Villa sorteerimise ja töötlemise mõju lõnga ja kangaste omadustele Muhu saarel kasvanud maalammaste näitel / Effect of the sorting and processing of wool on the properties of yarn and fabric, on the example of the Estonian Native Sheep grown on Muhu Islan
This article gives an overview of our applied research, carried out at the Textile Department of the Pallas University of Applied Sciences, with the objective of finding out how the sorting of the wool of the Estonian Native Sheep grown on Muhu Island affects the properties of the yarn and of the fabric made of this yarn. The research was carried out by participants from the Textile Department of the Pallas University of Applied Sciences, NGO MuhuMaaLammas and the Estonian Native Crafts Department of the University of Tartu Viljandi Culture Academy under the supervision of the lecturer Liina Kool in June 2017— December 2018.
Fleece of Estonian sheep is at present undeservedly under-used. This project was initiated by the NGO MuhuMaaLammas, to meet their need for finding ways of using the wool of an Estonian Native Sheep breed grown on Muhu Island in designing and producing articles made of wool. The research was based on the raw wool shorn off the native sheep grown at Vanaelu farm in Kallaste village on Muhu Island.
Characteristically, the sheep of the native breed have two layers of fleece – the outer and the underlying layers. During our research, we sorted the shorn wool into four groups: 1) lamb’s wool (the age of the animal is up to eight months); 2) wool of fine fibre and regular crimp; 3) wool of thicker fibre and irregular crimp; 4) wool of the coarse, thick and straight outer layer. We examined the structure of fibres of these four types of wool and produced double semi-worsted yarn of all these groups at the wool processing workshop of the UT Viljandi Culture Academy. For comparison, we also had some semi-worsted yarn and carded wool made of the unsorted wool. We used all these types of yarn to weave samples on the loom and with knitting machine. We evaluated the softness of the yarns and fabrics, and the friction resistance and resistance to pilling of the fabric samples.
Based on the results of comparing the six different types of yarn, and of fabrics made of these yarns, we can say that sorting and extracting of the lamb’s wool and the wool shorn from the neck area of sheep is most justified, because in our tests, the fabrics made of the yarn made of these types of wool proved to Effect of the sorting and processing of wool 145 have the best properties. Using of carded wool, made of unsorted wool, gave good results as well: fabric made of such wool proved to be the softest of all fabrics made on looms. We will proceed to next stages of our research in order to encourage designers and small producers to use domestic raw materials more extensively than they do it today.
Keywords: applied research, Estonian native sheep, wool fiber, woollen yarn, semi-worsted yarn, pilling