Interlitteraria http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL <table style="background-color: #ffffff;" border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td width="25%">Founded in 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> is the peer-reviewed journal of the Chair of Comparative Literature of the University of Tartu and the Estonian Association of Comparative Literature. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publishes original articles in English, French, German and Spanish, in the field of comparative literature.</td> <td width="25%">Revue à comité de lecture fondée en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> est publiée par la chaire de Littérature comparée de l'université de Tartu et l'Association estonienne de littérature comparée. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publie des articles originaux en anglais, en allemand, en français et en espagnol, touchant princi­palement le domaine de la littérature comparée.</td> <td width="25%"><em>Interlitteraria</em> wurde im Jahr 1996 als international begutachtete Zeit­schrift am Lehrstuhls für ver­gleichende Literatur­wissen­schaft der Universität Tartu und der Assoziation der Vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft in Estland gegründet. <em>Interlitteraria</em> ver­öffent­licht englische, franzö­sische, deutsche und spanische Original­artikel, vor­nehmlich aus dem Bereich der vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft.</td> <td width="25%">Fundada en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> es la revista con arbitraje de expertos promovida por la Cátedra de Literatura Comparada de la Universidad de Tartu y la Asocia­ción Estonia de Literatura Com­parada. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publica artículos originales en inglés, francés, alemán y español rela­tivos al campo de la litera­tura com­parada.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> University of Tartu Press en-US Interlitteraria 1406-0701 The contents of <em>Interlitteraria</em> are published under CC BY-NC-ND licence. Editor’s Preface http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.1 <p>Editor’s Preface</p> Katre Talviste Copyright (c) 2021 Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 6 6 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.1 Literature and the Political: Multilingualism and Exophony in Contemporary Baltic and German- Language Culture http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.2 <p>Literature and the Political: Multilingualism and Exophony in Contemporary Baltic and German- Language Culture</p> Marko Pajević Copyright (c) 2021 Author(s) https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 7 10 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.2 Zweisprachigkeit in den Literaturen Estlands http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.3 <p><strong>Bilingualism in the Literatures of Estonia.</strong> In a multilingual cultural space such as the (former and contemporary) Baltic region, bilingualism, both oral and written, has been rather normality than exception. This also finds an expression in the literatures of this region. In the following I will examine the phenomenon of bilingualism and multilingualism in the literatures of Estonia in history and today. First, I will examine the historical forms of bilingualism before the foundation of the Republic of Estonia, against the background of the complicated oral and written language relations throughout history. Then I explore their topicality in the interwar and Soviet periods, and today. I also ask about the motivation of the authors to change or mix languages in their work, whether to reach a wider audience or a new poetic quality. Examples are from the work of Paul Fleming, Reiner Brockmann, Jacob Johann Malm, August Kitzberg, Ivar Ivask, Jaan Kaplinski, Igor Kotjuh, Øyvind Rangøy and Veronika Kivisilla.</p> Liina Lukas Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 11 30 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.3 Heute sprechen. Literatur, Politik und andere Sprachen im Lied (Herder, Alunāns, Barons) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.4 <p><strong>Speaking Today. Literature, Politics and Other Languages in Songs (Herder, Alunāns, Barons).</strong> This article claims that the politico-cultural relevance of literary texts in their respective present consists, among other aspects, of their handling of linguistic diversity. As examples, it presents three 18th and 19th century publications from the German and/or Latvian speaking territories which put (folk) songs into the centre of their rather different politicocultural endeavours. Herder’s collection of folk songs from 1778/79 is read as an attempt at a poetic new beginning that makes use of linguistic diversity qua translation in order to inspire originality in the ‘mother tongue’. The folk songs here serve to synchronise and dynamise linguistic means in the name of a new literature. The <em>Dseesmiņas</em> (‘little songs’), a collection of translations of European poetry into Latvian published by Alunāns in 1856, combines precisely this claim to renewal with an attempt at an anti-colonial synchronisation and modernisation of the Latvian language. Eventually, the six-volume collection of <em>Latwju Dainas</em> (Latvian folk songs), published by Barons around 1900, takes up Herder’s efforts to preserve folk songs. Barons synchronises a dialectally, materially and historically diverse corpus of songs in the name of anti-colonial emancipation. In terms of cultural policy, his project aims to give presence to pre-modern folk life under the conditions of modernity.</p> Till Dembeck Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 31 48 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.4 Vom historischen Erbe zur selbstbestimmten Sprach(en)politik? Literarische Mehrsprachigkeit in Litauen und Lettland http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.5 <p><strong>From Historical Legacy to Self-Determined Language(s) Policy? Literary Multilingualism in Lithuania and Latvia.</strong> The first part of this article looks at Soviet language(s) policy. Two further parts discuss language(s) policy and literary multilingualism in Lithuania and Latvia. The aim is not to provide a differentiated investigation, but to show similarities and differences as well as tendencies in the language(s) politics of the two states from the 19th century to the present in the mirror of literature and to explain them using case studies. In the fourth, concluding part, literary translation is highlighted as one of the formats for implementing multilingualism outside the text with particular focus on the consultative function of the Russian language.</p> Natalia Blum-Barth Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 49 66 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.5 Literatur – grundsätzlich mehrsprachig!? Das politische Potenzial literarischer Mehrsprachigkeit heute, am Beispiel von Barbi Marković’ Superheldinnen http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.6 <p><strong>Literature – Multilingual on Principle?! The Political Potential of Literary Multilingualism Today, using the Example of Barbi Marković’s <em>Superheldinnen</em>.</strong> Research on literary multilingualism is increasingly based on the assumption that literature per se is multilingual. This is true for concepts such as Mikhail Bakhtin’s ‘polyphony’, in which multilingualism occurs in the form of social, regional and historical variants within one major language. Similarly, it applies to Rainier Grutman’s concept of <em>hétérolinguisme</em>, which expands Bakhtin’s notion and includes actual language changes. Recently, Till Dembeck has even called for a philology of multilingualism that would accommodate literary multilingualism in literary criticism. Using Barbi Marković’s novel <em>Superheldinnen</em> (2016) as an example, I discuss this recent development in multilingual literary studies and analyse concepts, forms and function of literary multilingualism. In so doing, I underline the transcending character of literary multilingualism that expresses itself on various levels: linguistically, formally, medially and with respect to culture. Thus, I aim to illustrate the enormous political potential of literary multilingualism. In fact, multilingualism in literature, as opposed to literature in times of a “monolingual paradigm” (Yasemin Yildiz), poses a political challenge on various levels. Concepts, such as national literature, literary field, but also literary studies and their institutions (i.e. language departments) reach their limits if literature is understood as being multilingual. In the second part of this article, I discuss the difficulties that come with literary prizes, literary studies and the access to the literary field. These often express themselves as concrete problems for individuals who, for instance, have difficulties accessing the literary field.</p> Sandra Vlasta Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 67 84 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.6 Die drei Ortssprachen Estlands in Edzard Schapers Roman Der Henker und in seiner estnischen Übersetzung http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.7 <p><strong>The Three Local Languages of Estonia in Edzard Schaper’s novel <em>The Executioner</em> and in its Estonian Translation.</strong> This article analyses the reflection of everyday multilingualism in Edzard Schaper’s novel <em>Der Henker</em> (The Executioner, 1940) and its translation into Estonian by Katrin Kaugver (<em>Timukas</em>, 2002). The novel deals with the 1905 revolution in the current Estonian territory, which was at that time a province of the Russian Empire. The novel was written shortly before the outbreak of World War II and translated into Estonian 60 years later after the end of the Soviet era. The complexity and the fluctuation of the contextual elements between the storyline of the novel, the time of its writing and the time of the translation make the novel a rewarding object of research into settings of multilingualism in everyday life. The article focuses on the manifest and latent forms of multilingualism, on the functions of the local languages, as well as on the question whether it helps to analyse language use in real life situations. It also looks at how local multilingualism, dominated by three local languages – German, Russian and Estonian – has been translated from one local language (German) into another local language (Estonian). The examples chosen in the article highlight some regularities in the use of the local and other languages, and offer a cultural-historical and socio-political interpretation of the use of multilingualism.</p> Marin Jänes Maris Saagpakk Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 85 104 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.7 Verflochtene Sprachen und Kulturen: Gohar Markosjan-Käspers Romane als Beispiele des mehrsprachigen Schreibens http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.8 <p><strong>Intertwined Languages and Cultures: Gohar Markosjan-Käsper’s Novels as Examples of Multilingual Writing.</strong> The present article analyses the phenomenon of multilingualism in the novels of Gohar Markosjan-Käsper (1949–2015) and discusses her life and work in the socio-political context of the former Soviet Union (in relation to language and cultural politics). Markosjan-Käsper was an Armenian-born writer who spent most of her life in Estonia and wrote her books in Russian. Accordingly, her works originated in a contact zone of different languages and cultures. This article highlights her novels <em>Helena</em> and <em>Penelopa</em> as examples of transcultural writing and analyses the manifestations and functions of multilingualism in these works. The study shows that a number of topics and motifs that are present in German-language transcultural literature also appear in Markosjan-Käsper’s novels (for example cultural comparison, self-discovery in a foreign culture). The multilingualism can be seen in these novels both explicitly and implicitly: in addition to Russian, other languages such as Armenian, Estonian, English, and Latin are used, with numerous indirect references to these languages. Furthermore, various references to world-famous novels such as <em>Ulysses</em> by James Joyce and <em>Master and Margarita</em> by Michail Bulgakov are analysed.</p> Aigi Heero Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 105 121 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.8 Dinner with Mock Faustus: Multilingual Cuisine Cooks the Identity http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.9 <p>Phenomena related to gastronomy form an important part of both individual and collective identities. The gastronomical dimensions of literature can often be perceived as a commentary on the political, historical and societal, going beyond just the food. As cuisines are becoming more mixed globally, languages describing gastronomical scenes in literature are also becoming more multilingual.</p> <p>The novel <em>Mock Faustus</em> (1973), by the Latvian writer Marģers Zariņš, fuses the gastronomical and the multilingual to the extreme, producing a utopian linguistic hybrid of the Latvian language to which a mix of foreign languages and countless intertextual references are added. This is achieved by the gastronomical vocabulary and imagery omnipresent in the narrative of writing a fictional cookbook. The depiction of gastronomical phenomena allows Zariņš to indirectly comment on Latvian history from the 1930s to 1945 and the confused and fragmented identities of these times.</p> Mārtiņš Laizāns Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 122 136 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.9 Sprachwechsel in der neuesten litauischen Migrations- und Mobilitätsliteratur http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.10 <p><strong>Language Change in the Most Recent Lithuanian Literature of Migration and Mobility.</strong> When discussing literary multilingualism within the Lithuanian literary scene, researchers usually refer to different groups of authors. Some were born and socialised abroad immediately after the Second World War, some left Lithuania after 1990, but producing their texts in different linguistic contexts all of them write consistently in one language, English or Lithuanian. In the most recent Lithuanian migration and mobility literature, however, one can observe examples of intra-textual bilingualism or multilingualism, which illustrate the integration problems of Lithuanian (labour) migrants into foreign societies on the one hand and the development of multiple global identities on the other. The paper examines these spreading tendencies focusing on the exemplary novel <em>Stasys Šaltoka</em> (2017) by Gabija Grušaitė and discussing the structure and functions of the intra-textual code-switching. The creative use of language directed against conventional linguistic purism shows that the young generation of Lithuanian authors tends to break language and cultural borders. The authors Unė Kaunaitė, Gabija Grušaitė and others show that the playful use of multilingualism can be subversive, ironic, but at the same time can highlight the problems of language dominance and thus political, social and cultural exclusion, express group mentality, identity changes, etc. The way that Lithuanian literature deals with multilingualism, expressed explicitly or implicitly, reveals the extent to which certain literary texts can be described as transcultural, in line with the current tone of European and global migration and mobility literature.</p> Rūta Eidukevičienė Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 137 154 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.10 „Die Sprache hat also ihren Ort.“ Zur Mehrsprachigkeit von Maja Haderlaps Roman Engel des Vergessens http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.11 <p><strong>“Die Sprache hat also ihren Ort.” On Multilingualism in Maja Haderlap’s Novel <em>Engel des Vergessens</em>.</strong> Based on philological research on multilingualism and with regard to Maja Haderlap’s literary work in general this article deals with the specific form of multilingualism that can be observed in her novel <em>Engel des Vergessens</em> (2011). Maja Haderlap, born 1961 in Bad Eisenkappel/Železna Kapla, Carinthia (region in southern Austria), grew up with two languages, Slovenian and German. The authors of the article pursue the question to what degree her literary work and especially her novel can be characterised as multilingual and what kind of poetic multilingualism can be found there. They focus on the novel’s narrative and on the use of language(s), with a short historical excursus on the Slovenian minority in Carinthia as well as the difficult memory politics in Austria. Maja Haderlap not only writes about the territorial and historical preconditions of multilingualism in Carinthia but also inscribes these conditions in the text itself, characterising both the narrative and the language. Although the novel is the result of a shift from Slovenian to German, its multilingualism can be analysed on different levels: on the level of the relationship between <em>discours</em> and <em>histoire</em> – to refer to Genette’s narratological terms –, on the level of cultural codes of the Slovenian language within the novel’s German text, and in general with regard to the fact, that the text is written with the modes of expression of Slovenian and German or with the help of the ‘no man’s land’ between the languages. One can therefore – with respect to the terms of philological research – find both obvious and latent multilingualism and, thirdly, one can observe <em>Mehr-Sprachlichkeit</em>, a term that has been defined by Silke Pasewalck in previous articles.</p> Dieter Neidlinger Silke Pasewalck Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 155 172 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.11 Sprachabenteuer: Yoko Tawadas exophone Erkundungen des Deutschen http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.12 <p><strong>Adventures in Language: Yoko Tawada’s Exophonic Explorations of German.</strong> Yoko Tawada (1960) is for good reason one of the prime examples for contemporary German exophonic literature. She is a very successful writer in Japanese and in German and provides in her Germanophone writings an ethnography of the German <em>worldview</em>, as Wilhelm von Humboldt famously called languages, or of the German language-mindset. This article focuses on her 2010 poetry volume <em>Abenteuer der deutschen Grammatik</em> (‘Adventures of German Grammar’) to demonstrate how exophonia can allow us to develop an acute awareness of the ways in which language structures shape our patterns of thinking. Coming from a very differently organised language, Japanese, Tawada comments in playful ways on the implications of German, and compares it translinguistically with Japanese. Looking at German from an outside position enables her to be very creative and to make Germans discover their language with new eyes. Translingual writing, even though also present in a real mixing of languages in Tawada, appears here as a way to understand how much our ideas are shaped by our linguistic structures, and that there are alternative worldviews. It thus contributes greatly to a relativisation of one’s own perspective and helps to open up to difference and creativity.</p> Marko Pajević Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 173 188 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.12 Curriculare Mehrsprachigkeit am Beispiel des Deutschen in Estland http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.13 <p><strong>Curricular Multilingualism using the Example of German in Estonia.</strong> In Estonia, as everywhere in Europe, multilingualism and plurilingual competence are widely discussed topics. The present article looks at curricular multilingualism in Estonia and highlights the effect of political changes on language curricula at school and on learning multiple languages. The article shows how German as the first foreign language can contribute to plurilingualism.</p> Merje Miliste Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 189 197 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.13 Mehrsprachigkeit in der Bildung in Deutschland – eine Diskursanalyse http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.14 <p><strong>Multilingualism in Education in Germany – a Discourse Analysis.</strong> In the Republic of Germany, language acquisition for children with a mother tongue other than German has been a widely discussed topic in education science as well as in public and political discourse over the last decades. Annual studies on preschool and primary education point to the ongoing disadvantage – or even discrimination – suffered by multilingual children in the German education system. Given Germany’s history as a country of immigration, and in light of recent public discussions on the increased immigration of refugees, the question of the problematic’s socio-political background arises. This leads to the issue of linguistic concepts among society and their influence on domestic language policies. This article presents analysis of discourse around languagepolitical concepts and practices among stakeholders in language promotion in the state of North-Rhine Westphalia. Five semi-structured interviews with state employees were analysed following a discourse analytical approach. The analysis, deploying frameworks from the field of Critical Discourse Analysis, focused on the discursive practice of legitimation in the evaluation of multilingualism. Multilingualism as a phenomenon in society appeared to be evaluated according to differing standards (for example correctness or properness) depending on the language. As for evaluation, the analysis indicated an additional dimension in discourse which assigns different groups of speakers a belonging to particular languages. All in all, the collected data pointed to a diverse and ever-changing discourse in the field of language promotion in North-Rhine Westphalia. The presented analysis aims to stimulate a debate and suggests some directions for future research.</p> Farin Engels Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 198 216 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.14 Das internationale Autorenliedfestival „Lehesaju Muusika“ in Tartu als spezifische Form der Kulturvermittlung und Analyseobjekt für Mehrsprachigkeitsforschung http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.15 <p><strong>The Lehesaju Muusika International Music and Poetry Festival in Tartu as a Specific Form of Cultural Mediation and Object of Analysis for Research on Multilingualism.</strong> The paper focuses on the multilingual discourse of the Lehesaju Muusika international music and poetry festival, which takes place annually in Tartu, Estonia. Being an international cultural event organised by ethnic minorities, Lehesaju Muusika represents a unique source of empirical data for research on multilingualism. The festival attracts songwriters and performers of the so-called ‘author song’ or ‘bard song’ not only from Estonia, but also from all over the world. The key feature of this genre is the dominance of the text over the music.</p> <p>The spatial organisation of a concert hall represents a specific power constellation within a microsocial structure. Performing artists have the power to decide in which language they perform and address the multilingual audience, while the audience itself has an indirect effect on this decision. The artist’s dialogue with the audience represents a peculiar discursive entity within the discourse of the festival. Code-switching appears to be one of the inherent characteristics of this discursive entity.</p> <p>The present paper summarises some key features of international music and poetry festivals as multilingual cultural events, focusing on the discourse of the Lehesaju Muusika festival. It offers a brief analysis of the audience’s language profile based on the results of a microsociological case study carried out during the latest festival, in 2019. To illustrate the complexity of the multilingual communication during the festival, three situations of code-switching during the performance of an Estonian native speaker in front of the multilingual audience are described and analysed.</p> Anastasia Shakhova Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 217 234 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.15 Train of Language, Train of Thought: Notes on an Exophonic Anomaly http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.16 <p>The creation of poetry with literary value in a non-native language often invites questions about how this is possible to achieve. This question, however, can be turned around: is there something in being an exophonic poet that, rather than being an obstacle, could make the development and maturing of a poetic language possible? Adam Zagajewski writes that ardor, not irony, can be primary building blocks, and about the ideal of being ‘in between’. Ben Lerner writes about the sources of Hatred of Poetry and sees poetry as a potential that can never be completely realised. Being between languages causes the reality of language as one of many possibilities to be always present. The result can be construed as a poetic of time and light, but also of a reconciliation at depth warranted by the poetic ethos. Language becomes aware of itself, its autonomy and inherent lack of objectivity, and this becomes less naive and prone to cliches, but this awareness need not spiral into self-dissolving irony. Rather, it may seek to reconcile the possible ways of seeing the world into a new sense of sincerity. It inspires creative and playful use of language, gives heightened awareness of possible metaphors even where the sense of the transferred image is absent within the framework of one language. This has the potential to change perception of language and reality in a way that makes poetry almost possible.</p> Øyvind Rangøy Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 235 248 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.16 A Rhapsody in Pink: Reflections on Seducing Nature through World Philosophies by way of James Joyce’s Ulysses http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.17 <p>Through a reflection on color in the natural world by way of James Joyce’s <em>Ulysses</em>, this paper is an ebullient, rhapsodic, and free-flowing associative meditation on the embodied place of humans in nature. Various sources are employed through a variety of philosophic literature: ancient Western, such as Heraclitus, Parmenides, Anaximander, and Plato; the Continental philosophical tradition, such as Nietzsche, Heidegger, Husserl, and Merleau-Ponty; and Asian sources, especially Buddhism (Dōgen and Thich Nat Hanh) and Daoism (Laozi and Zhuangzi). The meditation metaphorically opens with an encounter of the color pink, which is allegorically represented as our entry into the natural world, and how this color has been neutralized through its human intensification in the color red, which in its attempt to exaggerate pink and the natural accomplishes the opposite – the covering up the self-same reality of the world and the human place in the world. The liberation of the feminine by way of Joyce’s character Molly Bloom is heralded as a call to turn again to nature’s world as the only means of human redemption. This turn, or return, is a returning to the natural order by means of learning afresh how to seduce nature to love us as a species again; and in turn, nature holds out an existential challenge to our species – how to say yes, again and again, to who and what we truly are. And the what and who we are is to be in and a part of nature once again.</p> David Jones Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 249 264 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.17 A. H. Tammsaare’s Epic Musicality http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.18 <p>A. H. Tammsaare was drawn to the musical tonality of prose. Importantly though, he did not wholeheartedly embrace sound patterning as a mode of writing. Rather, he preferred a semantic widening of ordinary language within a comprehensively holistic “spherical music”. In his novels, we can detect a deliberate use of rhythmic motion in sentences. This is evident primarily in the wealth of lexical and syntactic repetitions resulting in a parallelism of patterns. An obvious, although discreet, rhythmic design emerges in the thesisantithesis- synthesis parataxis the core words of which are the adversative and coordinating conjunctions <em>aga</em> (‘but’), and integrative <em>ometi</em> (‘yet’, ‘indeed’). The frequency with which these bound conjunctions occur in Tammsaare’s work surpasses that of ordinary speech by about four times, and it is twice as high as the statistical mean for literary texts. One might call this expressive of an epic <em>but</em>-mantra, a prose-poetic <em>but</em>-meter, or a narrative polysyndeton, and, from a philosophical point of view, a <em>but</em>-dialectic. Whenever a reader fails to appreciate Tammsaare’s underlying tone and does not discern the emotional flow of longing scepticism that issues from his dyadic-triadic chains, this pervasive, yet inconspicuously arguing, textual mode may seem unduly pretentious. Indeed, there is nothing to prevent a prose text from featuring a poetic style that is rooted in a poetry-like, paradigmatic parallelism as the poetic principle of formal and semantic equivalence.</p> Arne Merilai Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 265 280 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.18 Putting “New Wine in Old Bottles”: Subversion of the Symbolic http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.19 <p>Angela Carter’s <em>The Magic Toyshop</em> tells the story of the claustrophobic lives of six characters who find themselves stuck in the house of Uncle Philip, who demands absolute submission from them and who isolates them from the wider world. Uncle Philip acts like the Freudian Primordial Father who feels free to act in any way he likes disregarding any restrictions. By forcing the household members to work in his toyshop all day, he creates a solipsistic universe, which is cut off from the network of the symbolic in Lacanian terms. In this world, their living practice deviates from the norms of traditional discourse as there is incest between the siblings, or as they heavily engage in pre-or extra-linguistic representation of reality such as drawing, dancing, making music and toys. Aunt Margaret becomes dumb on her wedding night, or Uncle Philip does not send the siblings to school, which, in Lacanian terms, is a codifying space of the Law. For these reasons, Uncle Philip’s house embodies the heterogeneity of the imaginary residues rather than submission to the organising principles of the symbolic. Theirs becomes an alternative site of being to the one outside. This essay aims to explore the psychodynamics of the characters’ relations to one another, the unconventional intrasubjectivity created between them in this unconventional space and the implications of imaginary residues in their living practice using Lacanian ideas as my conceptual backcloth.</p> Nurten Birlik Merve Günday Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 281 294 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.19 Narrative Complexity and the Case of Pfitz: An Update for the ‘Systems Novel’ http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.20 <p>Recent narrative studies of complexity theory have shown that so-called ‘emergent complexity’ does not accommodate to narrative form. Complexity theory is an interdisciplinary field of study that researches how large-scale phenomena emerge from simple components without the guidance of a plan or a controlling agent. Emergence happens by chance, through decentralised interactions at lower levels. Its lack of clear causal chains makes the process difficult to conceptualise in narrative so this article turns to a fictional narrative to demonstrate how complexity theory has trickled down into contemporary literature: the historical novel <em>Pfitz</em> (1995) by Scottish novelist and theoretical physicist Andrew Crumey. While there have been a spate of publications on complex narratives in film studies, literature studies has lagged behind. As a counter, the article revives Tom LeClair’s notion of the systems novel (1987, 1989) as one useful model for thinking about narrative complexity in prose fiction. I first turn to LeClair’s definition of the systems novel and bring it up to date with recent discussions of complexity theory, then turn to Crumey’s novel to illustrate how <em>Pfitz</em> imitates the logic of complex systems through its looping structure, its interconnectedness, and its thematic insistence on chance and necessity.</p> Toon Staes Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 295 308 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.20 Trauma, Narrative and History: Representation of Traumatic Experience in the Works of Algirdas Landsbergis http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.21 <p>The twentieth century witnessed an abundant number of traumatic events related to dark history. Trauma caused by war, occupation, exile, repression, gave rise to migration or mass murder. To rely upon Cathy Caruth (1996: 3), the concept of trauma is understood as a physical wound; however, subsequently in medicine and the literature of psychiatry, especially in Freud’s works, the concept of trauma came to be understood as a psychological wound. In addition, trauma is not only a disturbing or stressful experience that affects an individual physically or psychologically, it may also be based on other factors created by society.</p> <p>Over time the field of trauma in various contexts expanded so that today it is widely used in sociology when analysing historical and cultural events. Cultural traumatic memory is mirrored in trauma fiction that conveys the experience of loss and suffering, there is a space for memories, introspection, recollections, flashbacks and awful remembrances that are colored by pain. Apart from individual, event-based trauma, there is another category of trauma variously called cultural or historical trauma, which affects groups of people.</p> <p>Numerous studies have been conducted on the latter topic, however, trauma and its expression in Lithuanian literature has not yet been sufficiently documented.</p> <p>The aim of this study is to discuss the concepts of cultural and historical trauma and the way trauma is reflected in Algirdas Jeronimas Landsbergis’ works. The authors of the study claim that Landsbergis – one of many Lithuanian writers-in-exile – wrote texts that fill a cultural vacuum and invite a re-discussion of what was most painful in the past.</p> Gabija Bankauskaitė Loreta Huber Copyright (c) 2021 Authors https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 309 323 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.21 Post-modern-east ou comment peut-on être « post-moderniste sans post-modernité » et sans Lyotard ? http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.22 <p><strong>The Post-Modern East, or How Can We Be ‘Post-Modern without Postmodernity’ and without Lyotard?</strong> Despite the idea of the universality of ‘postmodernism’ as a new stage in the Western World, it is now clear that the term was coined, launched, adopted or rejected differently in different places, along local historical lines. Hence, we have not only an American and a European postmodernism, but also an East European postmodernism, what we shall call the Post-Modern East. We delineate its characteristics based on a survey that looked at how East European cultures adopted and discussed postmodernism around the moment that their socialist regimes were collapsing. We focus the analysis on a particular but synthetising version of the ‘postmodern’, specifically that of Lyotard. We hold that Lyotard is one of the few intellectuals who succeeded in thinking of politics, sociology, epistemology and aesthetics as tying together to form ‘postmodernity’; and that a few European intellectuals were ready to think of ‘postmodernity’ an epistemic challenge, beyond the distinction between soft and hard sciences. <em>A fortiori</em>, Eastern European cultures seized ‘postmodernism’ as an American fetish and identified the breakdown of totalitarianism as the achievement of happy ‘postmodernisation’. Thirty years later, these countries have realised that by embracing a certain version of ‘postmodern’, as they had done by the end of the 1980s, was generally a mimetic utopian gesture that needs revaluation.</p> Alexandru Matei Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 324 339 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.22 Nachruf auf Wladimir Krysinski http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.23 <p>Nachruf auf Wladimir Krysinski</p> Dorothea Scholl Copyright (c) 2021 Author https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 340 341 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.23 About the Authors http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/IL/article/view/IL.2021.26.1.24 <p>About the Authors</p> About Authors Copyright (c) 2021 Interlitteraria https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-08-31 2021-08-31 26 1 342 348 10.12697/IL.2021.26.1.24