Biography of Professor Eber Landau and his contribution to anthropology, anatomy and neurology at the universities in Estonia, Lithuania and Switzerland

  • Aleksandras Vitkus Department of Histology and Embryology, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
  • Andres Arend Department of Anatomy, University of Tartu
  • Margus Puusepp Department of Anatomy, University of Tartu
  • Marina Aunapuu Department of Anatomy, University of Tartu
  • Vytautas Siudikas Department of Social Medicine, Lithuanian University of Health Sciences
Keywords: Eber Landau, history of medicine, Landau reflex, synarmotic cells of Landau


This article provides an overview of the scientific activities of Professor Eber Landau (1878–1959) in Estonia, Lithuania, France, and Switzerland. In addition to providing chronological data about the academic life of Prof. Landau, in particular at the Universities of Tartu, Bern, Kaunas, and Lausanne, the article emphasizes his contribution to the development of anatomy, anthropology, histological techniques, neurohistology, and neurology. In the latter two fields, the eponyms Landau reflex, or radiopronator superius reflex, and synarmotic cells of Landau, a subtype of non-traditional large neurons in the granular layer of the cerebellar cortex, have engraved his name in medical history.


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