Baltic Journal of Art History 2018-01-02T13:13:55+02:00 Juhan Maiste Open Journal Systems THE BALTIC JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY is a publication of the Department of Art History of the Institute of History and Archaeology of the University of Tartu. Anmerkungen zur Baugeschichte der St. Olaikirche auf Worms (Vormsi) im Bistum Ösel-Wiek (Saare-Lääne) 2018-01-02T13:13:55+02:00 Kaur Alttoa <p>Vormsi is a small island that belonged to the Oesel-Wiek bishopric during the Middle Ages. There is a church on the island that is dedicated to St Olaf, the Norwegian king who was undoubtedly the most popular saint among the Scandinavians. A short article written by Villem Raam in the anthology <em>Eesti Arhitektuur</em> (<em>Estonian </em><em>Architecture</em>, 1996) is the only one worth mentioning that has appeared to date on the architectural history of the Vormsi church.</p><p>The Vormsi church is comprised of a sanctuary and nave. Only the sanctuary was completed during the Middle Ages, and the stone nave was not completed until 1632. During the restoration of the church between 1989 and 1990, fragments were found of the foundation of the wooden church that predated the stone one. It is possible that the wooden church was utilised throughout the Middle Ages as a congregation room.</p><p>Currently, it is believed that the Vormsi sanctuary was built during the 15th century. This dating is based on the pyramid-shaped vault consoles – a similar shape also appears in the chapel of the gate tower in the Padise Cistercian monastery. Actually, the Padise consoles have been reused. Their original location is unknown and their completion is impossible to date even within the time frame of a century.</p><p>The most significant is the eastern wall of the Vormsi sanctuary, where a spacious niche with pointed arch is located. This Cistercian composition was also used in the Haapsalu Cathedral and apparently that was the model for the Vormsi church. The Haapsalu Cathedral is a surprisingly simple single-nave church with three bays. The church has richly decorated capitals on its wall pillars, on which both Romanesque and Early Gothic motifs have been used. At least some of the capitals have been hewn by a master who previously worked on the construction of the capital hall in the Riga Cathedral. The northern section of the Haapsalu Cathedral was apparently built in the 1260s. In the vicinity of Riga there is a church with a floor plan that is an exact counterpart to the one in Haapsalu – the Holme / Martinsala Church that dates back to about the 13th century. Considering both the floor plan and the sculptured decorations, it is believable that the designers and builders of the Haapsalu Cathedral came from the Riga environs.</p><p>Pärnu is also on the Riga-Haapsalu route. Actually, two towns existed there during the Middle Ages. For a short time, Old-Pärnu on the right bank of the river had been the centre of the Oesel-Wiek bishopric before Haapsalu. However, the left bank of the river was controlled by the Livonian Order. There is very little information about the Old-Pärnu Cathedral that was completed around 1251 and destroyed by the Lithuanians in 1263. However, one thing is known – it also had a single-nave with three bays. There is no information about the design of the eastern wall of the cathedral. However, the sanctuary of St Nicholas’ Church in New-Pärnu had an eastern niche similar to the one in Haapsalu. It is not impossible that the motif was borrowed from the cathedral across the river or its ruins. Attention should also be paid to the fact that the design of the northern and southern walls in the sanctuary of Pärnu’s St Nicholas’ Church are similar to the Vormsi church. Therefore, there is no doubt that these two sanctuaries are architecturally and genetically related. Apparently the Vormsi sanctuary was built immediately or soon after the completion of the Haapsalu Cathedral – not later than 1270. It is not impossible that the vaults were constructed sometime later.</p><p>The vault painting in the Vormsi sanctuary is probably inspired by the “paradise vaults” in Gotland. The Vormsi painting is strikingly primitive. In Estonia, this primitive style can also be seen in the churches in Ridala and Pöide.</p><p>There is a squint (hagioscope) on the southern wall of the Vormsi church sanctuary, and an unusual sacrament niche with a light shaft in the eastern wall. This does not date back to the time when the sanctuary was built, but was added later. There have been at least eight such sacrament niches in Estonia, most of which were built in the 15th century.</p> 2017-12-27T16:30:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Glittering Gold of the Paintings in the Great Hall of Õisu Manor’s Main Building 2017-12-27T16:30:05+02:00 Hilkka Hiiop <p>Regardless of its fragmentary and ruined condition, the painting find described in this article provides a small reference to what existed in the interiors of the Õisu Manor and affirmation of the fact that, as expected,<br />the interior design corresponds to the splendour of the manor’s exterior form. The complete design of the room admittedly cannot be reconstructed on the basis of what has survived, yet the work of conservators has made it possible to read that which has survived. The analogies provided in the article and the imagination of the spectator make it possible for each individual to create his/her own picture of what the original whole of the spatial design once looked like.</p> 2017-12-27T16:30:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Carl August Senff (1770–1838) im Kontext der Deutschen Kunst und sein Wirken in Tartu (Dorpat) 2017-12-27T16:30:05+02:00 Gerd-Helge Vogel <p>Carl August Senff is among the most important artists of Academic<br />Neoclassicism in the Baltic region. As drawing master at the University of Tartu, he conveyed the artistic experience he had acquired, primarily during his years in Saxony in Leipzig and Dresden, to a significant number of students. In this way, Senff established the basis for the independent development of the arts in Estonia.</p><p>This essay examines Senff’s early artistic roots in Germany and draws attention to the close, personal relations with his artist friends who served as a fundamental source, guiding light, and creative impulse for his own drawing and painting throughout his life. Senff’s stylistic development began with a sentimental neoclassicism that gradually transformed into Biedermeier realism. Portraits and landscapes in various techniques were Senff’s preferred genres, especially as graphic prints. Senff’s mastery of the new technique of lithography became an<br />important model for his many students.</p> 2017-12-27T16:30:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Carl Julius Senff (1804–1832) – ein Kurzes Künstlerleben als Architekt, Zeichner und Grafiker 2017-12-27T16:30:05+02:00 Gerd-Helge Vogel <p>Carl Julius Senff was a talented artist with wide-ranging knowledge of art and architecture, who first received art lessons from his father Carl August Senff in Tartu. From 1823 to 1827, Carl Julius Senff studied philosophy at the University of Tartu and illustrated several publications while still a student. For example, in 1825 he published a textbook on perspective called<em> Perspective für Landschaftsmaler zum </em><em>Selbststudium</em>.</p><p>Although Carl Julius Senff’s life was cut short, he was still able to travel extensively. In 1829, he travelled to Jena for three years where he acquired a doctoral degree in philosophy. His earliest drawings also date from this period and, based on them, we can also partially reconstruct the route of his travels. From Jena, he travelled to Prague, Vienna and Munich. In 1831, he travelled to Italy where he lived in Rome. The young artist and scholar was destined to become the new professor of architecture at the University of Tartu but, unfortunately, Carl Julius Senff fell ill during his last trip and died in Milan.</p><p>The article is based to a great degree on unpublished archival documents as well as the personal correspondence of Carl Julius Senff and his father Carl August Senff.</p> 2017-12-27T16:30:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Appearance of Hans and Jaan. A 17th Century Epitaph Painting Donated by Estonian Peasants 2017-12-27T16:30:05+02:00 Merike Kurisoo Aivar Põldvee <p>The epitaph donated by Hans and Jaan, two peasants from Türi parish, is evidence of the acceptance of ecclesiastic values and religious devotion among the Estonian peasantry. Other examples of this tendency from the Swedish era also exist. For instance, the grand wheel crosses, typical for North Estonia, that were once located in the Türi churchyard; and a chandelier (1659) donated by a peasant in the Keila church, the size of which exceeds those gifted by manor lords. From a later period, the stained-glass coats of arms of the peasantry in the Ilumäe chapel (1729) are also an example of this heightened sense of self-awareness and its display in houses of worships.</p><p>Along with the hundreds and hundreds of works donated to churches by nobles, the epitaph painting depicting the Adoration of the Shepherds is a rare example of a painting gifted to a church by farmers, which also commemorates them. Hans and Jaan have now earned a place in Estonian (art) history: the pictures of the two simple men are the first known portraits of peasants whose names we know.</p> 2017-12-27T16:30:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mit dem Professor in den Garten. Mit dem Garten verbundene Gegenstände und Bücher im Nachlassverzeichnis des 1766 verstorbenen Professors des Gymnasiums zu Reval (Tallinn) Heinrich Benjamin Hessler 2017-12-27T16:30:06+02:00 Risto Paju <p>The article examines whether an 18th century man of letters in Tallinn might use (exotic plants) to design his living environment and spend his free time growing them and how he would do this. It is only possible to speculate about the answers. The inventory compiled in 1766 for the assets of Heinrich Benjamin Hessler, rector and technology professor at Tallinn Secondary School, includes many entries related to gardening, which may allude to his interest in gardening. Therefore, he has been chosen as the main character for this article.</p><p>It turns out that gardening could be the part of the life of an 18th century man of letters with a focus on both the beauty and practical aspects. Considering the fact that travelling and visiting exotic places was not an everyday occurrence, growing exotic plants helped to make one’s living environment more interesting, diverse and also fulfilled educational goals. Based on the inventory, it seems that Professor Hessler was sufficiently wealthy to spend his resources on such a luxury. In addition, gardening was a way of relaxing and provided a respite from intensive intellectual work.</p> 2017-12-27T16:30:06+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Re-Bound Book Covers from the Island of Piirissaar, Estonia 2017-12-27T16:30:06+02:00 Alar Läänelaid Tomasz Ważny <p>Old Believers’ service books from the Piirissaar house of prayer in Estonia were rescued from a fire and the damaged oak boards of the wooden covers of one of the books were dendrochronologically dated back to AD 1353. The dendrochronological reference shows that the oak wood originates from East Pomerania-Gdansk region. The intriguing fact is that the book was not printed until 1879 in Moscow. The seemingly contradictory dates and locations can be explained by the adventurous history of the Old Believers sects in Russia. The Old Believers were suppressed during the Russian Orthodox Church reforms between 1652 and 1666 and many of them escaped to remote marginal areas of the empire or emigrated, e.g. to Rzeczpospolita. Due to lively communication between the Old Believers’ congregations, their literature moved from country to country. In this case, a newer book of the Old Believers was bound with old wooden covers from Poland.</p> 2017-12-27T16:30:06+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## IX. Internationales Symposium zur baltischen literarischen Kultur: Medien der Aufklärung. Aufklärung der Medien 2017-12-27T16:30:06+02:00 Liina Lukas <p>Das IX. Internationale Symposium zur baltischen literarischen Kultur fand vom 4.–6. September 2017 in Tartu statt. Veranstaltet im Zusammenarbeit der Institute für Kulturwissenschaften und Künste sowie für Fremdsprachen und Kulturen der Universität Tartu.</p> 2017-12-27T16:30:06+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##