020-01-18T14:37:33+02:00 Simon Radchenko <p>Many different models of co ntemporary novel’s description arose from the search for methods and approaches of post-postmodern texts analysis. One of them is the concept of metamodernism, proposed by Timotheus Vermeulen and Robin van den Akker and based on the culture and philosophy changes at the turn of this century. This article argues that the ideas of metamodernism and its main trends can be successfully used for the study of contemporary literature. The basic trends of metamodernism were determined and observed through the prism of literature studies. They were implemented in the analysis of Thomas Pynchon’s latest novel, <em>Bleeding Edge</em> (2013). Despite Pynchon being usually considered as postmodern writer, the use of metamodern categories for describing his narrative strategies confirms the idea of the novel’s post-postmodern orientation. The article makes an endeavor to use metamodern categories as a tool for post-postmodern text studies, in order to analyze and interpret <em>Bleeding Edge</em> through those categories.</p> <p><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=LOADED&amp;;custom2=%2Findex.php%2FIL%2Fworkflow%2Findex%2F16347%2F5&amp;t=1579204500805"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=BEFORE_OPTOUT_REQ&amp;t=1579204500805"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=FINISHED&amp;;t=1579204500806"></p> <p><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=LOADED&amp;;custom2=%2Findex.php%2FIL%2Fworkflow%2Findex%2F16347%2F5&amp;t=1579204515743"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=BEFORE_OPTOUT_REQ&amp;t=1579204515743"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=FINISHED&amp;;t=1579204515744"></p> <p><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=LOADED&amp;;custom2=%2Findex.php%2FIL%2Fworkflow%2Findex%2F16347%2F5&amp;t=1579204555538"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=BEFORE_OPTOUT_REQ&amp;t=1579204555538"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=FINISHED&amp;;t=1579204555539"></p> 2020-01-15T14:36:37+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pedro Lemebel’s Mi Amiga Gladys: The Role of Emotions in the Reconstruction of Fragmented Memories 2020-01-18T14:37:32+02:00 Julio Uribe Ugalde <p>The last book by the Chilean writer Pedro Lemebel (1952–2015) is entitled <em>Mi Amiga Gladys</em> (2016), a production entirely dedicated to his friend Gladys Marín (1938–2005). To date, this work has attracted little attention from academia, perhaps due to its apparently less confrontational discourse, one of the common characteristics of Lemebel’s previous works. However, this essay proposes that Lemebel’s last book in fact reveals a political statement, yet disguised as an intimate/sensitive declaration. This element would reflect a literary strategy employed by the writer, possibly aiming at eliciting a sympathetic response from the reader, by appealing to his/her emotions. By drawing on Affect theory, this essay argues that Lemebel’s personal/emotional stories with Gladys aim at recuperating her legacy, highlighting his friend’s social commitment and spirit of resistance. His contribution is indeed relevant to Chilean culture, as Lemebel views Chile’s recent past, so arguably conflicted and fragmented in its post-dictatorship period (from 1990 onwards). This study aims at being an innovative contribution to Lemebel’s studies, as it approaches his political discourse from an affective perspective, possibly establishing an original model for future analyses of his work.</p> <p><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=LOADED&amp;;custom2=%2Findex.php%2FIL%2Fworkflow%2Findex%2F16348%2F5&amp;t=1579204604882"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=BEFORE_OPTOUT_REQ&amp;t=1579204604883"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=FINISHED&amp;;t=1579204604884"></p> 2020-01-15T14:39:47+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In the Shadow of Mnemosyne: The Poetics of Debt in Fiction and Testimony 2020-01-18T14:37:30+02:00 Kujtim Rrahmani <p>Th is essay aims to thematize the poetic and cultural-historical image of debt, embodied as memorial discourse in both fi ctional and nonfi ctional literature. Th e poetics of debt are forged within the melting pot of mythic and historical images, political and cultural aspects, and poetic and testimonial temporalities – but always sheltered in the shadow of Mnemosyne. Th us, memory remains a permanent umbrella for the diff erent faces of debt. Debt is interrogated within the arc of authors Danilo Kiš and Zef Pllumi, two leading literary and cultural personalities in 20th-century south-eastern Europe. Th eir views provide a geopoetic and cultural background for a theoretical discussion of literary and cultural facets of debt. It is argued that because debt entails memory, obligation, and care for others, it is a distinguishing mark of the human psyche. Th e theorizing prelude will be followed by literary and confessional pieces of authors but, in the end, a theorizing observation on the subject will take place.</p> 2020-01-15T14:44:28+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Call of the Wild: John Buchan’s Heroes and the Decline of British Aristocracy 2020-01-18T14:37:29+02:00 Pilvi Rajamäe <p>The article will look at how John Buchan (1875–1940) has traced the decline of British aristocracy in his novels that cover the time period when the power radically shifted from the landowning to the middle class, with concomitant feelings of confusion, loss, disillusionment and inadequacy on the part of the class whose very existence was being undermined. Buchan wrote at the time when the spirit of chivalry, so carefully cultivated by the Victorian chivalric revival, still coloured the thinking of the aristocracy and the upper middle class, soon to be extinguished by the trenches of the Great War. This spirit abhorred middle-class mercantilism and pragmatism. Thus we see Buchan’s aristocratic heroes, beleaguered by the encroaching spirit of worldliness, going questing in the wilderness to regain their mental balance and purpose. Romantically communing with nature and following their ideals, they fulfil their personal quests, thus reasserting the concepts of duty and selfless service that had been part of the aristocratic code of honour before it was made redundant by middle-class materialism.</p> 2020-01-15T14:47:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pro-Social Trickstars in Khaled Hosseini’s A Thousand Splendid Suns 2020-01-18T14:37:28+02:00 Paul Rüsse Anastassia Krasnova <p>Tricksters are usually defined as non-heroic male characters obsessed with food, sex, and general merrymaking, occasionally changing shape and even gender but eventually returning to their masculine self. But is this necessarily true in contemporary ethnic literature? The current essay explores the notion of the <em>trickstar</em>, or the female trickster, in Afghan- American fiction, analysing the three heroines in Khaled Hosseini’s 2007 novel <em>A Thousand Splendid Suns</em>, which is a mother-daughter story set in Kabul at the turn of the millennium. In order to place this text into a cultural context and underscore the significance of the trickstar figure, it is compared to a traditional Afghan folk tale, “Women’s Tricks.” Two research questions are at the centre of this article: (1) In what ways are trickstars from Afghan folklore similar to the heroines of Hosseini’s novel? and (2) What roles do his heroines perform as pro-social trickstars?</p> <p><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=LOADED&amp;;custom2=%2Findex.php%2FIL%2Fworkflow%2Findex%2F16351%2F5&amp;t=1579204576997"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=BEFORE_OPTOUT_REQ&amp;t=1579204576997"><img style="width: 0; height: 0; display: none; visibility: hidden;" src=";wid=51824&amp;sid=&amp;tid=8543&amp;rid=FINISHED&amp;;t=1579204576998"></p> 2020-01-15T15:22:27+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## About the Authors 2020-01-18T14:37:27+02:00 About Authors <p>About the Authors</p> 2020-01-15T15:26:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##