Interlitteraria 2018-08-13T16:03:07+03:00 Jüri Talvet Open Journal Systems <table style="background-color: #ffffff;" border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td width="25%">Founded in 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> is the peer-reviewed journal of the Chair of Comparative Literature of the University of Tartu and the Estonian Association of Comparative Literature. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publishes original articles in English, French, German and Spanish, in the field of comparative literature.</td> <td width="25%">Revue à comité de lecture fondée en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> est publiée par la chaire de Littérature comparée de l'université de Tartu et l'Association estonienne de littérature comparée. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publie des articles originaux en anglais, en allemand, en français et en espagnol, touchant princi­palement le domaine de la littérature comparée.</td> <td width="25%"><em>Interlitteraria</em> wurde im Jahr 1996 als international begutachtete Zeit­schrift am Lehrstuhls für ver­gleichende Literatur­wissen­schaft der Universität Tartu und der Assoziation der Vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft in Estland gegründet. <em>Interlitteraria</em> ver­öffent­licht englische, franzö­sische, deutsche und spanische Original­artikel, vor­nehmlich aus dem Bereich der vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft.</td> <td width="25%">Fundada en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> es la revista con arbitraje de expertos promovida por la Cátedra de Literatura Comparada de la Universidad de Tartu y la Asocia­ción Estonia de Literatura Com­parada. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publica artículos originales en inglés, francés, alemán y español rela­tivos al campo de la litera­tura com­parada.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Introductory Note 2018-08-13T16:03:04+03:00 Katre Talviste 2018-08-05T15:14:49+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Literature, World Literature and Ethical Literary Criticism. Literature’s “Infra-Other” 2018-08-13T16:03:04+03:00 Jüri Talvet <p>Relying on some of the ideas of Yuri M. Lotman on “semiosphere”, the dynamics and dialogue between “centres” and “peripheries”, as well as on my own ideas on cultural symbiosis expounded in my essay books <em>A Call for Cultural Symbiosis. Meditations from U</em> (Toronto, 2005) and <em>Kümme kirja Montaigne’ile. “Ise ja “teine”</em> (<em>Ten Letters to Montaigne. ‘Self ” and ‘Other’</em>, in Estonian: Tartu, 2014; in English, 2018) and inspired by the recent foundation in China of the International Association for Ethical Literary Criticism, I will try to meditate on the interrelation of Comparative Literature, World Literature and Ethical Literary Criticism both in theory and in the practice of teaching and researching literature at universities and high schools. The main purpose is to look at the ways how a “self”-centred practice of literary research and teaching (formalistic as well as sociological approaches, restricting World Literature to the Western mainstream, or just dealing with one’s own national literature, avoiding its comparative contextualization) could be gradually replaced by a symbioticdialogical treatment of literature, capable of providing our activity with a firm and solid ethical dimension, something that would definitely strengthen the position of humanities in the world academia.</p> 2018-08-05T15:20:32+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## World Literature in Estonia: the Construction of National Translation Ethics 2018-08-13T16:03:04+03:00 Klaarika Kaldjärv Katiliina Gielen <p>In addition to many other functions, translating may (and often does) also have a national agenda. Such agenda determines what is going to be translated, how and by whom. Depending on what the national agenda might be, various questions of ethics come into play. Such questions of ethics may be reflected in the translation norms, they may be concealed but still have an important role in constructing the image of translators as well as the idea of what translations should be like.</p> <p>In Estonia, translation has been of pivotal importance among other things in the formation of the national canon and in developing the Estonian language. In addition to that, translation can be considered to be a means of implementing new ideologies as well as means of resistance. In the present paper, we will ask questions rather than try to answer them: What does ethics of translation mean in the Estonian cultural context? Considering Estonian translation history, can translation ethics be said to be dependent on a particular historical-political situation? And, who has the right to judge translations and the activity of translators?</p> 2018-08-05T15:25:52+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Constructing a Text, Creating an Image: The Case of Johannes Barbarus 2018-08-13T16:03:05+03:00 Anneli Kõvamees <p>The Estonian poet, physician and politician Johannes Vares-Barbarus (1890–1946) is a contradictory figure in Estonian history and culture. He was a well-known and acknowledged doctor named Vares, but also a poet named Barbarus who was notable for his modernistic poems in the 1920s and 1930s. His actions in the 1940s as one of the leading figures in the Sovietization of Estonia have complicated the reception of his poetry. His opposition to the Republic of Estonia and his left-wing views are nearly always under observation when he or his poems are discussed. Predominantly his poetry has been discussed; his other works have received much less attention. This article analyses his travelogue <em>Matkavisandeid &amp; mõtisklusi</em> (<em>Travel Sketches and Contemplations</em>) based on his trip to the Soviet Union. It was published in the literary magazine <em>Looming</em> in 1935 and reprinted in 1950 in his collected works. Travelogues have proven to be valuable materials when discussing the author and his mentality. The article analyses the image of the Soviet Union in his travelogue published in 1935 and discusses notable changes that were made in the reprint some of which have significantly altered the meaning, so that the text fits perfectly into the Soviet canon.</p> 2018-08-05T15:30:31+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Censorship, Shame and Pornography in East-European (Post-World War II) Literature 2018-08-13T16:03:05+03:00 Camelia Teodora Bunea <p>The aim of this paper is to closely follow the dynamics of concepts such as shame or pornography as seen throughout the lens of East-European (post-World War II) literature focusing only on the books that had the power and courage to change the perspective or the whole definition(s) of this terms. Moreover, I want to show if/how the Communist Regime changed the perception, the mentality or, with Pierre Bourdieu’s term, <em>habitus</em> of some countries and if/how is the change reflected in literature focusing my research mostly on Romanian, (but also Polish and Hungarian) prose which means I will also try and understand and explain the dynamics of another concept – censorship. What did censorship meant before, how was it seen after the Regime was installed – from a writer’s point of view, of course – and, more important, how people’s perspective(s) were changed regarding subjects such as intimacy, sexuality and literature.</p> 2018-08-05T15:36:55+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Rediscovery of Emotion Coaching 2018-08-13T16:03:05+03:00 Zhao Bo <p>The theory of <em>Emotion Coaching</em> was put forward by Feng Menglong in Late-Ming Dynasty. Since Mid-Ming, the cognition of <em>Ch’ing</em> (emotion) has gone through three phases: rediscovery, development, and explanation on the level of the mind. Deeply influenced by Yangming, the theory of <em>Emotion Coaching</em> focuses neither on <em>Ch’ing</em> (emotion) nor on <em>Li</em> (justice) but the balance of the two. That “<em>Ch’ing</em> (emotion) is the basis of <em>Li</em> (justice) and <em>Li</em> (justice) is the criterion of <em>Ch’ing</em> (emotion)” is taken as the tenet of the theory, which means that <em>Ch’ing</em> (emotion) gives rise to moral behaviour and <em>Li</em> (justice) is the standard. The book <em>The History of Ch’ing </em>(《情史》) fully reflects the theory. Separating emotion and desire, <em>Li</em> (justice) is different from <em>Li</em> (rite). The former is based on human nature. Justice and destiny are the two important principles, rather than the political purposes which infuse the latter. The theory of <em>Emotion Coaching</em> is also reflected in the collection of short novels <em>San Yen</em> (“三言”). In the novel, the details of emotion are fantastic, trying to make sense of emotional varieties. Affective and wanton behaviour are shown differently in order to illustrate the discrepancy between emotion and desire. Justice and destiny are also emphasized. <em>Chiang Hsingge Regained His Pearl Shirt</em> (《蒋兴 哥重会珍珠衫) serves as an example here.</p> 2018-08-05T15:44:10+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Ethical Literary Analysis of The Girlhood of Shakespeare’s Heroines 2018-08-13T16:03:05+03:00 Ji Rangping <p><em>The Girlhood of Shakespeare’s Heroines</em>, a classic Shakespeare drama adaptation by Mary Cowden Clarke, tells the girlhood stories of Shakespeare’s heroines in a series of fifteen tales. Analysing the tales from the perspective of ethica l literary criticism and the theory of the Sphinx factor (an original c ritical theory formulated by the Chinese scholar Nie Zhenzhao), this paper explores such ethical and social problems as the double standards of sex ethics and the inequalities between man and woman by means of the Animal factor analysis and argues that by disclosing these problems in a deliberately abhorrent way, the tales fulfil the task of ethically educating Victorian readers, and female readers in particular, in an enlightening and entertaining way while leading Victorian women to the appreciation of Shakespeare’s plays.</p> 2018-08-05T15:49:29+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Emilia Pardo Bazán, an Ethical Writer 2018-08-13T16:03:05+03:00 Dolores Thion Soriano-Mollá <p>Within the cultural context of nineteenth-century Spain, Emilia Pardo Bazán uses literature to raise public awareness on the death penalty. Considering the seriousness of the issue, she thought that emotions – not reason – could allow people to have a better understanding and to form their own opinion. Thus, in <em>La piedra angular</em>, through the fictional word of Marineda, she examines the controversies linked to the legal, human, and moral legitimacy of capital punishment and to the figures of both the criminal and the executioner, but also to the nature of truth and public opinion.</p> 2018-08-05T15:53:36+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ethical Anguish, Ethical Conflict and Ethical Choice: An Exploration of Futon from the Perspective of Ethical Literary Criticism 2018-08-13T16:03:05+03:00 Yang Jian <p>The transcendence of society and ethical dimension are often embodied in the Japanese I-Novel. The writers of the I-Novel are not outside society, actually their social care permeates their literary works in which the characters possess a strong ethical awareness within a deep, dignified, and sentimental ethical narrative wri ting strategy. <em>Futon</em>, an I-Novel masterpiece, contains many ethical implications from the perspective of Ethical Literary Criticism, such as the ethical anguish in love affairs which is caused by their ethical environment in the late Meiji. With violent conflicts between individual desire and social ethics, the common Japanese faced the crisis of emotion and belief and felt confused on ethical issues during that period. The ethical choices made by the hero and heroine in this novel had touched the moral bottom line of human being.</p> 2018-08-05T15:57:26+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The “Doubles” in Nabokov’s The Real Life of Sebastian Knight 2018-08-13T16:03:05+03:00 Zhang Junping Zhang Bin <p>The ambiguous identities of the two heroes, V. and Sebastian, in Nabokov’s <em>The Real Life of Sebastian Knight</em>, is of great interest to Nabokovian criticism and scholarship. This paper, in light of theories on the “double”, intents to figure out the problem and reveal Nabokov’s design of Sebastian and V. as “doubles”. In <em>The Real Life of Sebastian Knight</em>, Nabokov structures delicate mappings for the doubling relationship between the two heroes. His intricate design of doubles aims to show the dynamic process of Sebastian and V.’s selfdevelopment by erasing the psychic distance between them.</p> 2018-08-05T16:02:52+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Eros and Ethics in Martin A. Hansen’s Novel The Liar 2018-08-13T16:03:06+03:00 Jørgen Veisland <p>Seduction plays a dual role in Martin A. Hansen’s novel <em>The Liar</em>. Johannes Vig, the narrator/protagonist is prone to repeat a pattern of triangular erotic relationships while at the same time engaging in literary seduction. He hides and reveals the truth through a rhetoric of fiction that carries Kierkegaardian overtones. Johannes who is both teacher and preacher on an island off the mainland at some points approximates the Kierkegaardian category of the demonic, being afraid of opening up. Johannes is suffering from a Freudian compulsion to repeat threatening to bar him from the ethical metamorphosis that would absolve him. The repetitiveness of his sexuality paradoxically spurs on a search for truth and ethics as Johannes distances himself from the past in an attempt to transcend the barriers of dualism implicit in the past-present dichotomy. Fictional seduction and rhetorical persuasion become ways of approximating the truth. Yet fiction is abandoned in the end in favour of a different form of writing as Johannes realizes that a new writing project is necessary whereby ethics becomes understood as selflessness. This insight paves the way for the recognition of nature as flux and the recognition of truth as something that cannot be pinned down since it is fundamentally unsubstantial, in the Buddhist sense of <em>sunyata</em>.</p> 2018-08-05T16:06:53+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Ethics of Facing Western Notions in Graham Greene’s A Burnt-Out Case 2018-08-13T16:03:06+03:00 Beatriz Valverde Jiménez <p>Taking as a basis Søren Kierkegaard’s narrative strategy of attack and defence, this paper will analyse the representation of western civilization in connection with the worldview of the native people living in a leper colony in Belgian Congo in Graham Greene’s novel <em>A Burnt-Out Case</em>. I will examine concretely the way in which Greene attacks in the novel the hegemonic structure of the European colonizers, which both ignores and imposes itself on the African native society, considering it a no-structure. Additionally, I will study the cases of the priests in the leper colony and of doctor Colin, characters that, being on the frontier between both value systems, become cultural translators and thus make communication possible. These characters acknowledge that the native way of life is as legitimate as the European and represent the possibility of an empathic side of western civilization. In contrast with the attack mentioned above, with the priests and Dr Colin Greene defends the European community living in the area. Through the use of the narrative strategy of attack and defence, therefore, contradictory messages are inserted in the text so that the readers take an active role solving the paradoxes they find in their reading. Finally, I will focus on the main protagonist, Querry, whose internal journey starts with his contact with <em>Deo Gratias</em>, a member of the native society, and whose spiritual evolution throughout the novel cannot be explained without his experience with the native culture.</p> 2018-08-05T16:11:24+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Urban Gothic and the Sphinx Factor: Saul Bellow’s Mr. Sammler’s Planet 2018-08-13T16:03:06+03:00 Zhang Tian <p>Saul Bellow, as a cerebral, analytical, and philosophical writer, unflinchingly describes the world and gives the readers tremendous thoughts about life and society. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1976 for his human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture. In <em>Mr. Sammler’s Planet</em>, Bellow shows the readers a death-burdened, rotting, spoiled, sullied, exasperating, sinful earth. This insane world is full of droll mortality and morbid entertainments. The coexistence of rationality and bestiality in man is vividly displayed in this novel. In his <em>Introduction to Ethical Literary Criticism</em>, Professor Nie Zhenzhao formulated the theory of the Sphinx factor as composed of the human factor and the animal factor, and the combination of the two makes an integrated man. The animal factor in the novel is fully demonstrated in the black pickpocket’s bestiality, Mr. Sammler’s voyeurism, the Holocaust, killings and thefts. However, the human factor is not so salient as the animal factor in this novel. I argue that the tension between the two factors not only intensifies the conflicts but shows how the author perceives the world. Bellow shows a strong contempt for the world. A pessimistic and critical outlook is conveyed in Bellow’s understanding of cities, represented by Chicago and New York. Robbery, cheating, speculation, beauty, money and lust construct a corrupted panorama of industrial cities. This is one of the reasons why Bellow highlights the animal factor more than the human factor. He seeks to criticize the American city from different perspectives of city culture, including the corruption of the bureaucracy, vices in public transport, changes in the urban landscape, competition between the pursuit of art and the pursuit of money.</p> 2018-08-05T16:15:52+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Deconstruction of Ethical Predicament in J. M. Coetzee’s Waiting for the Barbarians 2018-08-13T16:03:06+03:00 Huang Hui <p><em>Waiting for the Barbarians</em> is an allegorical novel by J. M. Coetzee, which tells a story of the confrontation of civilization and barbarism. The old Magistrate, as the main character of the novel is called, is a defender of the civilization of the Empire at the very beginning. He falls into the dilemma of the binary opposition between civilization and barbarism through the cruel torture of the Empire and the contact with the barbarians; he breaks completely with the civilization of the Empire, and achieves the salvation of his soul ultimately, after witnessing the torture of the Empire by himself. This paper, with the approaches of Ethical Literary Criticism, throws light on the construction of ethical discourse and metaphor in the novel, and analyzes how the old Magistrate falls into the ethical predicament and comes out of it through ethical choices, thus deconstructing the old Magistrate’s psychological cognitive process of civilization and barbarism, and revealing the ethical callings and moral reflections of this work in relation to realistic social problems.</p> 2018-08-05T16:43:08+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Deconstruction of the Ethics of Blood Kinship from the Pespective of a New Ethic of Family Kinship in Wise Children 2018-08-13T16:03:06+03:00 Pang Yanning <p>Angela Carter’s masterpiece, <em>Wise Children</em>, highly controversial as it is, represents a strikingly new perspective on ethics, namely, the family ethic of non-blood kinship. This refers to abandoning the establishment of a family solely on the basis of legitimate blood kinship and constructing a new type of family kinship on the basis of Aristotle’s notion of “friendship”, rather than on the kinship of marriage and blood. It is through the connection between the characters and constructing the plot that Carter deconstructs the hegemony of blood kinship and rejects the blood-kinship family mode. It can be argued that this newly-constructed system of ethics proposes a new way out for modern people suffering from the predicament of loneliness.</p> 2018-08-05T16:47:37+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Dynamics of Appellations in《陆犯焉识》 (Prisoner Lu Yanshi) 2018-08-13T16:03:06+03:00 Zhu Weihong <p>This study is an attempt at combining James Phelan’s rhetorical approach to narrative, particularly his theory of narrative progression, and Nie Zhenzhao’s theory of the Sphinx factor. It takes as its subject of study the appellations of the protagonist in 《陆犯焉识》(<em>Prisoner Lu Yanshi</em>, 2011) by Yan Geling, a major overseas Chinese female writer. It delineates how the narrative progression of the novel is governed by the dynamics of Lu Yanshi’s varied appellations which are bound with varied ethical identities and ethical duties. It argues that the varied appellations serve as the instabilities of the narrative. At the story level, the protagonist transforms from a proud saint to a humble human being, as a result of the discovery of his animal factor which comes to the surface under extreme circumstances. At the level of discourse, circuitous narration and double focalizations create tensions between the protagonist’s understanding of and readers’ responses to the ethical implications of the appellations, thus helping the readers to see the ethical message conveyed by the novel – a complete human consists of both the human factor and the animal factor; he is defective when solely controlled by either of them.</p> 2018-08-05T16:52:26+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nineteenth-Century Sentimental and Popular Trends and their Transformation in Fin-de-siècle Latvian Literature 2018-08-13T16:03:06+03:00 Benedikts Kalnačs Pauls Daija <p>In this paper, the role of popular culture in <em>fin-de-siècle</em> Latvian literature has been explored by analysing the mid-nineteenth century Latvian translation of Christoph Schmid’s novel <em>Genoveva</em> (1846) by Ansis Leitāns, and unfinished drama <em>Genoveva</em> (1908) by Rūdolfs Blaumanis. While the first version of the Genoveva story was created according to the patterns of popular literature and played a significant role in the development of the Latvian reading public, the author of the second version attempted to turn the plot of popular fiction into a work of elite literature, elaborating the issue of female agency and adding psychological ambiguity to the plot. The mixture of popular melodramatic imagination and modernist themes, as observed in Blaumanis’s work, provides a deeper insight into <em>fin-de-siècle</em> literary techniques by turning attention to the conscious use of different literary styles and narrative levels and illuminating interactions between popular and elite culture. By comparing both works and interpreting their aesthetic innovations in terms of the relationship between idealism, realism and modernism, this paper traces the ways in which <em>fin-de-siècle</em> Latvian literature appropriated and reworked models of popular culture and developed new aesthetic insights by merging elements of low and high culture.</p> 2018-08-05T16:57:30+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Proust et Hergé : de quelques points communs entre À la recherche du temps perdu et Les Aventures de Tintin 2018-08-13T16:03:06+03:00 Samuel Bidaud <p><strong>Proust and Hergé: on some similarities between <em>À la Recherche du temps perdu</em> and <em>Les Aventures de Tintin</em>. Part I.</strong> Marcel Proust and Hergé seem to have nothing in common. Their works are indeed very different: they do not belong to the same genre, nor treat the same themes or have the same public. What parallel could be established between <em>À la Recherche du temps perdu</em> (<em>In Search of Lost Time</em>), which revolutionized the genre of the novel, and <em>Les Aventures de Tintin</em> (<em>The Adventures of Tintin</em>), a series of comic albums apparently intended only for children? A closer study reveals however that Proust and Hergé, beyond what one could think at first sight, share deep similarities on wh ich this article, published in two parts, will focus. First of all, <em>À la Recherche du temps perdu</em> as well as <em>Les Aventures de Tintin</em> rest on the creation of a specific world, which can be characterized by Balzac’s principle of returning characters and by the importance of the imaginary of space (Proust’s <em>rêveries</em> about the names of places, Hergé’s fictitious geography). Moreover, Proust and Hergé’s characters have a very singular language and linguistic features which can be identified easily (let us think of Dr. Cottard’s puns, of Odette’s anglicisms, etc. in Proust, o r of Captain Haddock’s insults or Dupond and Dupont’s slips of the tongue in Hergé). Eventually, Proust and Hergé both develop a reflection on time which gives rise to a singular temporality in their books, and more precisely a reflection on lost and regained time, with two opposite situations and therefore two opposite conceptions for each of the authors. This first part of our study focuses on the principle of returning characters adopted by Proust and Hergé, on their imaginary of space and on the language of their characters, while the second part, which will be published in the next issue of <em>Interlitteraria</em>, will be devoted to the problematics of time.</p> 2018-08-05T17:04:31+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## « Ce n’est pas un livre, mais une pièce de théâtre… » : la lecture de Harry Potter et l’enfant maudit par les utilisateurs du réseau social littéraire Babelio 2018-08-13T16:03:07+03:00 Maria Einman <p><strong>“It’s not a book, it’s a play… ”: <em>Harry Potter and the Cursed Child</em> Read by the Users of Babelio, a Social Network for Book Readers.</strong> On the 31st of July 2016, <em>Harry Potter and the Cursed Child</em>, a play written by Jack Thorne in collaboration with J. K. Rowling and John Tiffany, was performed for the first time at the Palace Theatre in London. On the same day, the bookshops of Great Britain were literally invaded by the young wizard’s fans, whom were curious to know what happens next to their favorite heroes. Thereby, <em>The Cursed Child</em> is a play, not only to be performed, but also – and mostly – to be read. Whereas the Theater Studies, at least in France, consider the drama text mainly as a scenic performance element and thus, limits the drama text reading to text analysis, the reception of Thorne’s play allows to ask about the possibility of reading the drama text as a self-sufficient fictional text and invites us to investigate the specificities of this kind of reading. In order to do this, I have analyzed three hundred <em>Cursed Child</em> readers’ reviews, which are located on the website, one of the biggest French social networks for book readers. It appears that the <em>Cursed Child</em>’s readers tend to read that drama text by comparing it to the seven <em>Harry Potter</em> novels. The main two differences perceived within the scope of this comparison (and which the readers often tend to attribute to the dramatic form specificities) are the so-called lack of descriptions and the rapid reading rhythm. However, these differences may receive a completely opposite evaluation, depending on the reader’s openness to the dramatic form. In this way, for the “reluctant” readers, it constitutes an obstacle which prevents the fictional immersion and therefore the pleasure of reading, whereas for the “enthusiastic” readers, it allows them to go through a new and pleasant experience. Moreover, it is not unusual to see that the reading of <em>The Cursed Child</em> markedly reduces the reader’s reluctance towards the dramatic form. In fact, the reader reviews analysis proves that <em>The Cursed Child</em> text activates the reader’s imagination, regardless of his reluctance. Consequently, the Thorne’s drama example demonstrates that a drama text can be considered as a self-sufficient fictional text which is able to arouse the pleasure of reading and we can therefore conclude that the reluctance or the pleasure is led by the reader’s own readiness to accept the alterity of the dramatic form.</p> 2018-08-05T17:09:56+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## About the Authors 2018-08-13T16:03:04+03:00 About Authors <p>About the Authors</p> 2018-08-05T17:13:13+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##