Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/AKUT <p><em>Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis</em> is a multidisciplinary journal publishing papers on diverse subjects from sports and exercise sciences.</p> University of Tartu Press en-US Acta Kinesiologiae Universitatis Tartuensis 1406-9822 Gait parameters of individuals with Parkinson disease decline during one-year period https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/AKUT/article/view/akut.2019.25.01 <p>Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease, influencing mainly elderly. The key motor factor affecting the level of participation in activities of daily living is the gait function, which is known to be progressively impaired in PD. However, gait characteristics also worsen due to normal aging. The main aim of this study was to investigate whether gait parameters decline in individuals with PD in an interval of one year compared to healthy elderly. Selected gait characteristics were recorded using 3-D optoelectronic movement analysis system ELITE in 13 patients with mild-to-moderate PD and 13 age- and gender-matched controls. Hoehn and Yahr Scale and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale were used for clinical assessment. It was found that PD patients walk with significantly shorter steps and stride and reduced gait speed. In one year, the stride length initiated with right foot and stride walk ratio further decrease in PD patients. On re-evaluation the percentages of stance, swing and double support phase differed significantly between groups. In second measurement, control subjects walked with reduced step width. It was concluded that gait speed and stride length decline in patients with PD in a period of one year, whereas no indication of deterioration of gait function is evident in healthy controls.</p> Kadri Medijainen Mati Pääsuke Aet Lukmann Pille Taba Copyright (c) 2020-01-02 2020-01-02 25 7 18 10.12697/akut.2019.25.01 Maintenance of weight loss and aerobic capacity one year aft er the end of a lifestyle intervention focusing on nutritional guidance and/or exercise https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/AKUT/article/view/akut.2019.25.02 <p>The aims of this study were to: 1) investigate to what extent participants in a lifestyle intervention program, including nutritional guidance and two weekly intensive running sessions, maintain improvements in aerobic capacity and health parameters one year after the end of an intervention; and 2) identify common determinants for those participants who succeeded in weight loss maintenance. A total of 51 participants completed the 33-week intervention. One year after the end of the intervention period (1YA) 34 participants completed anthropometric measurements, 12 (8 women) in the training group (TG) and 22 (13 women) in the nutritional guidance and training group (NTG). A total of 13 participants (9 women) in the TG and 11 participants (7 women) in the NTG completed a 3000 m running test. There were no significant differences in body mass index, 3000 m running time or waist circumference between the groups 1YA. There was however, substantial variation in both groups as to what extent participants had maintained their weight loss. Higher self-efficacy and self-control in relation to food and exercise characterized those who best maintained their weight loss.</p> Gerd L. Nordbotten Leif I. Tjelta Merete H. Helland Copyright (c) 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 25 19 36 10.12697/akut.2019.25.02 Comparison of muscle activation and barbell kinematics during bench press with different loads https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/AKUT/article/view/akut.2019.25.03 <p>The aim of this study was to compare barbell kinematics and muscle patterning in bench press with different loads, but with maximum effort, in young males with resistance training experience. Ten healthy experiences strength-training males (aged 27.3±5.9 years, body mass 82.8±16.6 kg, height 1.78±0.05 m, experience 7.3±4.2 years) performed maximal effort bench presses (1–2 repetitions) with loads varying from 30%, with 10% increments until 100% of 1-RM. Muscle activity of seven muscles and barbell kinematics were measured during descending and ascending phases. Average and peak upwards lifting velocity increased, while lifting time decreases with each decreasing load. In general, the maximal activation of most muscles decreases with decreasing loads, but it was not linear. No effect of loads was shown for the biceps brachii and posterior deltoid muscles. Based upon these findings, it was concluded that maximal lifting velocity may compensate for increased loads, which may allow resistancetrained males who are both healthy or in rehabilitation to avoid heavy loads but experience similar muscle activation. By decreasing the loads, the mechanical stress decreases and time to recover is reduced. Using lower loads with maximal lifting velocity may allow athletes to increase the total volume without increasing the risk of injuries.</p> Roland van den Tillaar Colby Sousa Copyright (c) 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 25 37 50 10.12697/akut.2019.25.03 Body composition and physical ability of trained and non-trained elderly women https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/AKUT/article/view/akut.2019.25.04 <p>Body composition and physical ability affect the life quality and health condition of elderly people. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare body composition and physical ability of regularly trained and non-trained elderly women. 22 elderly women in the average age 74 years were divided into two groups based on their physical activity: twice a week training and non-training groups. Body weight, body height, blood pressure and waist-hip ratio were measured, and the body composition was evaluated with a SECA 525 analyser. A handgrip strength test, a “Timed Up and Go” test, “Five Times Sit to Stand” test were also performed by the participants. Based on the results of the study, the following conclusions were made: regularly training women had lower body mass index and systolic blood pressure than non-trained women in the same age; regularly training women had lower body fat mass and higher total body water, fat-free mass and muscle mass than non-training women in the same age; regularly training women had greater hand grip strength than nontraining women in the same age; regularly training women performed “Five Times Sit to Stand” test and “Timed Up and Go” test faster than non-training women in the same age.</p> Kertu Hernits Ivi Vaher Copyright (c) 2020-01-03 2020-01-03 25 51 57 10.12697/akut.2019.25.04 Habitual physical activity pattern and its association with gender and body composition in healthy adults https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/AKUT/article/view/akut.2019.25.05 <p>An appropriate level of physical activity (PA) is beneficial for health and weight management. This study examines the relationship of habitual PA and activity energy expenditure (AEE) in a typical week with gender and body composition parameters. Data of habitual PA of 72 healthy adults were collected with the heart rate and motion sensor (Actiheart). Total and segmental body fat was measured with bioelectrical impedance analyser. Men were more active in total and on working days and had shorter light and longer moderate and vigorous PA on working days than females (p&lt;0.05). Females had less inactive and sitting time on days off. Inactive and sitting time in working days for both genders correlated positively with visceral fat rating, body and leg fat % (p&lt;0.05). In male’s duration of working days’ moderate PA correlated inversely, but light PA positively with these parameters (p&lt;0.05). Males with more vigorous PA in working day and AEE in days off had lower body fat % (p&lt;0.05). A distinctive PA pattern on working days and days off indicates a gender-related differences. Decrease of time of inactivity and light PA and increase of duration of moderate and vigorous PA was associated with lower body and segmental fat amount.</p> Rudīte Lagzdiņa Maija Rumaka Copyright (c) 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 25 58 74 10.12697/akut.2019.25.05 The effect of motivational music on aerobic and anaerobic performance among overweight children https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/AKUT/article/view/akut.2019.25.06 <p>The present study examined whether background music improves aerobic and anaerobic performance in overweight children. Eleven participants (14.6±1.5 yrs, BMI%: 94.3±6.5) performed aerobic (20m Shuttle Run) and anaerobic (repeated sprint test – RST) field tests. Ten participants (12.0±2.1 yrs, BMI%:97.4±1.6) performed aerobic (treadmill running) and anaerobic (Wingate Anaerobic Test – WAnT) laboratory tests. Treadmill running time was significantly longer with, compared to without, music (11.9±1.5 versus 10.6±2.2 min, respectively; p&lt;0.007). There was no significant difference in the 20m shuttle run distance with or without music. Total sprint time was significantly faster during RST with, compared to without, music (47.7±4.7 versus 48.5±5.5 s, respectively; p&lt;0.04), with no significant difference in ideal sprint time and performance decrement. There was no significant difference in peak and mean anaerobic power and fatigue index during the WAnT with and without music. Motivational music may be used to improve aerobic and anaerobic performance among overweight children.</p> Alon Eliakim Michal Eliakim Michal Pantanowitz Yoav Meckel Dan Nemet Copyright (c) 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 25 75 87 10.12697/akut.2019.25.06 Physical fitness of physiotherapy students https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/AKUT/article/view/akut.2019.25.07 <p>One of the inevitable and crucial elements of a physiotherapist’s work, in addition to professional competence, is physical fitness. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the level of health and physical fitness of the first year physiotherapy program students in Tartu Health Care College (THCC) and Kaunas College of Applied Sciences (KCAS). The subjects were 20 and 29 physiotherapy students, respectively. The students’ physical fitness has been assessed by the following tests: Hand grip test, Stork test, ACSM’s push up test, Biering–Sorensen test, ACSM’s curl up test, YMCA sit– and– reach test, and Harvard step–test. The physical fitness level of THCC students were average and below average in different categories. Only the endurance of the abdominal muscle of THCC male students was “excellent”. However, the health indicators (BMI and waist-hip ratio) of both gender of THCC remained within normal range. In most tests, both male and female students from KCAS received a good grade and their avarage fitness level was better than students from THCC. Despite the fact that BMI results of KCAS students remained within normal range and did not differ from THCC students result, their waist–hip ratio was higher. This may indicate an increased abdominal obesity and thereby health risk. In conclusion, the fintess level of the first-year physiotherapy students of THCC is not satisfactory that can negatively affect their future health and coping with future work.</p> Edward Juhkam Ivi Vaher Copyright (c) 2020-01-04 2020-01-04 25 88 96 10.12697/akut.2019.25.07