Factors affecting facial development and formation of cleft lip and palate: a literature review
The craniofacial region forms in a complicated developmental process regulated by multiple genes and growth factors. Disruption and dysregulation during facial development can lead to multiple congenital facial anomalies including cleft lip and palate. This literature review collects and analyses the existing information about the interaction of multiple growth factors and genes within the developing facial region and their association with facial pathology. The factors analysed in this review are DLX4, FOXE1, HOXB3, MSX2, PAX7, PAX9, RYK, SHH, SOX3, WNT3A, WNT9B and BARX1.