Baltic Journal of Art History http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/bjah <p>THE BALTIC JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY is a publication of the Department of Art History of&nbsp;the Institute of History and Archaeology of the University of Tartu.<br><br>The concept of the journal is to publish high-quality academic articles on art history of a monographic character or in shorter form. These articles are focused on new and interesting problems and artefacts that can help broaden the communication and interpretation horizons of art history in the Baltic Sea region and Europe. The journal has an international editorial board and each submitted manuscript will be reviewed by two anonymous reviewers. The board will pass the decision on publishing the article on the basis of a short summary as well as the full text and reviewers’ opinions.</p> <p>The languages of the journal are English and German, but next to them also Italian and French.</p> University of Tartu Press en-US Baltic Journal of Art History 1736-8812 Foreword http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/bjah/article/view/BJAH.2022.23.01 Kadri Asmer Copyright (c) 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 23 10.12697/BJAH.2022.23.01 Why Is There a Trefoil Motif From Karja Church in Pikk Street in Tallinn? Based on the Example of the Restoration of the In-Situ Gothic Portal in Pikk Street 7, How Medieval Is the Medieval Architecture of Tallinn Old Town? http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/bjah/article/view/BJAH.2022.23.02 <p>Although Tallinn is known for its authentic medieval architecture,<br>the closer to details we delve, to view the medieval buildings from<br>the perspective of particulars, or the history of things, following the<br>method of its apologist Ivan Gaskell, and take one concrete artefact as<br>a starting point and basis, the more variegated the picture becomes.<br>The portal of the medieval building in Pikk Street 7 contains some<br>of the more interesting restoration questions. This article here looks at<br>the story of the restoration of a Gothic portal of a medieval residence<br>in Tallinn. When we stand on Pikk Street today and take a cursory<br>look at the portal of the house number 7, with the masonry windows<br>on either side of it, it may seem that this medieval portal ensemble</p> <p>has survived as well as the one in Vene 17 in Tallinn. However, the<br>portal of Pikk 7 has been chosen as the subject of this article because it<br>contains one of the most interesting and well-documented restoration<br>stories of a medieval Gothic portal in Tallinn Old Town. How did it<br>happen that these two leave a similar impression?<br>The article submits that the residence at Pikk 7 is indeed partially<br>part of the medieval stonemasonry tradition of Tallinn, but certainly<br>to a lesser extent than the portal of Vene 17, which has survived in its<br>original shape and place and has not been demolished and restored.<br>The perspective portal of Pikk 7 is medieval to the same extent as<br>it is from the 20th century and adds to the restoration history of<br>Tallinn as much as to the studies of the medieval architecture of<br>Tallinn. The Middle Ages have been the main target era and Gothic<br>the main target style of the restoration of the building at Pikk 7 – the<br>end results have been aimed at the dominance of those. However, it<br>was decided not to restore the high gable with the blind niches that<br>characterise the medieval residences of Tallinn.<br>To conclude, a fitting thought from Juhan Maiste, ‘Every single<br>thing has a double meaning which tells us of the people to whom<br>those things once used to belong, but also of those who have cleaned<br>and restored them, brought them, whether in their natural form or<br>as a verbal text, back into the light.’ (Juhan Maiste, “Arvustus: Tagasi asjade juurde. Raimo Pullat. Tallinlase asjademaailm<br>valgustussajandil”, Akadeemia, 9 (2017), 1694.)<br>The article is based on official restoration documentation,<br>restoration critique in the press, and personal work memoirs of<br>restorer Aarne Joonsaar.</p> Risto Paju Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 23 10.12697/BJAH.2022.23.02 Safavid and Portuguese Christian Influence on Saint Stepanos Monastery in Julfa, Iran http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/bjah/article/view/BJAH.2022.23.03 <p>The Monastery of Saint Stepanos, in Julfa, is located in northwestern<br>Iran, in the province of East Azerbaijan. Whilst the exact<br>date of construction is unknown, the building displays exceptional<br>architecture. It is believed that the monastery was built between the<br>tenth and seventeenth centuries, and this doubt emphasises the need<br>to investigate the nature of structure and decoration. The Monastery<br>is situated in a deep canyon beside the Araxes river, on the Iranian<br>side of the border between Iran and the Nakhichevan Autonomous<br>Republic in Azerbaijan. It was originally built in the ninth century,<br>and was rebuilt during the Safavid era after being damaged by wars<br>and earthquakes. Considering that scholars and travel writers, such as<br>the French Traveller Taurine, consider the construction of this building<br>to be from the Safavid period, probing the structural and decorative<br>similarities of this building with Safavid period architecture can be<br>a way of dating this outstanding historical monument. During the<br>Safavid period, the Portuguese arrival on the island of Hormuz in<br>the Persian Gulf (1515–1622 AD) prepared the ground for the arrival<br>and activity of European Christians, who spread Christianity and its<br>culture. One of the earliest consequences of this was the construction<br>of the Monastery and other Christian architecture. The basic objectives<br>of the article are to study the influence of Portuguese Christian<br>architecture on the construction of Saint Stepanos Monastery, and to<br>investigate the influence of Safavid structural design on its architecture.<br>The main questions, are what influence has the architecture of Saint<br>Stepanos Monastery had on Christian architecture in Portugal,<br>and what influence did the architecture the Monastery have on the<br>architecture of the Safavid period?<br>This research for this article is descriptive and analytical based on<br>historical information, available documents and existing images. An<br>examination of the architectural similarities between Saint Stepanos</p> <p>Monastery in Julfa and Christian architecture in Portugal is essential<br>for a more accurate understanding of the Monastery.</p> Mahnaz Shayestehfar Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 23 10.12697/BJAH.2022.23.03 Migrant Church: Icons and Wall Paintings of the Wooden Church of St Nicholas in Hradec Králove http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/bjah/article/view/BJAH.2022.23.04 <p>The church of St Nicholas, which is now located on the territory of<br>Jiráskovy sady Park in Hradec Králové, Czech Republic, was originally<br>built in the village of Habura (Slovakia). During the 2017 restoration,<br>the iconostasis was dismantled, which made it possible to study the<br>wall painting, preserved in fragments. The article examines the icons<br>on the church walls, in the sanctuary and in the iconostasis, and the<br>wall painting in the context of the activity of their authors. Most of<br>the icons are attributed to the centre of church art in the town of<br>Rybotychi (today the village of Rybotycze in Fredropol district of<br>the Subcarpathian Voivodeship of Poland). In addition to the manner<br>of painting and of the frame carving of the icons, the history of the<br>church’s relocation shows that it was originally built in the epicentre<br>of the activity of these masters on the border of the Peremyshl (today<br>the town of Przemyśl, Subcarpathian Voivodeship of Poland) and<br>Mukachevo (today a town in Ukraine) dioceses of the Ukrainian (than<br>called Rus’ka) church. The chronology of the icon painting is related<br>to the transfers and rededications of the church. The connection<br>of the wall painting with the painting style of the master Yakiv<br>of Rybotychi, who, as we assume, was the leading master of this<br>centre in the 1670s and 1680s, is substantiated. Associated with his<br>authorship are icons originating from the churches of Habura’s<br>neighbouring villages. This confirms our hypothesis that the wall<br>painting was created in the 1670s. Church icons belong to masters<br>whose other works have been identified in museum collections and<br>in churches in Slovakia, Poland and Ukraine.</p> Roksolana Kosiv Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 23 10.12697/BJAH.2022.23.04 Ukrainian Iconography of the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries: Trends and Leading Schools http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/bjah/article/view/BJAH.2022.23.05 <p>The article deals with the development of modern Ukrainian<br>iconography and the formation of the main centres and regional<br>schools, tracing artistic and stylistic features and trends. The<br>article analyses the activities of the Kyiv and Lviv art schools in<br>the field of sacred art. The main features of the development of<br>modern iconography are identified, and the creativity of leading<br>specialists and iconographers, genres, and technological specifics<br>of iconography are studied. The scientific novelty of this research<br>consists in a comprehensive study of modern Ukrainian iconography,<br>taking into account artistic and stylistic, regional, technological,<br>and canonical aspects. Features of the formation of art schools and<br>associations of sacred art in Ukraine are traced.<br>The aim of the study is to determine the main trends in the<br>development of modern Ukrainian iconography and to identify the<br>influence of the leading schools in the field of sacred art.<br>The methodological basis is a comprehensive analysis of cultural<br>and artistic phenomena in chronological and theoretical aspects of<br>the development of modern sacred art in Ukraine.</p> Ihor Kovalchuk Roksolana Patyk Nataliia Benyakh Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 23 10.12697/BJAH.2022.23.05 Colours of the Past: Considerations on Photographic Colourisation of Archival Photographs http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/bjah/article/view/BJAH.2022.23.06 <p>This essay addresses the subject of the automatic colourisation of<br>archival black and white photographs using artificial intelligence. In<br>the context of digitisation, there is an increasing number of collections<br>available. Since in most cases the photographs were taken in black<br>and white due to technical limitations, rather than the artistic choice<br>of the photographer, colourisation is potentially helpful for archivists<br>and anthropologists in decrypting new meaning from archival<br>collections. Colourisation is a process around which several questions<br>revolve, both in terms of the usefulness of colourised photographs<br>and the ethical dimension. This study reviews reasons both for and<br>against colourisation. Research in the field of technology currently<br>concentrates on technical details, with attention focused almost<br>entirely on the process without looking critically at potential utility<br>in other fields. Anthropologists, historians, archivists, and digital<br>humanities researchers could benefit from these automated processes<br>if they were made accessible. The main purpose of this paper is to<br>initiate a debate that will result in an interdisciplinary collaboration<br>between the technical and the humanities fields.</p> Eduard-Claudiu Gross Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors 2022-09-12 2022-09-12 23 10.12697/BJAH.2022.23.06