Papers on Anthropology <p><em>Papers on Anthropology</em> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> University of Tartu Press en-US Papers on Anthropology 1406-0140 The hypogea of the churches of Naples: Burials and cult of the dead <p>An interesting mortuary practice widespread in Naples until the second half of the nineteenth century was the one housed in the hypogea located under the floor of churches and convents. These funerary crypts were structured according to two organizational models based on the double burial system: the <em>terresante</em> and the <em>scolatoi</em>, both of which aimed at favouring the decomposition of the corpses and reaching the state of a skeleton. According to the established procedures, once skeletonization was accomplished, the skulls were usually displayed on a cornice running along the walls of the hypogeum, while non-cranial bones were placed in a common ossuary. The foundation of the ritual was the idea of death perceived not as a sudden event but as a long-lasting process, during which the deceased went through a transitional phase, gradually passing from the earthly state to the hereafter. Indeed, the ultimate purpose of these funerary rituals was the liberation of the bones from the earthly element of the flesh, an indispensable condition to allow the definitive passage of the soul into the afterlife. This process also had to been exhibited, and, therefore, in these hypogea the decomposition of the corpse was displayed to visitors. Through the corpse’s progressive decomposition, the ritual was intended to visually symbolize the various stages of purification faced by the soul on its path towards the kingdom of the dead, a destination considered reached only when the skeletonization was complete, and the definitive burial carried out. This article briefly reviews the structural organization of these underground sepulchral chambers, the funerary practices held within and the worships which took root and developed within them.</p> Marcello Guarino Copyright (c) 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 31 1 7 34 10.12697/poa.2022.31.1.01 Extracellular local field potentials in men and women based on a theoretical model of voltage decrease as a function of distance <p>Extracellular microelectrodes determine the field potential difference adjacent to the neuron and depend on the composition of the tissue, including ohmic resistance and distance from the source. Based on theoretical aspects, a reciprocal voltage versus distance model is postulated, which was assessed by means of clinical neurographical data in men and women. Data of women showed higher voltages and could be slightly better fitted to the model. Voltage amplitude and to a lesser extent rise time (RT) were the only action potential characteristics which could predict the gender in a discriminant analysis model. In conclusion, neurographical studies may be a suitable option to assess ohmic resistance of tissue and composition of tissue in addition to bioimpedance (BIA) methods.</p> Horst J. Koch Christoph Raschka Copyright (c) 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 31 1 35 40 10.12697/poa.2022.31.1.02 Association of sociodemographic variables with nutritional status among the college girls of Howrah, West Bengal, India <p>Nutritional status of young adult girls is very essential since they are future mothers, and their nutritional requirements increase tremendously compared to the preceding years of growth. The present study was an endeavour to assess the nutritional status and to find an association between sociodemographic variables and nutritional status among young adult college girls of Howrah, West Bengal. The study included a total of 140 college girls aged between 18 to 20 years. The sociodemographic data were collected by the interview method using a pretested standard structured schedule. The anthropometric data were measured by the standard protocol. For the comparison of anthropometric data, growth charts of the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were used. The anthropometric measures like weight, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC), suprailiac skinfold, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and waistheight ratio (WHtR) show an increasing trend according to age groups. Based on BMI, 25.7% of the young adult college girls were found to be underweight (BMI &lt; 18.5 kg/m2), which includes chronic energy deficiency (CED) grade I (13.6%), chronic energy deficiency (CED) grade II (7.9%) and chronic energy deficiency (CED) grade III (4.3%). BMI for age (&lt; 5th percentile) or thinness showed a significant difference (p &lt; 0.01) according to age. Similarly, stature for age (&lt; 5th percentile) or stunting shows a significant association (p &lt; 0.05) with father’s education, and underweight (BMI &lt; 18.5 kg/m2) shows a significant association (p &lt; 0.05) with monthly family household income. The results of linear regression show that sociodemographic variables and food habits were significant predictors of various anthropometric measures. Monthly family income and frequency of eating fast food per week were significant predictors of BMI and MUAC, and the age of the participant and the education of the mother were significant predictors of WHR, and family income per month and the age of the participant were significant predictors of WHtR. Thus, the present study provides a podium for further studies to combat the effect of undernutrition among future mothers and instigates effective nutritional intervention strategies entailing this vulnerable group.</p> Bhanabi Das Priyanka Kanrar Monali Goswami Copyright (c) 2022-10-16 2022-10-16 31 1 41 57 10.12697/poa.2022.31.1.03 Teaching activities in flipped classroom study design <p>In recent years, the flipped classroom (FC) methodology – contact learning preceded by individual learning and the creation of prior knowledge in the learner – has become increasingly common in university teaching. However, the design of the FC has been applied differently in teaching. The aim of our research was to map the teaching activities used in various FC designs and to compare the use of the methods for study groups of different sizes. In order to map the teaching activities of the FC design, we compared 10 different study designs as well as the teaching activities used in study groups with different numbers of students. The study groups were divided into large groups including more than 30 students and small study groups with less than 30 students. As a result of the comparison of the different study designs, we mapped teaching activities conducting teaching by FC methodology. The different teaching activities of the FC suited equally well to the dissimilar study groups.</p> Piret Hussar Tiina Kraav Kaur Lumiste Ain Raal Kaire Uiboleht Copyright (c) 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 31 1 58 67 10.12697/poa.2022.31.1.04 Hypertension and its risk factors among the Shabar tribe: A community-based cross-sectional study in Odisha, India <p>In developing countries like India, the increasing trend of hypertension is one of the significant public health problems. In recent times, the Indian tribes are also experiencing a similar trend, which is rarely documented and less emphasized.</p> <p>The objectives of the present study are to assess the prevalence of hypertension among the Shabar tribe and to understand the association with some selected biological, behavioural and socio-economic factors. The data were collected from 816 individuals (389 males and 427 females, aged 20 to 60 years) in the Khurda and Cuttack districts of Odisha. Conventional methodologies were used to collect the cross-sectional data of blood pressure and other parameters.</p> <p>It was found that 9.2% of the respondents suffered from hypertension (SBP ≥ 140 and DBP ≥ 90 mmHg), and 12.3% had high normal blood pressure (SBP ≥ 130 and DBP ≥ 85 mmHg). The unadjusted odd ratios showed that the proportion of hypertension increased significantly as age increased. High normal blood pressure and hypertension were significantly higher in females and people who belonged to the high-income group and consumed more fat. The Shabar people who suffered from overweight and obesity, took extra salt during meals, smokers, smokeless tobacco chewers, and alcoholics were more vulnerable to hypertension and high blood pressure. Interestingly, the participants who perceived their fatty bodies and engaged in light activities were more likely to be hypertensive than their counterparts.</p> <p>Shabar people residing in Odisha state have shown increasing frequencies of hypertension with advancing age. A significant co-occurrence of higher body mass index (BMI), fewer physical activities, increased fat consumption, and changing habits relating behaviour to hypertension may be designated as potential risk factors.</p> Suman Chakrabarty Premananda Bharati Copyright (c) 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 31 1 68 80 10.12697/poa.2022.31.1.05 Comparison of agility in 13–16-year-old volleyball and football players and non-athletes <p>The aim of the study was to find and compare the agility abilities and anthropometric characteristics of 13–16-year-old volleyball and football players and adolescents not engaged in sports. The following research questions were posed: to find the agility results and anthropometric characteristics of volleyball and football players and non-athletes and to compare the agility results and anthropometric characteristics between athletes and not non-athletes and between different sports in both boys and girls. In total, 63 subjects participated in the study – 45 of them practised sports and 18 did not. Among those who practised sports, there were 19 volleyball and 26 football players. The following agility tests were applied in the study: T-test, four corners test, 5-0-5 run test and Illinois test. For data analysis, the Microsoft Excel program was used. The subjects’ height, weight, fat percentage and fat amount were measured. The means, minimum and maximum values, standard deviations, and body mass indices were calculated. To find correlations within the groups, correlation analysis was used. To establish statistical significance between the groups, Student’s t-test was used. The results revealed that, among both boys and girls, athletes were statistically significantly faster than non-athletes; only in Illinois test, there was no statistically significant difference. In girls, there were statistically significant differences between athletes and non-athletes in weight, fat percentage, fat amount and body mass index. In boys, however, there were no statistically significant differences in the body build characteristics between athletes and non-athletes. Football players were better in agility tests compared to volleyball players. Football boys were statistically significantly taller and older, and, in most tests, they were also statistically significantly faster than volleyball boys. Volleyball girls were statistically significantly taller and weighed more, but, in all tests, football girls were statistically significantly faster than volleyball girls. In all groups, the fat-related indicators, like fat percentage, fat amount and body mass index, were in mutual correlation. According to the body mass index scale, 45 subjects were of normal weight, 6 were overweight, 1 was obese and 11 were underweight. The authors of the paper hold the view that, namely in this age group, the athletes of sports games should practice agility and be tested in it, as, according to literature, the development of agility slows down at the age of 16–17 years, and therefore, can be one of the obstacles for reaching the top in adult athletes.</p> Raini Stamm Karmen Stamm Meelis Stamm Copyright (c) 2022-10-17 2022-10-17 31 1 81 96 10.12697/poa.2022.31.1.06