Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis <p><em>Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis</em> is a multidisciplinary journal publishing papers on diverse subjects from sports and exercise sciences.</p> University of Tartu Press en-US Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis 1406-9822 Low-volume high-intensity interval training for children with obesity: a commentary <p>Obesity is the most common chronic disease in childhood, and is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) later in life. Being obese is inversely associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in children. Increased CRF may negate the detrimental effects of obesity-associated risk factors for CVD, while poor CRF has been associated with increased arterial stiffness and higher levels of blood inflammatory markers. The use of time efficient high-intensity interval training (HIIT) to reduce CVD risk factors and body mass, improve CRF and other health parameters has become popular during the last years in adults with obesity. However, a relatively few studies have investigated the effect of HIIT on body composition, CRF and cardiometabolic biomarkers in children with obesity. It is expected that low-volume HIIT programs are feasable for community-based body mass reduction and health promotion in children with obesity.</p> Jaak Jürimäe Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 26 7 15 10.12697/akut.2020.26.01 The role of perceived coaching behaviours on sport performance among female aesthetic group gymnasts <p>This study aimed to test the relations of perceived autonomy-supportive and controlling behaviours from coaches with athletes’ sport performance during competition in a context of female aesthetic group gymnastics. In line with self-determination theory, it was expected that the sequence of perceived psychological needs satisfaction and autonomous motivation, and psychological needs frustration and controlled motivation would mediate these relationships. Female aesthetic group gymnasts (n=128) ages 11–20 years completed self-report measures of perceived autonomysupportive and controlling behaviours from coaches, athletes’ needs satisfaction and needs frustration, including the need for novelty, as well as athletes’ autonomous and controlled motivation. Athletes’ objective performance during the competition was also obtained. Results from the single-indicator structural equation modelling analyses revealed a positive, indirect relationship between perceived autonomy-supportive behaviour from coaches and athletes’ performance mediated by the sequence of needs satisfaction and autonomous motivation. Significant indirect relationship between perceived controlling behaviour from coaches and athletes’ performance mediated by the sequence of needs frustration and controlled motivation was not followed. However, a negative direct relationship of controlled motivation, instigated by needs frustration, on athletes’ performance was evident. Findings suggest that perceived autonomy-supportive behaviour from coaches is an essential antecedent to athletes’ performance in a female aesthetic group gymnastics.</p> Andre Koka Henri Tilga Triin Põder Hanna Kalajas-Tilga Vello Hein Lennart Raudsepp Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 26 16 32 10.12697/akut.2020.26.02 Rethinking extra-time in major national football tournaments <p>Extra-time (ET) of 30 minutes is played if football match scores are level after 90 minutes in tournament knockout play. The demanding schedule of these tournaments along with possible ET matches in the knockout stages significantly increase players’ overload and injury risk. Present study aimed to determine whether ET during major football national team tournaments contributes to the game outcome. Data on the percentage of elimination matches that needed ET, and the percentage of ET matches that eventually required shootouts were retrieved. Over the years, increased number of participating teams lead to increased number of knockout games, and more knockout games needed ET (13% until 1978, 33% from 1982, in FIFA World Cup). In a significant percentage of matches, the ET itself did not determine the winning team, and the majority of ET matches winners were determined by shootouts (FIFA World Cup since 1982: 60.8%; UEFA European championship: 61.3%; Copa America: 92%). The purpose of playing ET is to make a fair game outcome, and not leave the winning decision for shootouts. However, since in most matches ET does not determine the winner, while significantly increasing the player’s overload and injury susceptibility, the need for ET mandates rethinking.</p> Alon Eliakim Eyal Taoz Dan Nemet Eyal Eliakim Sigal Ben-Zaken Yoav Meckel Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 26 33 39 10.12697/akut.2020.26.03 Injuries in Estonian professional ballet dancers in the 2019/2020 season <p>The aim of the study was to find the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries in Estonia professional ballet dancers in the 2019/2020 season. A total of 62 dancers participated in the study, 25 were male and 37 female dancers. This study was a questionnaire-based, which was compiled on similar studies to collect the data among ballet dancers working in Estonia. The study showed that 58% of dancers were injured in the last 12 months. The most common type of dance injury during this period was muscle or tendon strain (33%), followed chronic inflammation (21%) and ankle sprain (20%). The most common injured body site was foot (20%), ankle (18%) and knee joint (10%). The highest number of injuries occurred during rehearsals (44%), classical class (27%), and during performances (16%). More than half of Estonian ballet dancers sustained at least one injury during the last twelve months. The most common types of injury were muscle or tendon strain, chronic inflammation and ankle sprain. The highest number of injuries occurred in the foot, whereas the highest number of injuries occurred during rehearsals.</p> Tarmo Riitmuru Jelena Sokk Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 26 40 48 10.12697/akut.2020.26.04 Efficacy of a multimodal physiotherapy treatment program for postural disorders and pain: a case report <p>The participant of this study was a 40-year-old female, who mainly complained of middle thoracic stiffness and pain in extension at the mid thoracic level with hyperkyphosis, forward head and mild thoracic dextroscoliosis. The subject participated in multimodal home-based physiotherapy program with the duration of 9 months, consisting of posture exercises, soft tissue massage therapy and thoracic manipulations. Comparison of initial and final evaluation revealed the improvement in all evaluated variables, including the reduction of thoracic hyperkyphosis, forward head posture and thoracic dextroscoliosis, freer and less painful thoracic spine extension mobility, no pain in the sacroiliac joint, and increased satisfaction with the posture. There was also notable improvement in the algometry of the paraspinal muscles, equalization of functional lower-leg length and rib-pelvic distance of both sides of body. In conclusion, the proposed physiotherapy protocol can be beneficial in addressing postural faults such as thoracic hyperkyphosis, forward head and scoliosis. However, further research is needed with a larger sample.</p> Kirkke Reisberg Caris-Helena Kaup Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 26 49 60 10.12697/akut.2020.26.05 The effect of Estonian folk dance practice on static balance performance in young females <p>The aim of the present study was to establish the changes that occur in dancers’ static body balance indicators during rest, in case of interfering factors and in stress condition. The sample consisted of 14 advanced female folk dancers at the age of 16–20 years. The participants’ static body balance was measured at the beginning (in the autumn) and at the end (in the spring) of the eight-month dancing period. Static body balance indicators were registered on a dynamographic platform within 30 seconds, standing on bipedal on stable and unstable support surface in eyes-open (EO) and eyes-closed (EC) conditions. The Flamingo test balance control, the balance control after spinning around and jumping tests were conducted only in EO condition. The following parameters were registered: the movements of the centre of pressure (CoP) in the anterior-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) dimensions; the length, speed and area of the trajectory. According to the study, folk dancers’ CoP movements in the AP and ML dimensions, measured in different conditions (EO, EC), on stable and unstable support surface, did not change significantly after the eight-month dancing practice. The young folk dancers’ static body balance, assessed by CoP movement trajectory, speed and area, improved considerably over the eight-month training period. Flamingo test results indicate that practising folk dance develops the young female folk dancers’ right and left side static stability equally. In the context of Estonian folk dance practice, including preparation for performing at dance festival, the young female folk dancers’ balance performance improved both in vestibular instability (spins, standing on unstable support surface and in EO condition) and fatigue (jumping test) conditions.</p> Leili Väisa Jaan Ereline Mati Pääsuke Tatjana Kums Copyright (c) 2020-12-31 2020-12-31 26 61 71 10.12697/akut.2020.26.06