Papers on Anthropology 2020-01-24T14:48:49+02:00 Helje Kaarma Open Journal Systems <em>Papers on Anthropology</em><span> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</span> Food choices, physical activity and metabolic health in obese patients 2020-01-24T14:48:49+02:00 Hanna Alajõe Kadri Suija Anneli Rätsep Ruth Kalda Margus Lember <p>The aim of the current study was to analyse the food choices and physical activity of obese adult Estonian persons, and associations with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The study was carried out on 76 patients aged over 35 years whose body mass index was ≥30 kg/m2. The subjects were recruited through family physicians. The subjects’ consumption of three food groups (fruit, vegetables, whole-grain products) and physical activity based on the IPAQ questionnaire was compared with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome based on five indicators (waist circumference, triglycerides, HDL- cholesterol and fasting plasma glucose, blood pressure). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was found to be 50%. The results of the study did not show statistically significant correlations between prevalence of metabolic syndrome and age or gender. Neither were there any significant age or gender differences in the subjects’ nutritional and activity behaviour. Comparison of the nutritional behaviour of persons with and without the metabolic syndrome showed that daily consumers of fruit had a 4.48 times lower risk of metabolic syndrome than those who ate fruit more seldom. No statistically significant correlation was found between physical activity and prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Based on the current study, the daily consumption of fruit can be an essential protective factor against metabolic syndrome in obese patients and provides a simple recommendation physicians can give their patients to follow.</p> 2019-06-17T12:23:43+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterisation of blood vessels used for coronary artery bypass surgery 2020-01-24T14:48:48+02:00 Marika Garnizone Edīte Vārtiņa Māra Pilmane <p>Saphenous veins are commonly used as coronary artery bypass grafts. Therefore, it is important to understand the vein wall morphology used for the bypass grafts.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>. Ten specimens of saphenous veins were obtained from 10 patients admitted to the Heart Surgery Centre of P. Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital for coronary artery bypass surgery and a histopathological study was conducted. The slides were processed for histological routine and immunohistochemical staining with following markers: endothelin (ET), metallomembranoproteinase 2 (MMP2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP2), transforming growth factor beta (TGF β), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM). For the analysis of the positive structures detected by immunohistochemistry, a semiquantitative evaluation method was used.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Normal histoarchitecture of the vein wall was evaluated by routine staining. Moderate positive endothelin containing endothelial cells and moderate to numerous positive VEGF cells were found on small blood vessels. Moderate positive MMP2 structures and variable – mainly moderate to numerous positive TIMP structures – were found in vein wall. Positive structures were evaluated as equal with both MMP2 and TIMP, with one exception where MMP2 positive structures were evaluated as moderate, but TIMP positive structures as few. All specimens were rich in TGFβ, VCAM and ICAM cells. Abundance of VCAM and ICAM positive endothelial cells was also found. Few HGF positive structures were found in tunica intima and few PGP9.5 positive nerve fibres in tunica adventitia.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>. Rich expression of TGFβ, VCAM, ICAM is characteristic for saphenous vein. A number of VEGF, MMP and TIMP positive cells found in saphenous vein wall indicates a presence of tissue remodelling and ischemia, while low number of HGF positive cells shows its lesser involvement in homeostasis regulation.</p> 2019-06-17T12:30:05+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Disasters and the elderly: The Turkey case 2020-01-24T14:48:46+02:00 Timur Gultekin Nehir Varol <p>From the past to the present, people have been exposed to very different kinds of disasters, and it is evident that women, children, the elderly and the disabled are the groups most affected by disasters. As elderly people differ according to their socio-economic, health and psychological status, they can be undefended and vulnerable to many emergencies. Protection of these disadvantaged/vulnerable people from disaster risks, raising their awareness and taking measures for these groups in disaster plans are highly important. The aim of this study is to find what should be done to secure their life and livelihood. Therefore, based on secondary research, this study analyses their current situation, challenges they face during and after disasters. Within the scope of this aim, this study is focused on gaining experience from natural disasters that occurred in Turkey in the past and people’s reaction to these disasters, especially their effects on the elderly.</p> 2019-06-17T12:38:56+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Body height as a social signal 2020-01-24T14:48:44+02:00 Michael Hermanussen Christiane Scheffler <p>Body height has a signaling function among social mammals. Humans also perceive physical size as a signal and tend to associate stature and status. Taller men are perceived as more competent and authoritative. Studies in wild Kalahari male meerkats (<em>Suricata suricatta</em>) suggest that dominance itself can be a stimulus for growth allowing for competitive growth and strategic growth adjustments. Assuming that similar mechanisms on the control of growth are also relevant for humans, our understanding of the shortness of many Third World populations has to be revised. Short stature may no longer be exclusively understood as an expression of poverty, chronic malnutrition and poor health but as an expression of persistent feelings of inferiority and patronization in the face of the global spread and dominance of Western life and moral codes.</p> 2019-06-17T12:43:16+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Immunolocalization of hexose transporters in ostriches' intestinal epithelial cells during their first postnatal week 2020-01-24T14:48:43+02:00 Piret Hussar Tõnu Järveots Ilmārs Dūrītis <p>Although hexoses glucose and fructose serve as important energy sources of food, up to now, there is little information about hexose transporters in birds’ intestinal epithelium during their first postnatal week. The aim of the investigation was to carry out an immunohistochemical study of integral membrane proteins glucose transporter-2 and -5 (GLUT-2 and GLUT-5) on intestinal epithelial cells of ostrich chicks during their first postnatal week.</p> <p>The material from duodenum and ileum was collected from 9 female ostriches (<em>Struthio camelus var. Domesticus</em>) divided into three age groups, three birds in each group: chicks immediately after hatching, 3-day-old ostriches and 7-day-old chicks. The material was fixed in 10% formalin, embedded into paraffin, slices 7μm thick were cut followed by immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal primary antibodies Rabbit anti- GLUT-2 and Rabbit anti-GLUT-5, carried out according to the manufacturer’s guidelines (IHC kit, Abcam, UK).</p> <p>Immunohistochemical localization of GLUT-2 and -5 in the intestinal epithelial cells in ostriches of different age groups was determined. In the groups of chicks after hatching and 3-day-old ostriches, enterocytes in duodenal epithelium were mostly unstained and goblet cells stained weakly for both antibodies. Weak staining of enterocytes and goblet cells was also noted in the ileal epithelium of the chick after hatching. Moderate staining of goblet cells was noted in the 3-day-old chicks’ ileal epithelium. In 7-day-old ostriches, the expression of both antibodies was weak in duodenal but moderate in ileal epithelial cells.</p> <p>The pattern of immunohistochemical expression of GLUT-2 and GLUT-5 in ostriches’ intestinal epithelial cells confirms our hypothesis that the intestinal tract of ostriches after hatching is not yet entirely capable of transportation of hexoses and showed that it is completing gradually during the first postnatal week.</p> 2019-06-17T12:49:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sex diff erences in Late Iron Age Northeast Estonia as indicated in dental pathologies and enamel hypoplasia 2020-01-24T14:48:41+02:00 Jana Limbo <p>Study of dental pathologies is important in investigating the health and diets of past populations. Dental pathologies of adult peoples show nutritional and hygienic habits in adulthood, but childhood metabolic stresses can be observed in the occurrence of linear enamel hypoplasia (LEH). Dental hard tissue pathologies (caries, <em>pre mortem</em> tooth loss, abscesses, calculus, reduction of alveolar bone, molar attrition) and LEH were observed over 15 years in individuals from Jõuga cemetery (11th–16th cc. Northeast Estonia). The aim of the study was to trace sexual differences in diet and subsistence patterns through an analysis of dental pathology.</p> 2019-06-17T12:54:22+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Study on anthropometric measurements of school-aged boys in Pärnu city 2020-01-24T14:48:40+02:00 Kandela Õun Handreas Hallimäe Evert Saarnak Sirje Miglai <p>In 2018, a study on boys’ anthropometry was conducted in Pärnu Koidula Gymnasium (referred to as PKG) as a school research project. 214 highschool boys, aged 17–19 years, participated in the study. The young men of PKG have thicker but shorter legs than the boys measured by Juhan Aul 1932–1940. Compared to the norms developed in 2017 by Kaarma et al. [6], the 17-year-old boys of PKG are on average 3 cm taller and 5.1 kg heavier, the 18-year-old boys do not differ so much from the standards. The 17-yearolds’ trunk index mean value has a statistically significantly lower value compared to the 18-year-olds (mean difference –0.897, p=0.031). The somatotypes classification analysis showed that the number of 17-year-old boys in the LARGE class is three times higher compared to the 2017 norms. The number of 18-year-olds in pycnomorfs 3 (P3) class is twice as much as the number of boys reported in the norms. Some anthropometrical indexes are more related to the SD classifications than others are. Compared to earlier measurements, the current results reported similar acceleration as other researchers had.</p> 2019-06-17T13:43:57+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Characterization of morphology in healthy, traumatized and aged knee meniscus of different species: A pilot study 2020-01-24T14:48:38+02:00 Marija Podļesnaja Mara Pilmane Modris Ciems <p>Meniscus is a fibrocartilaginous anatomical structure that realizes complicated biomechanical functions in the knee joint. However, no comparative morphology studies have been done on different species and conditions regarding the meniscus. Thus, the aim of our pilot study was to compare the morphology of traumatized and aged human and healthy deer meniscus to reveal the tissue ground, growth, degeneration, cell death and inflammation factors.</p> <p>The study included surgery materials from one deer and two humans. Biotin-streptavidin immunohistochemistry was performed for detection of tissue TGFβ1, MMP2, MMP9, collagen I, caspase, Il-1, Il-6, Il-10. The results were evaluated semiquantitatively. An abundant number of Collagen I positive cells were detected in the disordered human meniscus but not in the deer one. TGFβ1 was seen in numerous to abundant number of cells in all the three cases. MMPs and caspase were distributed with numerous to abundant cells in both human and deer meniscus. Numerous to abundant cells of traumatized and aged human menisci showed IL-1 and IL-6, while the deer meniscus demonstrated cytokine expression in a moderate number of cells only in limited zones. The traumatized human meniscus possessed an abundant number of IL-10 positive cells, while the deer and the aged human meniscus showed mainly a moderate number of IL-10 cells with some elevation of cytokine in superficial and deepest layers of the meniscus.</p> 2019-06-17T14:57:54+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Individual proficiency of reception by the Estonian men’s national team at the qualification tournament of the European Championship 2020-01-24T14:48:37+02:00 Raini Stamm Meelis Stamm Jarek Tigane Reeda Tuula <p>The aim of the study was to analyse players’ individual proficiency at serve reception and its influence on the following attack in the Estonian national team during the qualification for the European Championship in 2016.</p> <p>The subjects were the players of Estonian national volleyball team during the qualification for the European Championship in 2016. To collect data, video recordings of eight games of the Estonian national team were viewed; the number serve receptions, type and zone of reception and proficiency were registered. In addition, the number of attacks following serve reception, their zone, performer and proficiency were recorded.</p> <p>The results revealed that success at the reception of serve influences the proficiency of attack. At more successful reception, the proficiency of attack was higher than at poorer reception.</p> <p>As a result of the study, it was shown that serve reception by the Estonian team was more proficient in sets won than in sets lost. In the case of more successful reception, the Estonian national volleyball team was more proficient at attack than in the case of less proficient reception. When types of reception were compared, the receivers of the Estonian national team were most proficient at reception from above. The receivers of the Estonian national received the serve best in zone 5.</p> 2019-06-17T15:07:16+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Prevalence of Egfr, Ki-67, Nf-Κb, Ma-1 marker in cleft affected tissue of soft palate 2020-01-24T14:48:35+02:00 Jonas Tellermann Sophie Charlotte Reiser Mara Pilmane <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. Midline orofacial defects bear a high degree of morbidity for the affected individual, often associated with retardation in neonatal development and the need for surgical intervention. The etiology of the deformities, despite their high prevalence, remains, however, largely unknown. We report on the evaluation and quantification of proliferative and inflammatory markers in the cleft affected soft palate.</p> <p><strong>Material and methods</strong>. This study included soft palate samples of eight cleft lip and palate affected individuals and a control group of six soft tissue specimens obtained during correctional surgery of hyperdentia. All samples were processed via immunohistochemistry for marker EGFR, NF-κB, Ki-67, Ma-1. The results were evaluated semi-quantitatively and statistically analysed by IBM SPSS 25.0.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>. Histopathological signs of inflammatory changes were continuous in cleft affected specimen. The quantitative distribution of the markers in the cleft affected group displayed a significant correlation between EGFR, Ki-67 and NF-κB (p&lt; 0.05), along with a correlation among Ki-67 and NF-κB (p&lt; 0.05). Immunoreactive structures in control group showed lower numbers in all evaluated specimen. A statistical significance between cleft affected and non-cleft tissue was observed in EGFR and Ma-1 (p&lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>. Results are suggestive of a tissue phenotype modification in cleft affected palate. Observation of distribution and statistical correlation hint towards the involvement of epithelial growth inducer EGFR and inflammatory/ proliferative marker in epithelial changes.</p> 2019-06-17T15:14:49+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Changes in children’s and adolescents’ mortality in Estonia during the last century 2020-01-24T14:48:33+02:00 Ene-Margit Tiit <p>The problem of infant mortality arose in the discussion on risks connected with new-borns’ vaccination. When we compare infant mortality about ninety years ago and nowadays, then it is easy to see that children’s mortality has decreased enormously. But this process has not been uniform during the whole 90-year period: we can see the sub-periods of rapid progress and also sub-periods of stagnation. Obviously, some social and political factors have an impact here, but the mechanism of this influence is not clear.</p> 2019-06-17T15:17:51+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In memoriam Emeritus Professor Arne Lepp: A life dedicated to medicine 2020-01-24T14:48:32+02:00 Liina Pärnsalu Aade Liigant Kersti Kokk Elle Põldoja <p>28 November 1928 − 23 October 2018</p> 2019-06-17T15:38:48+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##