Papers on Anthropology <em>Papers on Anthropology</em><span> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</span> en-US (Helje Kaarma) (Ivo Volt) Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:55:49 +0300 OJS 60 Preface <p>Preface</p> Helje Kaarma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:29:08 +0300 T-2 mycotoxin induced apoptosis in broiler’s liver tissue <p>Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. As T-2 toxin is known to induce apoptosis in mammalian cells, the aim of the present experiment was to study the toxic effect of T-2 on chicken liver tissue using apoptosis-related antibodies p21 and p53 which are involved in the p53/p21-mediated apoptotic signalling pathway.</p> <p>The experiment was conducted on fourteen 40-day-old broilers (<em>Gallus gallus domesticus</em>) who were divided into control and T-2 toxin groups. For the T-2 toxin group, T-2 toxin (Sigma, Germany) was dissolved in water and given per os for three consecutive days. The material of the liver was taken 24 hours after the last application. The specimens were fixed with 10% formalin and embedded into paraffin; slices 5 μm in thickness were cut followed by immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal primary antibodies p21 and p53 (Abcam, UK) according to the manufacturer’s guidelines (IHC kit, Abcam, UK).</p> <p>Strong expression of p21 and p53 found in hepatocytes, endotheliocytes and around blood vessels together with large tissue destructions in T-2 toxin group birds’ liver indicates apoptosis and histopathological changes in liver tissue during T-2 mycotoxicosis.</p> Piret Hussar, Tõnu Järveots, Lazo Pendovski, Katerina Blagoevska, Trpe Ristoski, Florina Popovska-Percinic ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:40:20 +0300 Height and weight norms and somatotypic height-weight classification of Estonian schoolchildren aged 7–18 years <p>Relying on regularities of Estonian schoolchildren’s body build, height and weight norms and a somatotypic height-weight classification were created for Estonian schoolchildren aged 7–18 years.</p> Helje Kaarma, Gudrun Veldre, Liidia Saluste, Mart Lintsi, Jaan Kasmel, Ene-Margit Tiit, Raini Stamm, Maie Toomsalu, Erik Salm, Ene Käärik, Andres Arend ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:42:15 +0300 On preservation and development of Estonian as a research language in anthropology – the role of the Yearbooks of the Estonian Anthropometric Register (1998–2002) in it. Part II <p>On 18 July 2018, the Centre for Physical Anthropology at the University of Tartu will mark its 25th anniversary. The specialists of different research areas from whole Estonia who had gathered around this Centre also considered it necessary to preserve and develop Estonian as a research language in anthropo logy. When cooperation was established with the Estonian Anthropometric Register (founded in 1995), it became possible to publish the Estonian-language Yearbook of the Estonian Anthropometric Register (YEAR), the first of which was published in 1998, i.e. 20 years ago.</p> <p>The article will deal with the YEARs published in 1998–2002 – who were the authors who decided to publish their research papers on anthropology in in Estonian in this serial, how many of them there were, in which towns and institutions they worked?</p> <p>The first part of the overview [6] briefly described the publications by researchers of anthropology originating in Estonia, starting with publications in Latin and finishing with English as the main present-day language of research. Table 1 provided a general characterisation of the five yearbooks and Table 2 the distribution of the published articles according to the number of authors.</p> <p>Tables 3–7 in the second part of the overview present the distribution of articles over the years according to their first authors. Table 8 presents the distribution of articles between Tartu and Tallinn and the institutions and their subunits in these towns according to the first authors of the articles.</p> Jaan Kasmel, Tiiu Kasmel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:45:00 +0300 The link of diet and exercise habits of the inhabitants of Pärnu city with body mass index <p>This article gives an overview of the health behaviour survey of the adult population of the city of Pärnu, which was conducted in 2016. The results of the survey were used for compiling of the city health profile. The funder was the Pärnu city government. The authors focused on the links between the body mass index, diet and physical activity. The survey was carried out among the residents of the city of Pärnu aged 16–64 years. The questionnaire was filled by 506 respondents. Such a large survey had not been carried out in the city of Pärnu previously. In 2011 and 2014 two studies involving whole Estonia were conducted, in which the percentage of the respondents from Pärnu was too small to make further conclusions.</p> <p>The study results revealed that 65% of respondents ranked their health good or very good, and that was an improvement compared to the previous survey made five years ago. Breakfast was important for respondents, and 86% of them had it every morning or on most days. 49% of respondents were of normal weight by body mass index and 47% were overweight or obese, and these numbers showed a 20% change for better health compared to the previous study. From April to September, 45% of respondents rode a bicycle to work. In their free time, 60% did it for at least 15 minutes per day. Women walked to the workplace more often than men. Men were more overweight and ate more white bread than women. Underweight respondents ate an average of one slice of white bread per day, while others consumed it twice less on average. There was a significant but small correlation between age and BMI (r=0.31), respondents with vocational education had the highest average BMI. Obese persons and respondents with poor physical fitness were less active than normal-weight persons.</p> Kandela Õun, Monika Übner ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:46:42 +0300 Cross-sectional study among medical students in Latvia: Differences of mental symptoms and somatic symptoms among Latvian and international students <p>Introduction. This research aims to determine the prevalence of mental symptoms (depressive symptoms, anxiety and adjustment disorders) and somatic symptoms among medical students at Riga Stradins University in Latvia, as well as to display the differences between local and international medical students.</p> <p>Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted by means of onlinebased questionnaires among medical students in their 1st, 4th and 6th years studying in Riga, Latvia, during March 2017. The mental and somatic symptoms were screened with the PHQ-D Option C (PHQ-15, PHQ-9, GAD-7). Symptoms of adjustment disorder were obtained by the ADNM-6. Medical students were divided into three groups according to their answers of the PHQ-D: Group A: no symptom, group B: a single symptom, group C: multiple symptoms. A general questionnaire and a questionnaire regarding stressful life events over the past half-year were distributed additionally.</p> <p>Results. 67 (40.1%) participants were Latvian students; 100 (59.9%) were international students. 23 (34.3%) Latvian students were in group A, 20 (29.9%) in group B, 24 (35.8%) in group C. 51 (51%) international students were in group A, 34 (34%) in group B, 14 (14%) in group C. Latvians displayed statisti cally significantly more health-related symptoms (0.003). 11 (11%) international students who reported a stressful life event over the last half-year were in group C. 21 (31.3%) of Latvian students who reported a stressful life event over the last half-year were in group C. 73 (43.7%) of all students had experienced stressful life events and displayed troubles adjusting to them. 65 (63.1%) students of the two groups with a stressful life found the event to have a great burden on them, 63 (61.2%) were wondering whether it could happen again, and 73 (70.9%) tried to suppress their feelings.</p> <p>Conclusion. Medical students in Latvia have a high prevalence of healthrelated symptoms. Latvian medical students display more health-related symptoms and symptoms of adjustment disorder. Further research needs to be performed to investigate whether Latvians have a lower threshold for stressors or whether they are exposed to more stressors than international students. The high prevalence of symptoms of adjustment disorder may impact the prospective patient-doctor relationship and the treatment outcome.</p> Kamiar-Kersten Rueckert, Gunta Ancane ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:48:51 +0300 Medea and Argonautics: Medicine, pharmacy, toxicology <p>According to mythical heritage, Medea, a daughter of the king of Colchis (Western Georgia, 13th century BC), famous for her beauty, was very wise and closely associated with plant lore, concoction of medicines, and medical activities. She knew various forms of remedies for internal and external use, respiratory, and so forth. In her therapeutic arsenal, there were medical remedies for a variety of uses: for treatment of various diseases, soporifics, poisons, ointments, miraculous and magical substances as well.</p> <p>Medea prepared the poisons by using special processing of medical remedies – extraction, infusion/tincture, thermal, mechanical, or chemical exposure, or concentration. The principle, according to which the modern medicine is developing, is <em>contraria contrariis curantur</em> (CCC), or contraries are cured, or allopathic medicine. At present, the priority still belongs to CCC. This is the direction that modern medicine and pharmacy throughout the world are following today.</p> <p>The way of effective realization of this principle is a strong chemical source. The stronger the source, the more effective the result. This thesis is based on two major ways of realization of the CCC principle – suppressing and compensating therapy where achieving an effect without a potent substance would not be possible.</p> <p>Toxicology and pharmacy were formed in the Roman Empire at the beginning of our era and are associated with the King of Pontus, a descendant of Colchis – Mithridates VI Eupator. Such a notion as the medicine/drug appeared in the Roman period. The authors do not describe the plant, animal or mineral resources but the product – the characteristics of the drug.</p> <p>Thus, Medea is not only considered a pioneer of cosmetics, hematology, surgery, toxicology, and other areas but also the founder of the way for effective implementation of the main principle of modern medicine and the donor of word root <em>medicine</em>. Afterwards, the term acquired a broader generalization and consequently become a synonym of medical art.</p> Ramaz Shengelia ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:50:50 +0300 Measuring and forecasting fertility <p>Prognosing of fertility has been one of the most important tasks in demography and population statistics. The fertility trends have changed and have a different character in different parts of the world. The very last tendency discovered by M. Myrskylä and others about ten years ago is positive dependency on the human development index. Here the validity of this hypothesis in Europe is proved using the recent data of fertility and HDI.</p> Ene-Margit Tiit ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:52:29 +0300 Medical collections today <p>In 1890 Professor of Anatomy August Antonius Rauber founded a museum of anatomy at the Old Anatomical Theatre in Tartu (Dorpat) in order to illustrate his lectures and to improve the students’ knowledge. As Rauber lectured in German, but most students were Russians, illustrating lectures with models and original specimens was of great significance. Unfortunately, a great number of exhibits of Rauber’s museum, although not all, have been lost in wars. In 1999, the institutes moved from the Old and New Anatomical The atres to the new building of Biomedicum. This, however, could not accommodate the collection of pathological anatomy which had been collected over 200 years, and it remained in the Old Anatomical Theatre. The Club of Friends of the Old Anatomical Theatre succeeded in writing a project to keep the Old Anatomical Theatre and the excellent collection of pathological anatomy alive.</p> <p>In September 2005, a medical exhibition was opened in the same Old Anatomical Theatre again, now under the name of the Medical Collections of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Tartu. The exhibition also acquired a number of new functions.</p> <p>During 2011, the Medical Collections of the Faculty of Medicine cooperated with the Estonian Sports Museum, and the collections were displayed in their exhibition hall.</p> <p>In 2012, the medical exhibition moved to the premises of the Science Centre AHHAA, and since then, educational programmes have been developed.</p> Maie Toomsalu, Pille Randjärv ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 25 Jun 2018 15:54:10 +0300