Papers on Anthropology http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA <p><em>Papers on Anthropology</em> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> University of Tartu Press en-US Papers on Anthropology 1406-0140 Covid-19 in Estonia. Restrictions and population’s coping with them http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2020.29.2.01 <p>The article is based on a selection of data commissioned by the Government Office of the Republic of Estonia and received during 10 weeks from weekly surveys (COVID-THEMATIC SURVEY) conducted by Turu-uuringute AS, a market research company.</p> <p>The study began on 17 March and lasted for 10 weeks to 21 May. On three days of every week, about 2,000 Estonian residents aged 15 and over were interviewed. The respondents were randomly selected and represented the entire population of Estonia in terms of gender, age, ethnicity and social affiliation.</p> <p>The time series on the assessment of virus infections, hospital and intensive care (mechanical ventilation) and COVID deaths, compiled on the basis of data published by the Health Board, was also used as background information.</p> <p>The first three rounds took place during the period of increasing morbidity, the following four rounds (4–7) during the study period when the morbidity situation remained more or less stable, and all the established restrictions also applied. The last stage, rounds 8–10, took place at a time when morbidity was declining and restrictions were gradually eased.</p> <p>The survey revealed that Estonia was not ready for the crisis – just like most of the world’s countries. The crisis tested, on the one hand, the government’s ability to make difficult decisions and make significant use of the brain potential of the country’s research community, and, on the other hand, the people’s reasonableness, stress tolerance and ability to comply with rather awkward restrictions. It follows from the present analysis that all the restrictions were opposed by those who did not believe in their appropriateness. However, compared to the total population, their number was small, and, therefore, the restrictions in Estonia were maintained without sanctions and no contradictions arose, let alone unrest.</p> <p>The open action of the Crisis Committee was very important: the number of new infections, the number of patients in need of hospital treatment and mechanical ventilation, as well as the number of deaths, were reported daily at both the government press conference and in the media. The survey showed that there were very few people in the country who thought they did not know everything they needed about the crisis. The fact that people remained rather cautious in their assessments even after the end of the emergency situation adds to the hope of coping with the virus in the future – should a second wave or any other threat come.</p> Ene-Margit Tiit Marianna Makarova Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 29 2 7 21 10.12697/poa.2020.29.2.01 Factors affecting facial development and formation of cleft lip and palate: a literature review http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2020.29.2.02 <p>The craniofacial region forms in a complicated developmental process regulated by multiple genes and growth factors. Disruption and dysregulation during facial development can lead to multiple congenital facial anomalies including cleft lip and palate. This literature review collects and analyses the existing information about the interaction of multiple growth factors and genes within the developing facial region and their association with facial pathology. The factors analysed in this review are <em>DLX4</em>, <em>FOXE1</em>, <em>HOXB3</em>, <em>MSX2</em>, <em>PAX7</em>, <em>PAX9</em>, <em>RYK</em>, <em>SHH</em>, <em>SOX3</em>, <em>WNT3A</em>, <em>WNT9B</em> and <em>BARX1</em>.</p> Mārtiņš Vaivads Evija Balode Māra Pilmane Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 29 2 22 35 10.12697/poa.2020.29.2.02 Sport-anthropological investigation on German male volleyball players of different performance classes and different game positions http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2020.29.2.03 <p>The present study deals with sports anthropological comparison of the physique of 28 male volleyball players from higher (n = 13) and lower (n= 13) game classes and different game positions. As a result, higher Parnell endomorphism values can be recognized in the lower classes. Vice versa, a tendency to significantly higher values was found in the higher game classes for body height, stylion height, gnathion height, tibia height, AKS index and ectomorphism according to Parnell. In the somatochart, the attackers were slightly more endomorphic, the minor attackers a little more mesomophic. The highclass players had higher ectomorphism values, the low-class players higher endomorphism values. In the constitutional typology according to Knussmann, the subjects were on average subleptomorphic and submacrosomic, according to Conrad rather hyperplastic and leptomorphic. In a follow-up study, the number of subjects should be increased to enable a differentiated analysis of game positions.</p> Christoph Raschka Corina Dierer Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 29 2 36 48 10.12697/poa.2020.29.2.03 On the suitability of the distance between the tip of the nose and the middle of the elbow joint for sneezing etiquette as corona infection prophylaxis http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2020.29.2.04 <p>During the current corona pandemic, the question to which extent people could reach the middle of the elbow joint with the tip of their nose, which the Federal Ministry of Health recommended as a preventive measure when sneezing, was investigated with the help of an online questionnaire.</p> <p>The analysis included 316 fully completed online questionnaires and 16 additional telephone interviews, a total of 332 test persons (average age 29.5 (± 14.3) years, average BMI 22.9 (± 3.4) kg/m²; 226 women, 106 men).</p> <p>The results of this study show that 84.6% of respondents followed the recommended coughing etiquette and sneezed into the crook of their arm, 15.4% did not. The most common reason given for not using it was habit. Nevertheless, 92.8% of the participants found sneezing or coughing in the crook of their arm to be useful.</p> <p>When measuring the distance, 76.2% of the participants were able to touch the crook of the arm at the specific angle on both sides. The average measured distance was 1.13 cm on the right and 1.23 cm on the left. It was found that the BMI and age had a significant relationship with the measured distance. In a gender-specific comparison, more women than men sneezed into the crook of their arm, while no significant differences were found when measuring the distance.</p> <p>If the results of this study are put into practice, it makes perfect sense to continue to recommend sneezing or coughing in the crook of the arm. However, a note should be attached to this recommendation, which prompts one to take the sneeze position once and to check whether the crook of the arm can really be reached effectively. If this is not possible, alternative options should be recommended.</p> Christoph Raschka Laura Heer Horst Josef Koch Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 29 2 49 57 10.12697/poa.2020.29.2.04 High mountain community in a changing climate: a study of agropastoral adaptation in mustang district, Nepal http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2020.29.2.05 <p>This paper explores the changing climate, its impact, and the diversified practices of agropastoral adaption by a mountain community of Nepal. The findings reveal that there is an unswerving link between the changes in climate and their impact on the community and its adaptation options. The vulnerability and risk induced by the climate change has threatened the agropastoral subsistence, the sociocultural and economic structure, and the food sovereignty of the Loba community of Mustang district of Nepal and made them experience unanticipated complications in livelihood. In a changing climate, the community has attuned and restructured its adaptive strategy with diversified practices of collective labour in a traditional agropastoral system of landholding, mystical connectivity and seasonal relocation as an adaptive response ensuring the shared sustenance of the com munity. The challenge of climate change began long ago; it will persevere and be long- lasting. Hence, this paper argues for the need for a prudent adoption of measures to maintain an environmentally suitable agropastoral system of liveli hood well-being. Beyond enhancing community capacity and climate resilience, it is necessary to streamline and readjust indigenous sociocultural institutions by expanding their adaptive capacity, while recognizing the cultural dimensions grounded in systems of meanings and relationships and the way people and their culture experience and respond to exceptional climatic changes.</p> Prakash Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 29 2 58 70 10.12697/poa.2020.29.2.05 Pioneering embryological research at the Old Anatomical Theatre of the University of Tartu http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2020.29.2.06 <p>The reopening of the University of Tartu (1802) fell into the period when the society’s needs for science and educated people were increasing rapidly. Universities became the most important research institutions, and their lecturers were not merely teachers but professional scientists. German higher education fostered ties with the most significant research centres of that time’s world. The current article views the pioneering embryological research done at the Old Anatomical Theatre, which has made the names of these scientists known in the whole world and brought honour and fame to the University of Tartu. The article describes the embryological studies by Karl Friedrich Burdach, Martin Heinrich Rathke, Carl Bogislaus Reichert, Ernst Reissner, Emil Woldermar Rosenberg, Carl Wilhelm von Kupffer, Arthur Boettcher (Böttcher), Karl Dietrich Barfurth, Maximilian Gustav Christian Carl Braun, August Antonius Rauber and Nikolai Czermak.</p> Maie Toomsalu Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 29 2 71 82 10.12697/poa.2020.29.2.06 Estimation of optimal obesity cut-offs among Tripuri and Halam women of Tripura, Northeast India http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2020.29.2.07 <p>Obesity is one of the risk assessments for various non-communicable diseases (NCDs), while anthropometric measurements are one of the measures of obesity, which has been demonstrated as a time-tested important technique for risk assessment of NCDs. Due to variation of anthropometric measurements, it seems difficult to classify obesity using world cut-offs in different population groups.</p> <p>The objective of the present study is to discern the population-specific obesity cut-offs and the best obesity predictor among two indigenous ethnic groups (Tripuri and Halam women) of Tripura, North East India.</p> <p>The subjects of the present study were 88 Tripuri and 98 Halam adult women whose anthropometric measurements were obtained by using standard techniques. The area under curve (AUC) and Youden index (YI) were used to evaluate the performance of each anthropometric adiposity indicator as well as optimal obesity cut-offs.</p> <p>The age and waist-hip ratio (WHR) was significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) in Tripuris compared to Halams. However, no significant (p &gt; 0.05) differences were observed in obesity categorized by body mass index (BMI) using the WHO 2004 cut-off between the populations. Waist stature ratio (WSR) (AUC = 0.959) and waist circumference (WC) (AUC = 0.804) were better obesity predictors for Halams and Tripuris respectively. The present study envisaged the optimal cut-off points, which were 84.95 cm for WC, 96.45 cm for hip circumference (HC), 29.95% for the percentage of body fat (PBF), 0.89 for WHR, 0.57 for WSR and 1.27 for conicity index (CI) in Halams, while for the Tripuris, the optimal cut-off points were 89.6 cm for WC, 97.5 cm for HC, 33.1% for PBF, 0.95 for WHR, 0.55 for WSR and 1.02 for CI.</p> <p>In conclusion, the present study indicated the optimal anthropometric cut-offs which could be the redefined the parameters for assessment of obesity in Halam and Tripuri women.</p> Rima Chaudhuri Priyanka Das Pranabesh Sarkar Diptendu Chatterjee Arup Ratan Bandyopadhyay Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 29 2 83 91 10.12697/poa.2020.29.2.07 A study of body measurements of sporty and not sporty persons living in Pärnu county http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2020.29.2.08 <p>In 2019, a study was conducted on athletic activity among the inhabitants of Pärnu County. 1446 respondents aged 15–87 years participated in the study. The respondents were divided into two groups according to their athletic activity – respondents who are at least lightly active (named as SPORTY, n = 1244) and respondents with no sport activity (NOT SPORTY, n = 202). 41% of respondents had been engaged in physical activity for 10 years or more. A “not sporty” respondent is a person with a slight tendency to overweight, rather not satisfied with his/her health but quite satisfied with his/ her life and is short of time to work out but would like to engage in cycling, swimming or hiking. The “sporty” person’s body mass index is normal, and he/she has been engaged in sports for at least 10 years to achieve better physical fitness or well-being. He/she enjoys walking, cycling, or running. Women prefer group training; men prefer to train in the gym on their own. Respondents with more than five years of regular physical activity work out every week somewhat longer than others and, on average, a few hours more per week in summertime than in autumn and spring. Sporty respondents tend to be taller and of medium weight.</p> Kandela Õun Kaisa Kirikal Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 29 2 92 103 10.12697/poa.2020.29.2.08 Comparative assessment of agility in girls aged 11–13 years who practise or do not practise sports http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2020.29.2.09 <p>The aim of the study was to test and assess agility of young girls aged 11–13 years and to find whether agility differs in girls who practise sports and in those who do not. The subjects of the study were 60 girls 30 of whom practised sports or attended workouts and 30 did not. To conduct the study, six agility tests taken from J. Dawes and M. Roozen’s book <em>Developing Agility and Quickness</em> were used. The study revealed differences in agility between the girls who practised sports and who did not. The comparison of mean results showed that in all six agility tests statistically significant differences existed between athletes and nonathletes. The mean results of girls who practised sports were statistically significantly better than those of the girls who did not. The greatest differences in comparison of the mean results of nonathletes and athletes were revealed in T-test and four corners jump test. Therefore, we recommend using them for assessment of agility in different physical ability test complexes, as they were the most informative among the tests studied. Based on our results, we can recommend to young people and their coaches that, although agility is believed to be an inborn ability, it should be developed by means of sports, motion and workouts. The results show that the girls who practise sports are more agile than those who do not.</p> Raini Stamm Meelis Stamm Dajana Van Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 29 2 104 113 10.12697/poa.2020.29.2.09