Papers on Anthropology http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA <p><em>Papers on Anthropology</em> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> University of Tartu Press en-US Papers on Anthropology 1406-0140 Impact of voluntary sampling on estimates http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2021.30.2.01 <p>Impact of voluntary sampling on estimates</p> Ene-Margit Tiit Copyright (c) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 30 2 9 13 10.12697/poa.2021.30.2.01 Anthropology and occupational health problems of auto-rickshaw drivers http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2021.30.2.02 <p>Driving an auto-rickshaw has become one of the most common and easiest ways of earning a living, particularly for educated unemployed youths of Manipur. In the present study an attempt was made to understand the health status of auto-rickshaw drivers plying in different locations of Imphal, Manipur. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the auto-rickshaw drivers of Imphal, Manipur. A total of 159 auto-rickshaw drivers (aged 20–65 years) were screened to understand their health status and potential risk factors associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The data were analysed using different statistical measures including mean, t-test, the test of significance, using MS Excel and SPSS software. Odds ratio (OR) was also calculated to measure the association (if any) using the 2×2 contingency table at 95% confidentiality interval. The majority of the drivers were educated and married. Vision impairment, body and neck pain are the commonest morbidity conditions generally faced by the drivers. Individuals who have been driving for more than ten years are at a significantly greater risk for diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and anaemia compared to those who have been driving up to five years. Persons who have worked for a long time in the same occupation as an auto-rickshaw driver are more prone to have mild to moderate forms of anaemic conditions. Moreover, they are also at greater risk for adverse health conditions such as obesity, hypertension, and high blood glucose level.</p> Thangjam Chitralekha Devi Khuraijam Geetamani Devi Khangembam Taibanganba Meitei Brahmacharimayum Surajkumar Sharma Huidrom Suraj Singh Copyright (c) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 30 2 17 29 10.12697/poa.2021.30.2.02 Follow-up study about hydration parameters at moderate altitude: Measurements in healthy volunteers based on bio-electric impedance analysis (BIA) http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2021.30.2.03 <p>During residence in high mountain regions, the human water hydration status changes and, from the height of ~ 3,000 m above sea level, is associated with the risk of mountain sickness. The present investigation assessed this phenomenon at moderate height (1,300–2,300 m above sea level) after a residence time of approximately one week by means of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). 132 volunteers, attendees of a sports medicine congress (78 men, 54 women), agreed to enter the study. All participants underwent BIA measurements initially and after one week’s time. Apart from the basic characteristics – resistance (resistor, R) and capacitor resistor (reactance, Xc) – derived characteristics such as whole body water (TBW), body cell mass (BCM) or extracellular cell mass (ECM) were of interest. Significant changes after the stay in moderate altitude were only verified with regard to hand resistance (R). As the resistance decreased in both men and women, tissue hydration was probably stimulated. In conclusion, the study showed that a 1-week stay at moderate altitude shows only a slight influence on the BIA parameters.</p> Horst J. Koch Christoph Raschka Johannes Käsebieter Copyright (c) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 30 2 30 41 10.12697/poa.2021.30.2.03 Estonian women’s national volleyball team’s success in 2019 European Championship final tournament http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2021.30.2.04 <p>The aim of the article was to analyse the game success and tactics of the Estonian team in subgroup C of the 2019 European Championship final tournament in sets won and lost.</p> <p>The subjects were the players of the Estonian volleyball team in the final tournament of the European Championship in 2019. The paper analyses Estonia’s performance in five games of the European Championship: Hungary – Estonia, Croatia – Estonia, Romania – Estonia, the Netherlands – Estonia and Azerbaijan – Estonia. A total of 19 sets were analysed, four of which the Estonian national team won.</p> <p>As a result, it was concluded that the Estonian volleyball team had higher efficiency indicators in all the four technical elements in the sets they won than in the sets they lost. Ball reception and serve efficiency differed less in the sets won and lost than attacking and blocking efficiency. Thus, it can be concluded that sets were lost mainly because of attack and block, not serve and reception.</p> <p>The most efficient receiver (50%) in the Estonian women’s team was K. Nõlvak. The most efficient server (80%) was opposite spiker K. Moor. In attack, the most efficient player was outside hitter A. Ennok (28%). Estonia’s setter J. Mõnnakmäe was the most efficient in blocking (24%). L. Kullerkann also performed at a very good level among middle blockers and collected the greatest number of blocks in the tournament (57). K. Laak scored the greatest number of points in the championship (36 points).</p> Raini Stamm Kevin Õun Meelis Stamm Reeda Tuula-Fjodorov Copyright (c) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 30 2 42 50 10.12697/poa.2021.30.2.04 Peer relations linking overweight and obesity, and mediator factors among Turkish adolescents http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2021.30.2.05 <p>Depending on the individual’s body height and frame structure and body weight, obesity is considered both as a socially accepted norm in a society and as exceeding the accepted upper limits. The present study aimed to determine the associations between overweight and obesity, peer relationships, and nutritional and physical activity behaviour among Turkish adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ankara, and the sample consisted of 402 adolescents (171 boys and 231 girls) aged between 12 and 17 years. A physical examination was conducted to collect anthropometric measurements (height, weight, BMI, and body fat using bio-impedance analysis), and detailed information was collected on adolescents’ behaviour (Peer Relationship Scale with four sub-scales of commitment, trust and identification, self-disclosure, and loyalty), diet (24h recall dietary questionnaire), physical activity, self-reported weight, parental attitudes, and socio-economic circumstances. BMI was evaluated using IOTF cut-off points, and simple mediation analyses were performed using ordinary least squares path analysis by the PROCESS macro for SPSS. The results showed that according to the weight status by BMI using IOTF cut-offs, thinness was more prominent in girls (9.5%), overweight was higher in girls (19%), while obesity was higher in boys (8.8%). Total body fat percentage was found to be higher in girls in all weight groups (p &lt; 0.001). The Peer Relationship Scale and, commitment, self-disclosure, and loyalty sub-scales were found to be statistically significant (p &lt; 0.001); girls tend to have higher scores except for the loyalty sub- scale. According to the results, self-reported and actual weight differences were found to be significant in both sexes (p &lt; 0.001), and among IOTF weight groups overweight girls tended to report their weight approximately 2 kg lower than their actual weight and obese girls more than 5 kg lower. In conclusion, the mediation analysis showed that fat percentage, self-reported weight difference, and BMI were significant predictors of Peer Relationship Score where fat percentage partially mediated the relationship between the Peer Relationship Scale and BMI, and full mediation effect of self-reported weight difference was also significant. The relation of the high level of fat accumulation and overweight/obesity with Peer Relationship Scores and its sub-domains should be carefully monitored.</p> Başak Koca Özer Müdriye Yıldız Bıçakçı H. Okan Yeloğlu Neriman Aral Ayşegül Özdemir Başaran Cansev Meşe Yavuz Sibel Önal Ece Özdoğan Özbal Sebahat Aydos Copyright (c) 2022-01-20 2022-01-20 30 2 51 69 10.12697/poa.2021.30.2.05 Growth factors and chromogranin A in intra-abdominal adhesions of children http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2021.30.2.06 <p>Pathogenesis of adhesions is still unclear and does not give a clear response whether the morphopathogenetic mechanisms of congenital and acquired adhesions in children are different or not. Thus, we searched for the appearance and distribution of growth factors, their receptors and chromogranins in adhesions of children in the ontogenetic aspect. Tissues were obtained from 17 children of group 1 (1 day to 3 years old) and 10 children of group 2 (10 to 16 years old). Visibly intact peritoneum was obtained from teenagers of group 2 and used as control tissue. Routine staining and immunohistochemistry for insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF IR), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), chromogranin A (CgA) was applied. Statistical analysis included semi-quantitative evaluation of immunopositive structures, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Wilcoxon rank sum test for comparison of data. The results showed patchy fibrosis with round-shaped fibroblasts, neoangiogenesis and inflammation. Adhesions in group 1 demonstrated various appearance of IGF, IGF IR, few to moderate number of TGF-β-, HGF- and moderate number of CgA-containing cells. In both groups, fibroblasts predominated among actively expressing cells. Group 2 showed moderate to numerous IGFI and HGF positive cells, while IGF IR- and TGF-β-containing cells were numerous. Intact peritoneum showed variable TGF-β, CgA, and few to moderate HGF, IGFI, IGF IR cells. In conclusion, an increase in IGFI, IGF IR, TGF-β and HGF characterises the acquired (“aged”) adhesions. Fibroblasts are most active in adhesion formation with the increase of cellular activity during the aging of children and adhesions. Fibroblasts with changes in shape stimulate further development of disease via intensive CgA expression.</p> Māra Pilmane Kaiva Zīle Zariņa Zane Ābola Copyright (c) 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 30 2 70 85 10.12697/poa.2021.30.2.06 Body composition of male office workers compared by means of infrared reflection measurement, bioimpedance analysis and calipermetry http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2021.30.2.07 <p>There are currently many different anthropometric methods to determine individual body fat percentage, as well as almost as many variants of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and only a single method of infrared reflection measurement (IR) as easily feasible methods of field research. The present study aims at a simultaneous comparison between calipermetry, IR and BIA. In particular, the question which measurement method could be used as an equivalent method in the event of failure of the BIA or IR is investigated. The sample group consisted of 250 male office workers from the Rhine-Main area (average age 31.75 ± 9.16 years, average height 178.5 ± 6.93 cm and average weight 80.61 ± 9.42 kg). The measurements were previously scheduled and mostly carried out during the lunch break. For anthropometry, 13 skin fat folds were measured with the help of the Accu® Measure Caliper, thigh circumference with the help of a measuring tape, height with a height measuring device and body mass on the weight scale. Subsequently, an IR measurement (Futrex®) and a BIA (InBody®) were performed on the same subject. The parameters of body fat percentage and total body water (in litres) were examined. The statistical methods were correlation coefficients, Bland-Altman comparison and paired t-test for equivalence. For the men studied, the highest correlation coefficients were in the comparisons between the formulas according to Parízkova &amp; Buzkova 1 and Parízkova &amp; Buzkova 3 (r = 0.93), as well as for Parízkova &amp; Buzkova 3 and Parízkova &amp; Buzkova 4 (r = 0.96). The correlation coefficient for the IR vs. BIA comparison was only r = 0.56. A key result of the present study was the finding that certain methods cannot be substituted in an equivalent way, in fact only some calipermetric regression equations.</p> Christoph Raschka O-Sung Kwon Horst J. Koch Copyright (c) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 30 2 86 98 10.12697/poa.2021.30.2.07 Leiu Heapost 85 http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2021.30.2.08 <p>Leiu Heapost 85</p> Gudrun Veldre Raili Allmäe Copyright (c) 2021-12-31 2021-12-31 30 2 101 102 10.12697/poa.2021.30.2.08