Papers on Anthropology 2020-03-10T20:11:51+02:00 Helje Kaarma Open Journal Systems <p><em>Papers on Anthropology</em> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Physical anthropology and bioarchaeology at the Institute of History in the last 20 years 2020-03-10T20:11:51+02:00 Raili Allmäe Jana Limbo-Simovart Leiu Heapost <p>Human populations and their history have been studied at the Institute of History since 1952 when the young researcher Karin Mark started her career here. Later, Karin Mark became a leading researcher in palaeoanthro pology and somatology of Finno-Ugric peoples, and her working group grew. At the end of the 1980s, Leiu Heapost took over the position as group leader in anthropological research. In 1988 Raili Allmäe and in 2004 Jana Limbo-Simovart joined the group. Since 1998, Estonian research has been project-based; in the present paper we give a brief overview of our anthropological research at the Institute of History (and its descendants) in the last twenty years.</p> 2020-03-10T19:17:55+02:00 Copyright (c) On the structure of the graduation thesis “On the physical development of school students of the town of Tartu” defended at the Department (former Chair) of Zoology at the University of Tartu (former Tartu State University) in 1958 2020-03-10T20:11:49+02:00 Jaan Kasmel Tiiu Kasmel <p>Throughout times, along with simpler papers (essays, reports, subject and research papers), students of different specialities at the University of Tartu have also done more serious research in many areas, including anthropology, under the supervision of lecturers.</p> <p>More than a quarter of century ago, before 1991, the students of the Soviet-time Tartu State University wrote, in addition to exercises in research, term papers, graduation theses and prize essays of Students Scientific Society (founded in 1948).</p> <p>The article will deal with 10 graduation theses compiled at the Chair of Zoology of Tartu State University from 1958–1970. These papers addressed Estonian school students’ physical development based on anthropological material collected from 1956–1967.</p> <p>In those years, the graduation thesis was a student’s independent research paper which was defended in front of a state examination board to complete the studies at the university.</p> <p>Particular attention is paid to the first of these graduation theses – the graduation thesis defended by 5th-year student Viivi Schüts in 1958, “On the physical development of school students of the town of Tartu” (in Estonian, on 94 pages in typescript, hard-cover). The article includes the structure of this research paper.</p> 2020-03-10T19:22:55+02:00 Copyright (c) A case of osteomalacia in human skeletal remains from St Hripsime Church (Horom, Armenia) 2020-03-10T20:11:46+02:00 A. Yu. Khudaverdyan A. A. Yengibaryan A. A. Hovhanesyan H. H. Khachatryan L. G. Yeganyan <p>In this study, we investigated the remains of an individual that were recovered during cleansing work of the Church of St Hripsime. Macroscopic and X-Ray inspections yielded pathological criteria which indicated osteomalacic origin. The findings of the study suggest that the individual who lived in the Late Medieval period may have gone through multiple episodes of vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D deficiency as an effect of deficient exposure to sunlight (in particular, in rural individuals who lived in underground houses) and nourishment deficiency could be described as the main causes leading to osteomalacia in Armenia.</p> 2020-03-10T19:28:48+02:00 Copyright (c) Challenges and opportunities for the future Clinical Nutrition Committee in Tartu University Hospitals 2020-03-10T20:11:44+02:00 Liidia Kiisk <p>Patients of health care and welfare institutions have several accompanying diseases; therefore, the nutritional counsellors’ or dietary nurses’ competence is often insufficient for administering a special diet, but the help of clinical dietologists and physicians of different specialities is necessary.</p> <p>In elaboration of clinical nutrition therapy strategies, their consistent development and coordination, an interdisciplinary clinical nutrition team can be helpful. Raising the nutritional awareness of the staff of structural units of medical and welfare institutions in helps them make rational choices in different disease cases, guaranteeing the patient’s wellbeing and a health care service with maximum benefit and minimum risk for the patient’s health.</p> <p>Physicians and other specialists of Tartu University Hospital (nurses, speech therapists, pharmacists, nutrition counsellors, diabetes nurses) have contributed comprehensively to chronic patients’ individual counselling during hospital treatment and supporting of outpatients’ nutritional treatment.</p> <p>In 2018, an initiative group of physicians of the hospital presented to the hospital’s Executive Board the need for establishing a broad-based expert group of clinical nutrition. With the Executive Board’s decision, a clinical nutrition committee was founded for rendering the nutrition treatment service.</p> 2020-03-10T19:32:09+02:00 Copyright (c) On anthropometric data of the male student candidates of the Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy at the University of Tartu in 2017 2020-03-10T20:11:42+02:00 Mart Lintsi Rein Aule Heiti Annus Martin Mooses Mehis Viru Harry Lemberg Ando Pehme Ants Nurmekivi Helje Kaarma Marina Aunapuu Andres Arend <p>The purpose of this study was to investigate some anthropometric variables of student candidates of the Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu in 2017. All anthropometric measurements were made according to the recommendations of R. Martin [7].</p> <p>Comparison of the height and weight data of the studied subjects with the height and weight norms of Estonia provided by Kaarma et al. [9] revealed that the entrants were taller in height but with the same average weight.</p> <p>In our study, the somatotypes recommended by Kaarma et al. [9] were used for the first time on entrants to the university. Our study found that male student candidates’ body somatotypes were divided into SD classes as follows: small 8.6%, medium 22.9%, large 18.6%; subtypes of pycnomorphic somatotypes: 7.1% in class I, 1.4% in class II, and 8.6% in class III; leptomorphic somatotypes were divided: 11.4% in class I, none in class II and 31.4% in class III.</p> <p>Based on the recommendations of several authors, we calculated the ideal body weight for all the entrants enrolled in the study.</p> <p>Comparison of the average body weight of entrants with the average weight calculated using the ideal weight method revealed an interesting situation. Namely, the mean values calculated using the Devine (1974) formula did not differ statistically significantly from the mean of the measured weights (t=0.101, p&gt; 0.05). Neither did Devine’s (1974) ideal weight and BMI, Rohrer’s index and ponderal index calculated from it, and the body surface calculated according to the formulas of Dubois and Dubois and Mosteller differ from the actual figures.</p> 2020-03-10T19:41:59+02:00 Copyright (c) Anthropometric characteristics of females in different age groups in Latvia from childhood to adulthood 2020-03-10T20:11:26+02:00 Liana Pļaviņa Helena Kārkliņa Silvija Umbraško Jekaterina Stankeviča David Kachlik <p>The purpose of the present study was to evaluate changes in main anthropometric parameters such as height, body mass, and body circumferences (chest, upper arm) in different age groups from childhood to adulthood in healthy females in Latvia and to determine the active growing age periods and the impact of tobacco use on anthropometric parameters. We provided a health well-being questionnaire concerning lifestyle and tobacco use. In the present study, we assessed the body mass index (BMI) values to identify body mass index-defined overweight and obesity. The levels of the body mass index exceeded the standard data only in a small number of the examined persons. Body composition data and the body mass index are used as an index of obesity as a standard practice by many clinicians according the recommendations of health authorities as a basis for health behaviour and physical activities to preserve physical and mental health. A significant correlation has been previously reported between anthropometric characteristics, physical activity and health capacity. The study data were collected with the participants’ informed consent. Statistical analysis was performed using a statistics program. The body mass index is the respondents’ major characteristic which describes the physical condition and nutrition level in any age group. Tobacco use by the mother during the pregnancy period has an influence on the child’s body mass and body mass index values that were fixed for girls in the 1st and 2nd childhood periods. Intensive increase in anthropometric parameters was observed during the transition from the adolescence to the youth period.</p> 2020-03-10T19:48:12+02:00 Copyright (c) Doping stigmata as pathological clinical signs in the diagnostic field of sports anthropology 2020-03-10T20:11:24+02:00 Christoph Raschka <p>An anthropometric and therefore cost-neutral screening approach as an indicator of the abuse of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders is the fat-free mass index (FFMI). Normalized to a body size of 1.80 m, the FFMI is calculated as follows: FFMI = lean mass (in kg) / body height (in m)² + 6.1 × (1.8 – body height (in m)). Furthermore, various physical and anthropological symptoms can be summarized as evidence of anabolic steroids or growth hormone abuse as doping signs or doping stigmata. Doping stigmata are usually identifiable doping signs in the external appearance. Typical doping signs for anabolic steroids are testicular atrophy, swollen, voluminous muscles with elusive smooth contours, exophthalmus, alopecia androgenetica, steroid acne, gynecomastia, cutis verticis gyrata, striae distensae, seborrhea, hematomas, an unproportional development of the upper body compared to the rest of the body and, in females, hirsutism, hypertrichosis, mammary atrophy and masculine growth in width, extreme reduction of subcutaneous fat percentage, lowering of the voice, clitoris hypertrophy, secondary amenorrhoea and the irreversible androgenization of a female fetus during pregnancy. Doping stigmata for growth hormone are gigantism, acromegaly, macroglossia, tooth gaps, prognathism, torus supraorbitalis, visceromegaly (cardiomyopathy, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly), hairs of wire brush consistency, edema, seborrhoea, skin thickening and hypertrichosis, cutis verticis gyrata and the reduction of the percentage of fat. Typical examples of doping signs of erythropoietin are plethora and rubeosis faciei. Doping stigmata of amphetamines are, for example, tachycardia, hypertension, decongestion, tremor, mydriasis or speed pimples.</p> 2020-03-10T19:52:01+02:00 Copyright (c) Somatotypes in skiing 2020-03-10T20:11:19+02:00 Christoph Raschka <p>Although the available studies on body types in ski sports are relatively sparse and rather old, there are clear indications that, especially in alpine skiing, top athletes have become stronger and heavier in the last three decades [43, 24]. According to Bahr and Tone [5] as well as Mildner et al. [19], the anthropo metric profile and the somatotype, in particular the extent of muscular develop ment in the lower extremities, are to be regarded as significant intrinsic risk factors for alpine skiing trauma [20].</p> <p>Especially among men, the downhill racers tend to have a more pyknomorphhyperplastic constitution type or more mesomorph somatotype with longer trunk and shorter legs and higher BMI, while the slalom specialists tend to more leptomorphic values with longer legs and shorter trunk.</p> 2020-03-10T19:55:24+02:00 Copyright (c) Assessment of development of adolescent volleyball players’ jumping ability 2020-03-10T20:11:14+02:00 Raini Stamm Meelis Stamm Madis Mets <p>The aim of the study was to find the influence of Prof. A. Belyayev and L. Bulykina’s a month-and-a-half vertical jumping ability development programme on adolescent volleyball players aged 12–14 years.</p> <p>The subjects in the experimental group were 15 adolescent volleyball players whose mean age was 12.9 years – 7 boys whose initial mean running jump result was 52.9 cm and 8 girls whose mean running jump result was 36.9 cm. The control group consisted of 13 players – 3 boys whose initial mean running jump result was 54.3 cm and 10 girls whose mean running jump result was 47 cm.</p> <p>The study consists of three parts; in the first part, the subjects’ anthropometric variables and running and standing jump ability were measured. Thereafter, the volleyball players of the experimental group attended a programme that lasted for 54 days, after which the children’s anthropometric variables and jumping ability were measured again.</p> <p>The results showed that the vertical jumping ability development programme proved effective. It improved girls’ and boys’ mean vertical standing jump result by 6.8 cm and vertical jump from attack steps by 6.5 cm. Boys improved their vertical standing jump result by 6.2 cm and vertical jump from attack steps by 7.8 cm. Girls’ vertical standing jump result improved by 7.4 cm and vertical jump from attack steps by 5.1 cm; the changes were statistically significant.</p> <p>In the control group, jumping ability did not change statistically significantly, considering the mean results of the groups.</p> <p>A. V. Belyayev and L. Bulykina’s jumping ability development programme proved to be suitable to be used in an adapted version for developing 12–14-year-old volleyball players’ vertical jumping ability.</p> 2020-03-10T19:59:43+02:00 Copyright (c) Effect of a period of cervical flexion on upper extremity muscle strength 2020-03-10T20:11:12+02:00 David Uher Gregory Anoufriev Michael E. Toczko <p>Background: Technology is prevalent in almost every aspect of life, from handheld phones to computers. Increases in cervical flexion can cause a strain on the neck and muscles of the upper extremity.</p> <p>Objective: To examine the effect of 30 minutes of cervical flexion at 45 degrees. It was hypothesized that muscle strength will decrease after flexion, and there would be no significant differences between dominant and nondominant arms or genders.</p> <p>Study design: Twenty-four participants (12 male, 12 female) (n = 24; height = 173.1 + 9.3 cm; weight = 73.33 + 22.58kg) were measured before and after cervical flexion using a MicroFET2 Hand Held Digital Muscle Tester to test the middle deltoid, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii of each arm.</p> <p>Results: Compared to pre-measures significant differences were found in both middle deltoids and both biceps brachii, but not in either triceps brachii (p &lt; 0.05). Overall no limited significant differences were found between genders of muscles of either arm. Significant differences (p &lt; 0.05) were found in the dominant biceps brachii, non-dominant biceps brachii, dominant triceps brachii, dominant deltoid, and non-dominant deltoid.</p> <p>Conclusion: These results suggest that a normal daily degree of cervical flexion will decrease some upper extremity strength over the course of 30 minutes.</p> 2020-03-10T20:04:48+02:00 Copyright (c) Anthropology Section of the Estonian Naturalists Society 80 2020-03-10T20:11:10+02:00 Gudrun Veldre <p>Anthropology Section of the Estonian Naturalists Society 80</p> 2020-03-10T20:07:34+02:00 Copyright (c)