The Ethics of Exploitation
Philosophical inquiry into exploitation has two major deficiencies to date: it assumes that exploitation is wrong by definition; and it pays too much attention to the Marxian account of exploitation. Two senses of exploitation should be distinguished: the 'moral' or pejorative sense and the 'non-moral' or 'non-prejudicial' sense. By demonstrating the conceptual inadequacy of exploitation as defined in the first sense, and by defining exploitation adequately in the latter sense, we seek to demonstrate the moral complexity of exploitation. We contend, moreover, that moral evaluation of exploitation is only possible once we abandon a strictly Marxian framework and attempt, in the long run, to develop an integral ethic along Godwinian lines.
Arneson, R. J. (2001). Exploitation, in L. C. Becker (ed.), Encyclopedia of Ethics, 2nd edn, Routledge, London, pp. 515-517.
Bookchin, M. (1991). Ecology of Freedom: The Emergence and Dissolution of Hierarchy, 2nd edn, Black Rose Books, Montreal.
Cohen, G. A. (1983). Karl Marx. by Allen W. Wood, Mind 92: 440-445.
Feinberg, J. (1988). Harmless Wrongdoings, Vol. 4 of The Moral Limits of Criminal Law, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Godwin, W. (1793). An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice and Its Influence on General Virtue and Happiness, Robinson, London. 2 vols.
Goodin, R. E. (1997). Exploitation. by Alan Wertheimer, The American Political Science Review 91: 733-734.
Levine, A. (1988). Arguing For Socialism, Verso, London.
McLellan, D. (2007). Marxism After Marx, 4th edn, Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
Roemer, J. (1982). A General Theory of Exploitation and Class, Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
Roemer, J. (1986). “Rational choice” Marxism: some issues of method and substance, in J. Roemer (ed.), Analytical Marxism, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Sample, R. J. (2003). Exploitation: What It Is and Why It’s Wrong, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham.
Wertheimer, A. (1996). Exploitation, Princeton University Press, Princeton.
Wertheimer, A. (2005). Exploitation, in E. N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, summer edn. URL: http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2005/entries/exploitation/
Wertheimer, A. (2007). Exploitation: What it is and why it’s wrong. by Ruth J. Sample, Utilitas 19: 259-260.
Wolff, J. (2002). Why Read Marx Today?, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Wood, A. (2004). Karl Marx, 2nd edn, Routledge, London.