Interlitteraria http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL <table style="background-color: #ffffff;" border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td width="25%">Founded in 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> is the peer-reviewed journal of the Chair of Comparative Literature of the University of Tartu and the Estonian Association of Comparative Literature. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publishes original articles in English, French, German and Spanish, in the field of comparative literature.</td> <td width="25%">Revue à comité de lecture fondée en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> est publiée par la chaire de Littérature comparée de l'université de Tartu et l'Association estonienne de littérature comparée. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publie des articles originaux en anglais, en allemand, en français et en espagnol, touchant princi­palement le domaine de la littérature comparée.</td> <td width="25%"><em>Interlitteraria</em> wurde im Jahr 1996 als international begutachtete Zeit­schrift am Lehrstuhls für ver­gleichende Literatur­wissen­schaft der Universität Tartu und der Assoziation der Vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft in Estland gegründet. <em>Interlitteraria</em> ver­öffent­licht englische, franzö­sische, deutsche und spanische Original­artikel, vor­nehmlich aus dem Bereich der vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft.</td> <td width="25%">Fundada en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> es la revista con arbitraje de expertos promovida por la Cátedra de Literatura Comparada de la Universidad de Tartu y la Asocia­ción Estonia de Literatura Com­parada. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publica artículos originales en inglés, francés, alemán y español rela­tivos al campo de la litera­tura com­parada.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> University of Tartu Press en-US Interlitteraria 1406-0701 The contents of <em>Interlitteraria</em> are published under CC BY-NC-ND licence. Introduction http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.1 <p>Introduction</p> Katre Talviste ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 213 214 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.1 Literary Creativity and Transgeniality http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.2 <p>There is hardly any doubt that most turning points in the history of small and minor literatures have been provoked from the outside, in the first place under direct influence of some new current engendered and spread from “centers”, traditionally identified with major nations and linguistic communities. As compared with small nations, creative cultures of “centers” have historically enjoyed much more freedom, because (more than often) under the coverage of political-economic and military might they have been able to develop without looming existential threats from the outside.</p> <p>At the same time, no culture is inherently homogeneous. Especially since the Modern Age conformist and rebellious creativity have been in a constant state of confrontation as well as mutual interactivity. Therefore, the history of cultural creativity is full of paradoxes and surprises, both in “centers” and “peripheries”. Creative culture has nearly always retained at least a relative independence, in regard to the official society with its material power and business structures.</p> <p>I would like to show that beyond a huge number of intertextualities extending from “centers” to “peripheries” (the physical and mental locus of small and minor cultures), easily traceable in formal and external signs of literary works, there exists in parallel a phenomenon which could be tentatively defined as “transgeniality”.</p> <p>I will try to reveal some of such transgenialities comparing the poetics and philosophy of (mainly) three poets, the Spaniard Antonio Gamoneda (born in 1931), the Yi-Chinese poet Jidi Majia (born in 1961) and the Estonian poet Juhan Liiv (1864–1913).</p> Jüri Talvet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 215 232 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.2 Estudios comparativos en la versología http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.3 <p><strong>Comparative research in versology.</strong> The place of comparative literature in Slovak literary studies from the 1960s. Mikuláš Bakoš’s inspiration by the model of historical poetics in his writing on the Slovak verse in the late 1930s. The influence of Russian formalism and Czech structuralism (J. Mukařovský, J. Levý). The focus on the stylistic and typological aspect in verse analysis. The effort towards the symbiosis of the structuraldevelopmental and the traditional historical-critical approaches. The inspiration by Jozef Felix’s emphasis on the universal message of the finest French and world literature for the development of Slovak literature. The contribution of the theory of literary communication for the analysis of Slovak reception of translations from Russian literature (A. Popovič). The re-evaluation of the term “influence” on the basis of a dialectical understanding of the roles of comparative literature (D. Ďurišin). The aspect of the developmental progress of national literatures. The central role of poetic rhythm through the specific application of metric accent in comparing Slovak verse with French and Spanish verse (L. Franek). The meaning of comparative study of poetry in symbiosis with objective-normative and subjective-critical criteria in relation to aesthetic level of translations. The unity of theoretical and empirical research as a reliable instrument in contemporary search for literary and cultural identity of nations (Slovak translations of Paul Claudel).</p> Ladislav Franek ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 233 246 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.3 Aliens in Love: Testing Bloom’s Theory of the Anxiety of Influence http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.4 <p>The article aims to test the universality of Harold Bloom’s theory of the anxiety of influence. Underneath Bloom’s favourite tropes (Kabbalistic, psychoanalytic, Shakespearean, Miltonian, Blakean etc.) lies a diachronic system of misreading, which can be useful in analysing texts without any direct connections between them. By comparing two culturally distant but rhetorically similar prose texts, Friedebert Tuglas’s short story <em>At the End of the World</em> (1915) and Stanisław Lem’s novel <em>Solaris</em> (1961), this article suggests that it is possible to overcome the accustomed boundaries of national literary histories. Both of these stories depict a communication error when humans are confronted with the unknown other. The texts have alternative figures describing the alien and similar tropes presenting the human. To explore the potentiality of figurative kinship between the two authors who are strangers to each other is not an ill-fated quest, but a search, which would eventually allow us to see some hidden patterns that literary studies usually miss.</p> Tõnis Parksepp ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 247 262 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.4 Canon of the Ruler’s Image-building in the 15th and 16th Centuries in the Epistolary Genre: Cases of the Grand Dukes of Lithuania Vytautas the Great and Sigismund the Old http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.5 <p>The subject of this article are letters by two authors addressed to two rulers of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The first was written around 1429 by a certain Franciscus de Comitibus Aquae Vivae (about him the recent research still has little to say) and addressed to Vytautas the Great (Alexander), the Grand Duke of Lithuania. At the time he was the ruler of a huge state and was about to be crowned. Vytautas’s intention provoked many discussions and disagreements with the Polish king Jogaila and other nobles. The author of the letter tries to dissuade Vytautas from seeking the crown with the help of different arguments, praising and sometimes reproving the ruler. The other two letters were written by the famous humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam to Sigismund the Old, the Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland, in 1527 and 1528 respectively. Here, the sender speaks in the humanistic manner about the ruler’s obligations, virtues, his search for peace and praises the addressee. In this article, I will analyse and compare the canons – literary, rhetorical, cultural and epistolary – used by both authors in these letters. Besides, I will discuss a ruler’s portrait created by the authors, evaluation of his personality, actions and behaviour, and the authors’ intentions.</p> Dovilė Keršienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 263 277 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.5 A Quest for Originality in Latin Poetry of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Observed in Manuscripts of the Seventeenth-Eighteenth Centuries http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.6 <p>The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were the time when literature in Latin written by professors and students of Jesuit colleges flourished in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. This trend was the outcome of the Jesuit educational model. The main disciplines in colleges were poetics and rhetoric. The classes of these two disciplines not only aimed at teaching theoretical rules, acquainting the students with the prevailing literary canon, and pointing out the differences between genres, but also encouraged students’ individual creative work, as it was independent writing that was a proof of students’ ability to apply theory in practice. Student writing was strongly influenced by the theory of imitation, which was very popular at the time. Resorting to manuscript material from the colleges of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the article focuses on varying degrees of influence of the imitation theory on students’ individual creative work: it shows the relation between imitation and the literary tradition, the rules of rhetoric, and imitation of canonical authors; it also places emphasis on the quest for individual expression. The author observes that some texts composed by students are on a par with the best poetic works of the well-known poets of that time.</p> Živilė Nedzinskaitė ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 278 294 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.6 Literary Theory in the Eighteenth-Century Grand Duchy of Lithuania: From the Classical Tradition to Classicism http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.7 <p>The article is aimed at introducing the peculiarities of the literary theory in the eighteenth-century Grand Duchy of Lithuania. To show these peculiarities, it begins with an overview of the main rhetoric and poetics of the Renaissance and Baroque periods, which illustrate the theoretical thought of the late sixteenth and the seventeenth centuries. The theses set out in these works had been taken up, developed, and modified up until the middle of the eighteenth century, which signalled the beginning of the Enlightenment and changes in literary aesthetics.</p> <p>The majority of the works on poetics and rhetoric of the period discussed were written by French and German Jesuits (only very few were penned by the Protestants or the Piarists) and were used in the colleges of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as textbooks intended for the classes of poetics and rhetoric. These works indicate a lively reception of the European literary theory.</p> <p>Up until the eighteenth century, the book on the Renaissance poetics <em>Poetices libri septem</em> (1561) by Julius Caesar Scaliger retained the status of an underlying work in this field. In it, the author summed up the literary theory absorbed from ancient authors and systematized the genres of poetry, the types of its style, and the metres. Scaliger’s works, which had an impact on the European literary theory of the Baroque and Renaissance, were directly taken up by other authors and modified to a greater or lesser extent. They were easily recognisable in eighteenth-century works on poetics and rhetoric. In the seventeenth-century Grand Duchy of Lithuania, literary theory was shaped by the works of Cyprianus Soarius, Nicolaus Caussinus, François Antoine Pomey, Charles Paiot, and Jacob Pontanus. Poetics of Mathias Casimirus Sarbievius played an important role in the development of Baroque literary theory. Although it was not published and spread only in the form of manuscript notes, it was widely known in the period’s academic environment both in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and in Western Europe. On the one hand, it was a certain way of conveying Scaliger’s theory, yet on the other hand, thanks to an apt and accurate definition of the Baroque style, this work should be treated as one of the most significant Baroque poetics of conceit. Jacob Masen, another Baroque theorist, also markedly contributed to the theoretical development of the epigrammatic genre and ‘wit’ (<em>argutia</em>), which is held on a par with conceit.</p> <p>The textbooks used in the Jesuit colleges of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania were not authored exclusively by the Jesuits. Mention should be made of the works on rhetoric by the Dutch Protestant author Gerardus Vossius. The rhetoric of Michał Kraus was very popular in the Piarist teaching system, and, as shown by the provenances, it was included in the syllabi of some of the Jesuit colleges.</p> <p>The textbooks by Joseph de Jouvancy and Dominique de Colonia represent the genre theory of the eighteenth century. Chronologically, these are the latest theoretical works of the eighteenth century that reflect the Baroque conception of the literary theory. They were highly appreciated and even used at the schools of the Board of Education. The educational reform that was launched in the middle of the eighteenth century nurtured a new approach towards the literary taste and the expression of thought. These changes are reflected in the work <em>O wymowie i poezji</em> (<em>On Rhetoric and Poetry</em>) by the Piarist monk Filip Nereusz Golański, which was the first normative poetics of the Enlightenment written in a national language (Polish in this particular case).</p> Asta Vaškelienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 295 311 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.7 Poetic Dialogue from the Periphery of World Literature: Goethe’s Faust and the Korean Novel Kumo-shinwha http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.8 <p>A short but cardinal passage of Goethe’s <em>Faust</em> is the rhymed dialogue between Faust and Helen at their first encounter: the depiction of the very idealistic encounter consists of the process by which the ancient Greek mythical figure Helen learns about the difference and charm of the German poetic language, as well as its formal practices explained and guided by Faust. This passage is not only a description of the meeting of Helen and Faust but also, at the same time, verses on poetry and poetics.</p> <p>This remarkable passage leads us to look into other cases in world literature. With this inquiry I have found out many similar cases in the literature of my own country and of other East Asian countries, Japan and China. As an example, here is presented a highly sublime poetic dialogue, drawn from an outstanding work of premodern Korean literature, the very first Korean “novel” <em>Kumo-shinhwa</em>, from the mid-fifteenth century: an exchange of ekphrasis, verses of picture description. With its perfect, more than perfect, rhyme, the poetic dialogue presents the symbolized union of two persons as a matter of course. By means of this poetic dialogue it will be pointed out how a standard canon does not remain itself but finds its incessant dialogues on behalf of other rather hidden works. Or in short: how the margin shifts itself through exchanges and translations.</p> Young-Ae Chon ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 312 320 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.8 The Double-Tongued Author: Re-reading Sophocles, Thomas Hardy, and Eduard Vilde http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.9 <p>The article discusses the authors’ ambivalent attitude towards their protagonists, drawing on Sophocles’ <em>Oedipus the King</em>, Thomas Hardy’s <em>Tess of the d’Urbervilles</em>, and Eduard Vilde’s <em>Mäeküla piimamees</em> (<em>Milkman of the Manor</em>). Firstly, the hypothesis based on Aristotle’s <em>Poetics</em> and the idea of Pericles having been a possible prototype of Oedipus is proposed, according to which Sophocles could have been critical of the tyrant of Thebes as a noble representative of a polis at war with Athens, justifying his pains in addition to showing compassion. Such an interpretation is in contrast with the humanist and protest-driven glorification initiated by Friedrich Nietzsche. Another example of the author’s “hypocrisy” is Thomas Hardy’s novel that is generally, and with reason, read as critical of Victorian society. However, the work’s reception has failed to address the motif of mystical revenge on the inheritor of the bloodline of foreign conquerors that occurs in the shadow of a woman’s tragedy and is executed with consistency, yet is not seen as the text’s rival dominant. Still, without considering the opposing line of interpretation that constitutes a parallel in its tragic irony, the understanding of the novel will remain superficial. The third example of the author’s split viewpoint can be found in the first Estonian novel to excel in artistic maturity that also stands out as the first psychological and erotic novel. Vilde’s social-critical programme in the name of the oppressed country people and women’s emancipation clashes in an intriguing way with his erotomanic objectifying gaze on the woman which rather represents a patriarchal attitude bent on subordinating the other sex. Vilde’s ambivalence towards his wayward heroine makes her a most interesting character whose mystery cannot be solved unequivocally.</p> Arne Merilai ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 321 339 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.9 Lithuanian Literature in 1918–1940: The Dynamics of Influences and Originality http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.10 <p>Lithuanian independence (1918–1940), which lasted for twentytwo years, and its symbolic center, the provisional capital Kaunas, have been very important for the country’s political, social, and cultural identity. In 1918, changes in the social, economic, and political status of an individual as well as transformations in the literary field followed the change of the political system. In what ways the relationship between the center and the periphery and the spheres of literary influences were altered by the new forms of life? Lithuania, the former geographic periphery of tsarist Russia, after the change of the political system became a geographical and cultural periphery of Europe. Nevertheless, political freedom provided an opportunity to use the dichotomy of center-periphery creatively. Lithuanian writers, who suddenly found themselves living in Europe with old cultural traditions, tried to overcome the insignificance of their own literature, its shallow themes and problems by “borrowing” ideas and ways to express them. In fact, the imitation was not mechanical, so the new influences enabled writers to expand significantly the themes and forms of Lithuanian literature.</p> <p>The article examines the development of new cultural centers in independent Lithuania. It also discusses the avant-garde movement which emerged under the influence of Russian futurists and German expressionists. In addition, it focuses on individual authors, such as Antanas Vaičiulaitis, Kazys Binkis and Petras Cvirka, and the influence that affected their works.</p> Gitana Vanagaitė ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 340 353 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.10 Variations on a Motive: Hamsun and Tammsaare http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.11 <p>In 1935 <em>Ma armastasin sakslast</em> (<em>I Loved a German</em>) was published. In 1928 <em>Victoria</em> (1898) by Knut Hamsun (1859–1952) was published in Estonian. The first was written and the second translated by A. H. Tammsaare (1878– 1940). Parallels between these two authors have been most often discussed in connection with <em>Pan</em> (1894) and <em>Kõrboja peremees</em> (<em>The Master of Kõrboja</em>, 1922). Both authors have earned their canonical position in literature thanks to the novels <em>Markens Grøde</em> (<em>Growth of the Soil</em>) (1917), in the case of Hamsun, and <em>Tõde ja õigus</em> (<em>Truth and Justice</em>, I–V, 1926–1933) in the case of Tammsaare. These novels have been “sorted out” to be included in the canon, while <em>Ma armastasin sakslast</em> and <em>Victoria</em> have not received as much attention. In both novels love is the central theme – in Hamsun’s novel the main characters are the miller’s son Johannes and the landlord’s daughter Victoria, and in Tammsaare’s novel the student Oskar and a baron’s grand daughter, Erika. This article examines the connections between Hamsun and Tammsaare by analysing the novels <em>Victoria</em> and <em>Ma armastasin sakslast</em>, discussing among others the motive that has been widely used in world literature, namely the (archetypical) story of lovers – <em>Romeo and Juliet</em> by Shakespeare. Both novels can be considered as variations on that motive as Tammsaare, for example, adds the social aspect, so that the archetypical love story set in the Republic of Estonia enables him to discuss topics essential to him. In the article the main emphasis is on Tammsaare’s novel.</p> Anneli Kõvamees ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 354 366 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.11 Literary Symbols as the Creative and Original Impulses of Literary Creation http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.12 <p>Literary symbols contain something archaic, sometimes going back to pre-literate times, and every new context gives to these symbols a new meaning. The poetical text segment carries with it its old context from the older or archaic text and, if it is situated in a new context, the new context also adds new meaning to the symbol. The archaic aspect and a new textual context combine in the literary symbols; it comes from the past and passes on into the future. That is the most important idea in terms of the essence and the dynamics of the literary symbol. This paper analyses the well-known literary figure Hamlet, how Hamlet has become a literary symbol, and how it works as a literary symbol in unexpected cultural relationships. There are very different performances and interpretations throughout the world, but thanks to the archaic aspect we still recognize the old story of Hamlet. The paper concentrates on the examples of Hamlet as a literary or cultural symbol in various cultural and literary texts from Estonian culture. For example, Hamlet as a symbol of new life in Gustav Suits’s poetry or Hamlet as a symbol of the resistance movement in Paul-Eerik Rummo’s poetry, Estonian theatre and choral music. There are several religious myths and symbols embedded in Suits’s poem “Hamleti proloog” (“The Prologue of Hamlet”, 1913). Suits’s poem “Oma saar” (“My Island”) is a literary text which represents the possibility that whole the poem may be a symbol (cf. William Blake’s poem “Sick Rose”). A symbol works in culture as a place where the fundamentally new is created, and it is a process which contains the moment of explosion, as we see in different cultures, including in the Estonian culture’s use of the literary symbol Hamlet or an island. All these symbols are dynamic and it depends on the context and on readers how these literary figures and texts are interpreted.</p> Anneli Mihkelev ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 367 382 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.12 Eccentric Sonnets: Ciaran Carson’s poetics in The Twelfth of Never http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.13 <p>The dialogic nature of language use and the impossibility of an uninfluenced work of literature complicate the notion of poet-as-originator. Yet originality persists as a sought-after quality in literature for both writers and readers. The article focuses on the Northern Irish poet, writer, and translator Ciaran Carson, known for his fascination with language as a medium and his linguistic experimentalism. In 1998, Carson published two collections of poetry: <em>The Alexandrine Plan</em>, translations of sonnets by Mallarmé, Baudelaire and Rimbaud, and <em>The Twelfth of Never</em>, a sequence of his own sonnets – both in rhyming alexandrines, suggestive of simultaneous composition. In its borrowed form, <em>The Twelfth of Never</em> offers a kaleidoscopic montage of motifs and discourses from Irish history, literature, folklore, music, and myth, and flits to and fro between Ireland, France, and Japan, evoking a never-land in which “everything is metaphor and simile”.</p> <p>The article adopts a neuro-anthropological view of human culture as distributed cognition and of art as a way of knowing and self-reflectively putting the world together for both artist and audience. The analysis of Carson’s poems seeks to explicate how recognisable characters, emblems, and rhetoric appear in and are altered by unfamiliar guises and settings; how cultural symbols and literary forms are interrupted in the act of representing; and how the dreamlike quality of the collection depends on the looping and metamorphosing of motifs, images and voices from one poem to another. I suggest that this does not generate a chaotic textual product but amounts to an engaging reflection on the nature of originality in the making and making sense of poetry.</p> Miriam McIlfatrick-Ksenofontov ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 383 398 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.13 Action for Art’s Sake: Rethinking Jean Genet’s Political Turn http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.14 <p>When recapitulating the career of the French writer Jean Genet, critics and biographers have gathered around the idea of a pivotal moment in the 1960s when Genet abandoned literature and turned to political activism. However, Genet continued to write and publish texts, many of which appear to be literary, up to his death in 1986. In this article, Genet’s late works are reviewed and the notion of the turn is questioned. It is argued that the construction of a political turn in Genet’s career unjustifiably reduced the weight of his late works and neglected their pioneering hybridity. Rather than abandoning literature, the late Genet enhanced his aesthetics of subversion by developing a more referential style.</p> Karl Ågerup ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 399 413 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.14 Proust et Hergé : de quelques points communs entre À la recherche du temps perdu et Les Aventures de Tintin http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.15 <p><strong>Proust and Hergé: on some similarities between <em>À la Recherche du temps perdu</em> and <em>Les Aventures de Tintin</em>. Part II.</strong> This article forms the second part of our study, whose first part was published in <em>Interlitteraria</em>’s previous issue. We have already underlined that Proust and Hergé both adopt the principle of the return of the characters, that their works attach a great importance to the imaginary of space and that their characters use language very specifically. We continue this comparison between Proust and Hergé, focusing here on the problem of time and temporality in <em>À la recherche du temps perdu</em> and <em>Les Aventures de Tintin</em>. Time, in Proust’s <em>Recherche</em>, is essentially internal and defined by the juxtaposition of different moments of the narrator’s life, whereas in <em>Tintin</em> temporality is linear and logical on the one hand, and cyclical and immobile on the other hand. Moreover, while the past of Proust’s narrator is fundamental, Tintin seems to have no past. Proust and Hergé, eventually, focus on the problem of lost and regained time, to which they propose two different answers.</p> Samuel Bidaud ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 414 426 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.15 How is Fear Constructed? A Narrative Approach to Social Dread in Literature http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.16 <p>Fear-inducing narratives can be divided into two subtypes of horror and dread. While horror stories concentrate on a concrete visible object such as a monster, in dread narratives the object of fear is abstract or absent altogether. Pure forms of either are rare and most narratives mix both types, usually with dominant in one or the other. An interesting subtype of dread narratives is the narrative of social dread, where the fear is social in nature.</p> <p>One of the few narratologists to study construction of fear in arts, Yvonne Leffler suggests a variety of narrative techniques often used in horror fiction. Adjusting Leffler’s list of techniques for tales of dread instead of horror helps analysing the nature and amount of dread present in a range of different narratives from light reading and literary fiction to non-fiction. A narrative approach helps to reveal how non-fiction texts use similar techniques, and sometimes more extensively than fictional texts. Lionel Shriver’s <em>We Need to Talk About Kevin</em> (2003) is an excellent example of social dread in fiction, where societal failures are a big part of the fears induced, and the questions raised in the narrative are denied definite answers. Kanae Minato’s <em>Confessions</em> (2008) is closer to a thriller, because despite raising issues of societal failure, the work gives conclusive answers to all of the questions raised during the narrative. Although Haruki Murakami’s <em>Underground</em> (1997–98) is a nonfiction compiled from interviews of terror attack survivors, it nevertheless has the hallmarks of a social dread narrative, such as question-answer structure and abstractness of the source of fear. More importantly, Murakami’s work alternates between identifying and anticipatory readings, gives no definitive answers to the questions it poses, and the fear it conveys is social in nature.</p> Kairi Jets ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 427 441 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.16 About the Authors http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2018.23.2.17 <p>About the Authors</p> About Authors ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-01-03 2019-01-03 23 2 442 446 10.12697/IL.2018.23.2.17