Distributional Effects of Environmental Taxes in Estonia

Helen Poltimäe, Andres Võrk

Abstract


This paper analyses the distributional effects of Estonian environmental taxes in 2000-2007 and recent reforms in 2008 using Estonian Household Budget Survey data and a microsimulation model. The results show that the share of environmental taxes in consumption expenditures is about 1-1.5%. Environmental taxes in 2000- 2007 were progressive due to the progressivity of motor fuel excises, which was the largest component of the environmental taxes until 2007. Since 2008, the taxes are less progressive, because of the new electricity excise and increased taxes on gas and other inputs used for distance domestic heating. To minimize the disproportionate effect of future ecological tax reform on low-income households, close monitoring of tax developments is required and necessary compensatory policies need to be implemented

Keywords


environmental taxes; distributional effect; microsimulation model; Estonia

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.15157/tpep.v17i0.915



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