Estonian Discussions on Economic Policy Eesti majanduspoliitilised väitlused: Majanduspoliitika teooria ja praktika. <br />Estnische Gespräche über Wirtschaftspolitik: Theorie und Praxis der Wirtschaftspolitik.<br/> In English bis 2015: Discussions on Estonian economic policy: Theory and practice of economic policy. MATTIMAR OÜ en-US Estonian Discussions on Economic Policy 1736-5597 The publication Estonian Discussions on Economic Policy uses the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. With the delivery of a paper, the author grants to the Board also the right to publish the paper in the journal. The journal has set no obstacles or prohibitions to the authors for the future, and according to the current practice, authors subsequently use their paper as they consider it appropriate. Authors are personally responsible for the content, correct spelling and formatting of their publications. Der Wunsch Kataloniens nach Unabhängigkeit – Historische Ursachen und zu erwartende Konsequenzen einer Trennung von Spanien Spätestens mit dem Brexit wird der Blick der Ökonomen verstärkt auf die verschiedensten Unabhängigkeitsbestrebungen insbesondere auch innerhalb von EU-Staaten gelenkt. Im Beitrag wird am Beispiel der aktuell am nachdrücklichsten ihre Autonomie fordernden Region in Europa – was unzweifelhaft Katalonien ist – untersucht, zu welchen grundlegenden ökonomischen Konsequenzen für Gesellschaft, Wirtschaft und für die generelle Zukunftsfähigkeit sowohl des jeweiligen Austrittsgebietes wie auch der verbleibenden Restnation ein solcher Austritt führen würde. Die Untersuchung beschränkt sich auf rein ökonomische Sachanalysen. Es werden drei Fragestellungen analysiert und beantwortet: 1. Welches sind die historischen und aktuellen Ursachen der starken katalanischen Unabhängigkeitsbestrebungen? 2. Wie sieht die Wirtschaftsstruktur Kataloniens im Vergleich zu der des Gesamtstaats Spanien aus: Ist es aus ökonomischen Gründen, z. B. infolge extrem heterogener Wirtschaftsstrukturen, so, dass „Spanien von Katalonien lebt“ und dass insofern aus katalanischer Sicht eine Loslösung von Spanien sinnvoll erscheinen könnte? Um diese Frage zu beantworten, erfolgt eine prägnante Betrachtung zentraler ökonomischer Grunddaten Kataloniens im Vergleich zu denen Spaniens. Von Interesse sind hierbei neben relevanten Fakten der Wirtschaftsstruktur insbesondere das Problem einer zwischen beiden Akteuren aufzuteilenden Staatsverschuldung und die Außenhandelspositionen Kataloniens und Spaniens. 3. Was wären schließlich die ökonomischen Konsequenzen, wenn Katalonien tatsächlich unabhängig von Spanien werden würde – für Katalonien selbst und auch für Spanien? Der Beitrag schließt, indem die Ergebnisse der Analysen überführt werden in hieraus konkret zu erwartende ökonomische Konsequenzen für Katalonien und Spanien einschließlich konkreter Handlungsempfehlung zur Entschärfung dieses Konfliktes. Wolfgang Eibner Chantal Eibner Copyright (c) 2020-10-25 2020-10-25 28 1-2 43 65 10.15157/tpep.v28i1-2.16801 Development of Competences of Customs Officers: Preliminary Insights Estonia is a member of the European Union and is one of the border states of the EU; therefore, Estonia plays an important role in the implementation and further development of the Union's customs policy decisions. In order for all of this to work, the customs officer must be qualified and professionally competent. The competence requirements are developed internally within the institutions and can be used as a basis for the development of professional qualification requirements and, subsequently, professional standards. The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary insigt into the current situation of ensuring and developing the competence of customs officials in Estonia and in the European Union and to identify its further development needs, including the need for drafting and implementing a professional standard. For this purpose, the existence of professional standards for customs officials in the European Union countries, relevant scientific literature and legislation, and the views of the Estonian Tax and Customs Board (TCB) on the importance of a qualified workforce were analyzed. The analysis revealed that no professional standard for customs officers has been drawn up in any of the EU countries, however, in seven countries, in the interest of the private sector, professional standards have been drawn up for the benefit of those involved in customs operations. The TCB has not yet considered it necessary to discuss the applicability of the professional standards but considers it important in the operation of customs policy to have a qualified workforce. Educational institutions in the EU Member States of the International Network of Customs Universities (INCU) declare that they teach customs officers in curricula that meet the competency requirements of the World Customs Organization customs officers. Maret Güldenkoh Indrek Saar Helle Koitla Marika Kaselo Copyright (c) 2020-10-25 2020-10-25 28 1-2 66 84 10.15157/tpep.v28i1-2.16802 A study of People’s Preferences of the Environmental Status of Lake Harku and the Benefits Offered by the Lake and Its Surrounding The article examines the demand of people for the improvement of the condition Lake Harku. Lake Harku is located in a densely populated area on the border of the city of Tallinn and it is in a poor state as a water body according to the EU classification. Two stated preference methods, contingent valuation (CV) and choice experiment (CE), were used for assessing the monetary value people place on the improvement of the ecosystem services of the lake as non-market environmental goods. The results of the work confirmed there is significant willingness to pay for the improvement of the condition of the water body. From a methodological point of view, an important finding is that the CV method yielded lower result than the estimated payment option of the CE. Tea Nõmmann Üllas Ehrlich Sirje Pädam Copyright (c) 2020-10-25 2020-10-25 28 1-2 85 101 Aasta 2020 – ohtlik reaalsus ja majanduspoliitilised ootused Eestis ning mujal maailmas (COVID-19 taustal) The article covers the spread of the corona virus (COVID-19) and developments above all in Estonia but also in other countries (the European Union and other countries of the world). The objective of the article is to provide an overview of the spread of COVID-19 in Estonia and in other parts of the world, also to discuss the potential economic impact of this pandemic and further activities of economic policy for economic recovery and achievement of socio-economic security. The following research tasks were set for the achievement of this objective: to study the situation and development of COVID-19 morbidity in Estonia; to study the developments also in other countries on the background of the developments in Estonia; to assess/analyse and point out the potential damage/losses (the general picture); proceeding from the factors mentioned above, to present the most important socio-economic activities for the recovery of the national economy and ensuring socio-economic security. Matti Raudjärv Copyright (c) 2020-10-25 2020-10-25 28 1-2 102 116 10.15157/tpep.v28i1-2.16804 Professor Üksvärava koolkond juhtimisteaduses: teke, toimimine ja mõjud majandusele This article analyses one quite unique case of international knowledge transfer, which occurred in this time Soviet Estonia from 1960s onwards – the importing of modern US based organisational and management theories to Estonia and adapting and using new approaches and methods in the conditions of planned economy. This process was related to the activity of “founding father” of the Estonian school of thought in management and management development, professor Raoul Üksvärav (1928–2016). The author tries to describe this phenomenon and to explain how this transfer achieved certain results in Estonia. The analysis is partially based on the organisational emulation concept by the US researcher R. Vidmer. The question about impact of this knowledge transfer on the later transition of Estonia to market economy is also addressed in the paper Erik Terk Copyright (c) 2020-10-25 2020-10-25 28 1-2 117 135 10.15157/tpep.v28i1-2.16805 Alcohol Excise Duties Burden in the Baltic Countries The paper comparatively analyses the burden of alcohol excise duties for various levels of income earners in the Baltic countries. Understanding the specific allocation of excise duties across consumer groups is a prerequisite for the efficient design of alcohol policies and taxation strategies. Alcohol excise duties have an impact on alcohol prices, and therefore the social behaviour of individuals and consumption structure in general. Alcohol excise duties are considered to be regressive over incomes. This paper provides a comparative assessment of the relative distribution of the excise tax burden across consumers in the Baltic countries. A correlation analyses and Kakwani indexes are used to measure the regressive characteristics of alcohol excise duties. The statistical analyses are conducted on the basis of a consumer survey carried out in all three Baltic countries in 2015 and 2016. Viktor Trasberg Copyright (c) 2020-10-25 2020-10-25 28 1-2 136 151 10.15157/tpep.v28i1-2.16806