Interlitteraria <table style="background-color: #ffffff;" border="0" cellspacing="3" cellpadding="3"> <tbody> <tr valign="top"> <td width="25%">Founded in 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> is the peer-reviewed journal of the Chair of Comparative Literature of the University of Tartu and the Estonian Association of Comparative Literature. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publishes original articles in English, French, German and Spanish, in the field of comparative literature.</td> <td width="25%">Revue à comité de lecture fondée en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> est publiée par la chaire de Littérature comparée de l'université de Tartu et l'Association estonienne de littérature comparée. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publie des articles originaux en anglais, en allemand, en français et en espagnol, touchant princi­palement le domaine de la littérature comparée.</td> <td width="25%"><em>Interlitteraria</em> wurde im Jahr 1996 als international begutachtete Zeit­schrift am Lehrstuhls für ver­gleichende Literatur­wissen­schaft der Universität Tartu und der Assoziation der Vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft in Estland gegründet. <em>Interlitteraria</em> ver­öffent­licht englische, franzö­sische, deutsche und spanische Original­artikel, vor­nehmlich aus dem Bereich der vergleichenden Literatur­wissen­schaft.</td> <td width="25%">Fundada en 1996, <em>Interlitteraria</em> es la revista con arbitraje de expertos promovida por la Cátedra de Literatura Comparada de la Universidad de Tartu y la Asocia­ción Estonia de Literatura Com­parada. <em>Interlitteraria</em> publica artículos originales en inglés, francés, alemán y español rela­tivos al campo de la litera­tura com­parada.</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> University of Tartu Press en-US Interlitteraria 1406-0701 The contents of <em>Interlitteraria</em> are published under CC BY-NC-ND licence. Editor's Preface <p>Editor's Preface</p> Katre Talviste Copyright (c) 2020 Interlitteraria 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 292 292 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.1 Literary Theory as a Corrective in National Cultures <p>Literary Theory as a Corrective in National Cultures</p> Harvey Lee Hix Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 293 297 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.2 L’essence éthique du dialogue culturel <p><em><strong>The ethical essence of cultural dialogue.</strong></em> The definition of comparative literary studies in Slovakia. Historical poetics in the works of D. Ďurišin, focused on the typological essence of literary phenomena on the basis of interrelating theoretical and developmental aspects of national literature. The differences of Slovak methodology from Western positivist models of the study of interliterariness. Parallel existence of the principles of literary history and criticism in the reception analyses of Russian, German and French literatures by older Slovak scholars. The onset of realism in Slovak literature at the end of the 19th century (S. Hurban Vajanský). The important contribution of J. Felix’s critical reflection of universalist tendencies in European and esp. modern French writing. The complexity of organically incorporating these impulses into the context of Slovak literature as a result of the provincial character of a “small” nation. The wealth of translations from contemporary world literatures and its positive impact on the work of many Slovak writers in spite of the discontinuity of research in this area after 1989. Urgent need to return to similar forms of literary-cultural reflection and self-reflection through reviving an intensive philological, linguistic, theoretical-critical and historical study at our universities.</p> Ladislav Franek Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 298 309 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.3 Current Status and Contemporary Academic Perspectives of Comparative Literature in Slovakia <p>The paper seeks to offer an expert examination and brief overview of the development of Literary Comparison as a separate scientific discipline in the Slovak Republic, to present its current status and to consider the possibilities for its further realization in the future. The beginnings of Literary Comparison understood as a methodological paradigm in Slovakia can be traced back to the early works of Mikuláš Bakoš from the early second half of the twentieth century, whose primary researches are in the domain of historical poetics, formalism and structuralism. Decades later, the well-known Slovak theorist Dionýz Ďurišin reflects, and at the same time creatively shapes the postulates of his papers by building on his already well-known theory of special inter-literary communities, inter-literary centers and of characteristics of the inter-literary process. Drawing on national literature as a concept, Dionýz Ďurišin develops a whole theoretical model of rethinking world literature, and his terminological categories also inspire the academic sculptor Ludwig Korkoš, who “revives” them in an artistic way in the nineties of the 20th century. Today, in the Slovak Republic there is a Center for Research on the Heritage of Dionýz Ďurišin at the Faculty of Pedagogy at Comenius University Bratislava under the leadership of prof. Maria Bátorová; while the subject of Literary Comparatics is taught as a compulsory subject at the Faculty of Arts at the same University in Bratislava under the guidance of prof. Zvonko Taneski, and also an elective at the Universities “Constantine the Philosopher” in Nitra, “Matej Bel” in Banska Bystrica and “Pavol Jozef Šafárik” in Prešov. In 2015, the Czech-Slovak Association for Comparative Literature was formed, which recently became a full member of the International Association for Comparative Literature AILC / ICLA. The Slovak headquarters of the Association are at the Institute of World Literature at the Slovak Academy of Sciences, and the president of the Slovak section of the same Association is prof. Róbert Gáfrik. The Association organizes domestic scientific conferences and congresses and regularly participates in appropriate scientific symposia abroad. In the last decade new representative collections have been published devoted to literary comparison in several academic centers in Slovakia. A good platform for presenting and publishing new posters from comparative literary science has become the prestigious scientific journal World Literature Studies, which is periodically published by the Institute of World Literature in Bratislava, and its status and prospects are growing as the magazine is registered, i.e. indexed in several important world scientific databases.</p> Zvonko Taneski Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 310 318 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.4 Genre Studies in Russian Literary Research: Achievements and Challenges <p>Genre has been one of the key categories for Russian literary studies ever since the late nineteenth century, creating a long tradition of artistic, critical and scientific interpretation. The present paper aims to outline major findings of Russian scholars in the field of genre studies and to account for current pitfalls, suggesting a solution. Russian scholars have contributed noticeably to both constructing the theory of genre in general and establishing the laws and genesis of many separate genres. Historical poetics, the Russian Formalists, Bakhtin’s school and structuralism worked out the principles of generic evolution and explained the nature of the genre category. Still, currently Russian genology faces a number of challenges, among which is the inability to work out a universal approach to genre nomination and attribution, which causes inconsistent and unverified results. When it comes to describing new genres, most troubling is the choice of deductive method in genre analysis and a narrow specialist approach to each genre leading to inconclusive or biased results. The paper suggests that these challenges can be overcome by turning to the heritage of the classical Russian literary science and taking advantage of comparative and inductive methods proponed by it.</p> Natalia Nikitina Natalia Tuliakova Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 319 331 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.5 The Relevance of the Reading Process in the Context of Estonian Literary Criticism <p>The importance of the reading experience has been accepted in literary studies ever since the advent of reading-response theories in the 1970s-1980s. Several notable scholars have stressed that meaning is created through the interaction between reader and text, highlighting the significance of the reader. Even though the main principles of reader-response have become commonplace, for some time, reading theories remained relatively stagnant. In the 2000s, however, the topic of reading was rediscovered as new perspectives for examining the reading experience and the reader’s relationship with the text were offered. These new theories shed new light on the figure of the reader and on the work that goes into the process of reading. While the question of the experience of reading has been under discussion in the Anglo-American context, it has never been widely discussed in Estonia. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of well-known reader-response theories that became popular in the 1970s. In addition, examples of a renewed interest in reader-response theories in recent decades are presented. Finally, the article will also examine how Estonian-language literary criticism has engaged with reader-response theories.</p> Susanna Soosaar Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 332 347 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.6 Albanian Literature in Its Critical Evaluation Process. Case Study: Periodicals <p>The aim of this article is to analyze the process of evaluation of Albanian literature in literary periodicals (print or online). The research aims to explain the nature of criticism of Albanian literature in accordance with three main periods of Albanian literary history (1920–1944; 1945–1990; 1991–present). The paper has a short chronological presentation of the main periodicals which deal with literature. It also deals with the reception of Albanian literature in old and new periodicals. Some of the most important research questions of this paper are: Is there a continuation in the critical approaches to Albanian literature from the beginning to the present? Do critics have a ‘critical’ interaction between them while they express their evaluation regarding literature? Who are the critics? Which is the core role of certain critics and periodicals? The methodology used in this paper embraces a historical, analytical, statistical and interpretative approach. The paper will be developed in two parallel sections. The first one will elaborate quantitatively official data related to the number of periodicals which deal with the evaluation of literature in its theoretical and critical aspects and the other section will describe, analyze and interpret the data. The research results tend to prove that the process of critical evaluation of Albanian literature has experienced similar characteristics with Albanian literature itself. The critical reflection or criticism has turned out to be a refracting process. The critical evaluations are marred occasionally by low levels of professionalism or political interference.</p> Marisa Kërbizi Edlira Macaj Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 348 358 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.7 Argentine Literature as Part of the Latin-American: Debates, Characteristics and Dialogues <p>The article will suggest that the texts and ways of reaching some materials and perspectives in Argentina, remains at a national level. It is important to notice that in order to read criticism and theory regarding Latin American literature, Spanish from Río de la Plata separates at some point the fields. In that regard, one of the greatest assets and achievements of Argentinian literary research concerns the relationship between politics and fiction. In connection with this it might be asked how we can think of Argentinian literature without linking it to the social discourse? How can we think of the comparative field of Latin-American and Argentinian literature as one academic area of studies? In our view, comparatism seems to be one of the loneliest areas of studies in terms of the fields of theory, fiction and criticism. We thus suggest that in Argentina, literary research and criticism in general are strictly concerned with only one option: the national culture. Thus, exclusively, western theoretical frames are chosen to read literature and comparative perspectives are mostly applied to European studies. That is why I insist on the fact that comparative literary research is not represented institutionally at all.</p> Lucía Caminada Rossetti Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 359 366 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.8 Non-Centricity and Apathy: An Introduction to Hong Kong Literature <p>Hong Kong literature, with particular historical and social factors, can be regarded as a non-centric literary form. While the majority of Hong Kong people speaks Cantonese as their mother tongue, they are required to write in Mandarin. Additionally, Hong Kong literature struggles to attract attention from an apathetic audience, to produce local writers, and to resonate with foreign readers. As serious literature continues to lose its purchase, more and more writers attempt to break out from this predicament and inject new blood into this fading industry. Efforts include circumventing traditional constraints and incorporating more colloquial Cantonese into various publications, as well as a mushrooming of internet novels. Unfortunately, Chinese education remains rigid and inflexible, hindering students’ ability to use writing as a creative outlet. Literature is also heavily commodified. In light of this, I suggest that reading be encouraged and literature be de-commodified. Hong Kong literature, with its distinctive features and strengths, have the potential to thrive. All it needs is sufficient support from the government, the private sector and the general public.</p> Kai Yung Karen Lee Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 367 378 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.9 Understanding Currents and Theories in Indian and African Postcolonial Literature: Themes, Tropes and Discourse in the Wider Context of Postcolonialism <p>The postcolonial narratives we see today are a study in contrast and tell a different tale from their colonial predecessors as minorities and individuals finally have found the voice and position to tell their stories. Histories written about our culture and societies have now found a new purpose and voice. The stories we have passed down from generation to generation through both oral and written histories, continue to morph and change with the tide of time as they re-centre our cultural narratives and shared experiences. As a result, the study of diaspora and transnationalism have altered the way in which we view identity in different forms of multimedia and literature. In this paper, the primary question which will be examined is, how and to what extent does Indian post-colonial literature figure in the formation of identity in contemporary art and literature in the context of ongoing postcolonial ideas and currents? by means of famous and notable postcolonial literary works and theories of Indian authors and theoreticians, with a special focus on the question and notion of identity. This paper works on drawing parallels between themes in Indian and African postcolonial literary works, especially themes such as power, hegemony, east meets west, among others. In this paper, European transnationalism will also be analysed as a case study to better understand postcolonialism in different contexts. The paper will seek to explore some of the gaps in the study of diasporic identity and postcolonial studies and explore some of the changes and key milestones in the evolution of the discourse over the decades.</p> Shivani Ekkanath Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 379 393 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.10 History in Contemporary Lithuanian Literature <p>The purpose of this article is to show the evolution of the historical novel that began in the era of independence, to highlight the peculiarities of male and female historical narratives, and to capture critical reactions and tendencies of assessment of that kind of novel. At the beginning of independence, the poetic prose of a minimal story was established in Lithuanian literature, which was created by the most prominent Lithuanian prose writers, and the historical novel made its debut as a complex experience of poetic narration. Poetry and prose focused on archetypal narratives, national consciousness and ethnic semantics and were characterized by an abundance of associations, but not by a clear storyline. Among common variations of the male historical novel, we can observe historical novels written by women, which have won both literary awards and readers’ approval.</p> Audinga Peluritytė Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 394 407 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.11 “The Scar Will Always Be There”: The Post-Soviet Melancholia in Gundega Repše’s Novel 'Conjuring Iron' <p>The article discusses the cultural and narratological aspects of melancholic understanding of history in postmodern Latvian fiction. The first part of the study offers a brief overview of Latvian fiction of the 1990s and early 2000s with a special attention to the interrelated questions of history, trauma, and representation. The second part shifts from cultural contextualization to defining melancholic temporality and highlighting narrative ways of expressing it in fiction which addresses trauma, collective and individual, from a posttraumatic place in time. The third part analyzes the indirect and disjointed engagement with Soviet occupation in Gundega Repše’s novel <em>Conjuring Iron</em> (2011). This is done by focusing on the poetics of unnarrated as a sign of prolonged mourning and by thinking about the epistemology of a fragment.</p> Artis Ostups Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 408 421 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.12 Pour une théorie périphérique et/ou amoureuse : lectures d’Agamben, Derrida, Rancière <p><em><strong>For a Peripheral Theory in Love: Reading Agamben, Derrida, Rancière.</strong></em> The introduction of Giorgio Agamben’s book entitled <em>Stanzas, Word and Phantasm in Western Culture</em> is about the relationship of philosophy and poetry to knowledge in Western culture. The <em>stanza</em> is “the essential nucleus” of Tuscan poetry in the thirteenth century. It is actually an invention of Tuscan poets who call <em>stanzas</em> the parts that compose every <em>canzone</em>. <em>Stanza</em> is a word for chamber in Tuscan dialect as well as in Italian. Agamben points out that what makes possible its poetical existence is the fact that a <em>stanza</em> is a <em>topos outopos</em>, a <em>topos</em> which contains its own negation: it is the reality of unreality. Agamben’s thesis is that Western culture has forgotten the unitary status the Western word had until the thirteenth century. The thirteenth century could still conceive poetic activity as a philosophical one and then Western culture has known a separation between two poles that define knowledge and word. This paper aims to investigate the relationship between knowledge and words in Derrida, Rancière and Agamben.</p> Francesca Manzari Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 422 434 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.13 Paris, « un lieu centre de tous les centres ». Est-ce toujours d’actualité ? <p><em><strong>Paris, “The Centre of All Centres”. Is It Still the Case?</strong></em> In <em>La République Mondiale des Lettres</em> published in 1999 and 2008, Ms. Casanova wrote: “<em>Paris is the Greenwich meridian for literature</em>” for the 19th and 20th centuries. Writers and artists have come to the city in the past because it was extremely attractive for creative and economic reasons. But at the beginning of the 21st century, with the rise of the New Media for writing, publishing and diffusing, is it correct to say that Paris is still supreme? Is location more important than the time devoted to writing and reading?</p> <p>The claims on which Ms. Casanova builds her assertions are not supported by the facts of recent history and geography. She refers to “<em>La belle santé économique et la liberté</em>” in Paris but she forgot to mention why artists came from central Europe. It was just because the life was cheaper in Paris than in Berlin, as Walter Benjamin observed in 1926. She notes that Paris was the world centre for high fashion and that writers came together there to be inspired by the place and each other. But these things are no longer true: Paris is one of the most unaffordable cities in the world. Fashion in clothes is determined in many centres, with fashion weeks held in New York, Milan and China; aesthetics no longer depend on a single country. Literary creativity has spread across many continents and the internet and social media provide access to millions of people around the globe. Globalisation has unified the world, note Jean-Philippe Toussaint and Sylvain Tesson, and brought the standardization of cultures.</p> <p>There is also the matter of the dominant language today. The French language has not changed since Ms. Casanova was doing her research, but French writers now dream of being translated into English to reach the largest audience around the world. Publishers also favour English to make the most profit because literature and art are now worldwide commodities. Writers and researchers use the Internet, which connects them with documents, libraries and people all over the world. Newspapers such as <em>Le Monde</em> and <em>Le Figaro</em> in France provide literary reviews from around the world; for example, <em>Histoire de la Traduction Littéraire en Europe Médiane</em>, compiled by Antoine Chalvin, Marie Vrinat-Nikolov, Jean-Léon Muller and Katre Talviste, was written up in <em>Cahiers Littéraires du Monde</em>. What about the readership? If publishing and merchandizing are accelerating and globalizing because of how the Internet changes time and distance, the writer still has to follow the rhythm of the subject.</p> Anne-Marie Le Baillif Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 435 442 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.14 Why Was It the Ming Dynasty that Engendered the Guanxi Motif in Fiction? <p>Compared to other informal social network mechanisms, <em>guanxi</em> is more common in China and is the most typical. Even in daily life, it is indispensable. Hence, in Chinese fiction, the <em>guanxi</em> motif is prevalent and important. Interestingly, before the Ming dynasty, <em>guanxi</em> was not a literary motif in fiction. This article suggests that three factors contributed to the rise of the <em>guanxi</em> motif in fiction in the Ming dynasty. The first was the boom in fiction writing, especially in the genre of realism, that occurred in this era, which expanded the scope of literary representation. The second was the degradation of public morals in the Ming dynasty, a momentous social transition that Ming fiction writers noted and portrayed. <em>Guanxi</em>, as a disruptive social mechanism that dismantled previous models of human connection, became a focus in their works. The third was the fact that the atmosphere of money worship promoted by <em>guanxi</em>, together with official corruption, facilitated widespread social inequality. <em>Guanxi</em>, as the crux of inequity, inspired writers to expose social turpitude. More importantly, the <em>guanxi</em> motif satisfied the need for plot conflict in literary works. Thus, it became a necessary motif in Ming fiction.</p> Ruihui Han Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 443 457 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.15 When Books Speak of Books: G. Radvilavičiūtė’s Intertextuality <p>The present article will analyze the intertextual dimension in the work of the Lithuanian essayist G. Radvilavičiūtė, especially focusing on her most successful book, <em>Šiąnakt aš miegosiu prie sienos</em>. In the introduction a brief review of U. Eco’s ideas on intertextuality will be presented, paying special attention to the notions of metafiction, dialogism, double coding, and intertextual irony. Within this theoretical framework, the main intertextual strategies used in Radvilavičiūtė’s book are examined in the core of the study. Particular attention will be paid to dialogism; for this strategy a detailed classification based on the two parameters of target and modality will be proposed. Then a peculiar kind of intertextuality is presented: while the author frequently makes a conscious and obvious use of references to other texts, I will suggest that it could also be possible to find traces of unconscious “intertextual echoes”. To demonstrate this, some similarities with V. Nabokov’s novel <em>Laughter in the Dark</em> are discussed. Such similarities could be due to an unconscious influence of this novel on the author (in this case they would be “echoes”), or to pure coincidence. In both cases, however, this is an interesting instance of hermeneutic cooperation between the author and the reader. Far from diminishing Radvilavičiūtė’s flourishing creativity, these considerations reinforce the idea that any open text calls for the addressee’s cooperation. Hence, the reader not only decodes intertextuality, but also actively creates a net of references that sometimes go beyond the author’s (conscious) intentions.</p> Adriano Cerri Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 458 475 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.16 The Gnostic Hunters in Nabokov’s 'The Real Life of Sebastian Knight' <p>Nabokov’s <em>The Real Life of Sebastian Knight</em> presents the ambiguous identities of the two heroes, V. and Sebastian, attracting great attention among Nabokovian scholarship. The present article intends to reveal that Nabokov’s design of Sebastian and V. pertains to his own Gnostic faith and the ambiguous identities of V. and Sebastian, in light of certain Gnostic tenets and concepts, are the representation of their spiritual evolution and their merging spirits during their respective quest of “gnosis”. The article will show how the heroes as “aliens” break the shackles of “this world,” undo the chains of the heavy flesh, regain their spiritual identities of the inner selves, start the journey of spiritual evolution and self-revelation, and finally achieve the fusion of spirits in “the other world” by way of attaining “gnosis”.</p> Zhang Junping Zhang Bin Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 476 492 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.17 José F. A. Oliver zwischen Politik und Literatur: von Häusern, Müttern und Muttersprachen <p><em><strong>José F. A. Oliver between Politics and Literature: of Houses, Mothers and Mother Tongues.</strong></em> Born in the Black Forest to Andalusian parents, the poet José F. A. Oliver has developed in recent decades a complex oeuvre in which multiple languages (German, Spanish, Alemannic and Andalusian) and plural kinships play a chief role. The present paper analyses the prose works of José F. A. Oliver as a fragmentary “language memoir” (Kaplan/Kramsch) while at the same time trying to reconstruct his nomadic identity between and across regions and languages. Special attention will be paid to José F. A. Oliver’s use of the metaphors of multiple mothers and the two-storey house when referring to his own multilingual upbringing and literary habitus. In stark contrast to conceptual models of monolingualism which posit the mother tongue as the unique and irreplaceable buttress of national loyalties and literary creativity, José F. A. Oliver’s work pleads for an alternative affective relationship to a multiplicity of mother tongues (in plural). In so doing, the present paper underscores the political dimension of José F. A. Oliver’s metaphors for multilingualism. His alternative vision allowing the peaceful coexistence of multiple affective loci expressed in very different mother tongues questions the rigid exclusivity of German citizenship politics while simultaneously bringing to light the emancipatory and democratic potential of transregional and multilingual (e.g. Black Forest – Andalusia / Alemannic – Andalusian) identities beyond a national monolingual rationale.</p> Tomás Espino Barrera Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 493 506 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.18 „Ich werde eingetaucht / in vás“? Peter Waterhouses 'Prosperos Land' als Dynamisierung von T.S. Eliots 'The Waste Land' <p><strong><em>’Ich werde eingetaucht/in vás’? Peter Waterhouse’s</em> Prosperos Land <em>as Dynamisation of T.S. Eliot’s</em> The Waste Land.</strong> The assumption of the existence of well discernible national languages is at odds with the dynamic nature of language. It is part of the so-called “monolingual paradigm” and therefore implies inextricably linking people to their mother tongue, which is in turn tied to one respective ethnicity, culture and nation. However, languages are not always clearly discernible from one another and do not always appear in fixed, static forms. Instead, language is subject to dynamic changes, which are at the same time subject to political interests and language policies. The poems presented in this article exemplify how modern and contemporary poetry can use the conjuncture of multilingualism and ambiguity to create a sense of language dynamics themselves. Their poetics simultaneously question and make use of the assumption of static multilingualism. They unfold political problems from it and awaken in their readers a desire for proactive reading and (language) change. T. S. Eliot’s <em>The Waste Land</em> already problematizes the coexistence of the European languages as a challenge for understanding, suggesting that languages as well as their speakers might be untranslatably shut-off from each other. However, the poem also creates surprising synergistic effects from its multilingualism and ambiguity. This way, it invites its readers to connect and cross over (language) borders in an adaptive and poetic manner, stressing the importance and capability of poetry and learning for intercultural understanding. <em>Prosperos Land</em> by Peter Waterhouse perpetuates and even surpasses this movement. As the ambivalent bilingual, intertextual and ambiguous title suggests, the poem challenges the possibility of linguistic as well as national demarcation from the start. Moving away from strict language borders and rules, the poem highlights the transformative magic of an almost childish exploration of language itself.</p> Dinah Schöneich Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 507 521 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.19 Sprach‑ und Weltalternativen: Mehrsprachigkeit als Ideologiekritik in kontrafaktischen Werken von Quentin Tarantino und Christian Kracht <p><em><strong>Alternatives of Languages and Worlds: Multilingualism as Critique of Ideology in Contrafactual Fiction by Quentin Tarantino and Christian Kracht.</strong></em> Multilingualism and the <em>alternate history</em> genre have something in common: both phenomena are based on the construction of alternatives, in the case of multilingualism on the alternatives between different languages and communication systems, and in the case of the <em>alternate history</em> genre on the alternatives between real-world facts and the variation thereof within fictional worlds. This article investigates the interconnections between these two forms of thinking in alternatives by looking specifically at Quentin Tarantino’s counterfactual war film <em>Inglourious Basterds</em> (2009) and Christian Kracht’s alternate history novel <em>Ich werde hier sein im Sonnenschein und im Schatten</em> (2008). I argue that the consideration of language alternatives forms part of the meta-reflection of the <em>alternate history</em> genre in these works while at the same time opening up a political perspective: in Tarantino’s film and Kracht’s novel, multilingualism serves as a means for the critique of ideology by rendering palpable the political threats of a worldview based on clear-cut alternatives. In the article’s final section, I plead for the establishment of stronger links between the research on literary multilingualism and the theory of fiction.</p> Michael Navratil Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 522 539 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.20 Living Streams of World Literature <p>Gerald Gillespie, <em>Living Streams: Continuity and Change from Rabelais to Joyce. Nouvelle poétique comparatiste, Vol. 40</em>. Brussels: P. I. E. PETER LANG S. A., 2018. 207 pages.</p> Lauri Pilter Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 540 544 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.21 About the Authors <p>About the Authors</p> About Authors Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 25 2 545 550 10.12697/IL.2020.25.2.22