The Greek bandit Fotios Giagoulas: An introduction to his mummified head and future conservation aims

  • Anastasia Karamanou Department of Conservation of Archaeological Antiquities and Works of Art, T.E.I. of Athens, Athens
  • Maria Stefanidou Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, School of Medicine, University of Athens, Athens
Keywords: Museum of Criminology, Fotios Giagoulas, mummification process, conservation, X-ray, CT scan, SEM


This investigation presents the level of preservation and examination plan for a mummified head from the early 20th century. The head belongs to a legendary Greek bandit displayed at the Museum of Criminology, Athens. This investigation aimed to understand the mummification process employed, the conservation history of the head, record the current preservation status using photography, and to recognise evidence of biological deterioration. The suggested techniques include examination using X-ray radiography, CT scanning and the analysis of samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The photographic documentation showed the head has recently started to deteriorate. The examination formed the basis for conservation, preservation and the ongoing study of the head.


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