Papers on Anthropology 2020-07-14T13:18:33+03:00 Andres Arend Open Journal Systems <p><em>Papers on Anthropology</em> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Preface 2020-07-14T13:18:33+03:00 Andres Arend <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-07-14T12:34:09+03:00 Copyright (c) Somnological findings based on the Körmend Growth Study (2008) data (Hungary) 2020-07-14T13:18:31+03:00 Botond L. Buda Lilla Marksz Gábor A. Tóth <p>In 1958, a series of tests repeated every ten years, which is unique worldwide, was launched in Körmend, with the primary goal of assessing more than 20 different body size characteristics, constitution, and development of healthy children aged 3–18. The secular trend phenomenon was proved for the first time in Hungary in this study. A clear correlation between physiological sleeping and sleeping disorders compared to changes in body composition has been shown, which led to the inclusion of a sleep questionnaire study in 2008. The present study aims to analyze a part of the sleep questionnaires received in 2008. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and frequency of growth pain, restless leg syndrome (RLS) and anaemia, and the associations between these parameters. According to the results, the incidence of growth pains was found to be higher than in international data. In many aspects this difference was confirmed by the present study, however, there were also contradictory, significantly detectable differences, the causes of which require further investigation. Due to the limitations of the questionnaire, many errors may occur. Other studies have shown strong genetic determinations for RLS; however, our results do not seem to confirm this. This may be due to the high latency of RLS and the inaccurate filling of the questionnaires as well. The results of our study showed that, in iron-deficient children, the incidence of RLS is an order of magnitude higher than in the general population.</p> 2020-07-14T12:39:33+03:00 Copyright (c) Influence of sedentary behaviour on posture symmetry and type among 4–7-year-old children in Riga 2020-07-14T13:18:28+03:00 Liene Martinsone-Bērzkalne Silvija Umbraško Ilva Duļevska <p>Physical inactivity, screen time and sedentary behaviour among young children is increasing. These factors have an impact on future health conditions increasing the risk of metabolic, cardiovascular and posture diseases. The World Health Organization has issued the guidelines on physical activity, sedentary behaviour and sleep for children of less than 5 years of age that shows contributing factors for healthy individuals starting from early childhood.</p> <p>Only few studies show the true state of posture diseases among preschool children. In our study we tried to find the problems of posture symmetry and type among young children for first time in Latvia.</p> <p>The conclusions after the study were similar to tendencies in the world. The posture disorders and asymmetrical posture increased with the age of children and sedentary behaviour (TV and computer) had a negative impact on the posture status.</p> 2020-07-14T12:42:47+03:00 Copyright (c) Change of hydration parameters in moderate altitude: measurements in healthy volunteers by means of bioelectric impedance analysis 2020-07-14T13:18:26+03:00 Christoph Raschka Horst J. Koch Johannes Käsebieter <p>During residence in high mountain regions, the human water hydration status changes and, from the height of approximately 3000 m above sea level, is associated with the risk of mountain sickness. The present investigation should assess this phenomenon in moderate height (1300–2300 m above sea level) after a residence time of approximately one week by means of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA). 50 volunteers, attendees of a sports medicine congress (33 men, 17 women), agreed to enter the study. All participants underwent BIA measurements initially and after one week. Apart from the basic characteristics – resistance (resistor, R) and capacitor resistor (reactance, Xc) – derived characteristics, such as total body water (TBW), body cell mass (BCM) and extra-cellular mass (ECM) were of interest. Significant changes after the stay in moderate altitude were not verified. As resistance decreased in both men and women, extracellular hydration was probably stimulated. Altogether, the study shows that an approximately one-week stay had no substantial influence on the BIA parameters in moderate altitude. In this regard, additional investigations in high altitudes or studies with longer duration of stay should be encouraged.</p> 2020-07-14T12:48:51+03:00 Copyright (c) Evaluation of innervation in cleft affected oral mucosa 2020-07-14T13:18:23+03:00 Olga Rimdenoka Māra Pilmane <p>Orofacial clefts are one of the most common pathologies present at birth. The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of PGP 9.5, substance P, VIP, CGRP, myelin and NFG in cleft affected mucosa of alveolar process, soft and hard palate, <em>vomer</em> and lip.</p> <p>Methods. Orofacial cleft affected mucosa tissue samples were obtained during surgical cleft correction from 21 children aged from 2 months to 9 years and 10 months. Prepared tissue sections were stained by immunohistochemistry for PGP 9.5, substance P, VIP, CGRP, myelin and NGF. The intensity of staining was graded semiquantitatively.</p> <p>Results. Mostly moderate number and numerous PGP 9.5, substance P, VIP, CGRP, myelin and NGF-containing nerve fibres and nerve fibre bundles and CGRP and NGF positive keratinocytes were detected. The most immunoreactive for PGP 9.5, myelin and NGF were nerve fibres, nerve fibre bundles and keratinocytes in lip mucosa tissue samples. Typically, PGP 9.5-containing nerve fibres were detected in subepithelium close to basal lamina, near blood vessels; thin PGP 9.5 positive nerve fibres were also observed between keratinocytes. Immunoreactivity of CGRP was higher than of substance P in nerve fibres and nerve fibre bundles. Statistically significant positive correlation was observed between all markers in subepithelium of all tissue samples.</p> <p>Conclusions. The proved statistically significant strong inter-correlation and the number of general neuropeptide-containing innervation (PGP 9.5), sensory nerves (CGRP and substance P), and parasympathetic nerves (VIP) is similar in orofacial cleft affected oral mucosa to such described in scientific literature healthy oral mucosa, except the alveolar process covering mucosa where the above innervation varies.</p> <p>Very strong and strong statistically significant positive correlations between the number of PGP 9.5, substance P, CGRP and VIP positive structures on the one hand, and NGF and myelin, on the other hand, indicate a connection between quality markers and common neuropeptide-containing, sensory and parasympathetic innervation in cleft affected oral tissue.</p> <p>The number of PGP 9.5, NGF and myelin immunoreactive neuronal structures in lip mucosa is higher than in the alveolar process, soft and hard palate and <em>vomer</em> mucosa, suggesting the significance of qualitative common innervation in this organ even in the cleft affected case.</p> 2020-07-14T12:54:07+03:00 Copyright (c) Age-related variability of anthropometric indicators in urban school students – Belarusians and descendants of interethnic marriages 2020-07-14T13:18:19+03:00 Inessa Salivon Natalya Polina <p>In the 1990s – early 2000s, anthropometric indicators of school students of three age groups (8, 13 and 17 years) were studied in several cities of Belarus. In total 2088 students were examined. The material was distributed into sex and age cohorts taking into account the ethnic structure – Belarusians (both parents are Belarusians) and genetically more heterogeneous descendants of interethnic marriages (DIM) where one of the parents is Belarusian, and the other is Russian, Ukrainian or Polish (Slav).</p> <p>In all sex and age samples, the number of students in Belarusians cohorts was almost twice higher than the number of DIM, which corresponds to their real proportion in the urban population of Belarus.</p> <p>The sex and age dynamics of average values of body height and weight, body mass index (BMI) and chest circumference, as well as the distribution of body types (somatotypes) in groups of urban school students in Belarus were observed.</p> <p>The differences between Belarusians and DIM in the studied anthropometric characteristics in all sex and age groups were insignificant. The phenomena of heterosis in the first generation of DIM were more clearly manifested only by the age of 17 among young men, who were 1.7 cm taller than their Belarusian peers, with correspondingly slightly higher values of body weight and chest circumference. In comparison with Belarusians, DIM girls of this age had a weak shift in all indicators of physical development towards lower average values.</p> <p>The average values of the BMI, which increase during puberty, reflect the tendency of weakly expressed gracilization of the physique of the male and especially female body in DIM compared to their Belarusian peers.</p> <p>The tendency to leptosomization (skeletal gracialization) and body asthenization was shown by the intragroup distribution of somatotypes among descendants of uninational marriages – Belarusians – and even more among DIM.</p> <p>Intersex differences in morphogenesis during puberty were manifested in greater asthenization of the physique against the background of gracilization of the skeleton of the female body compared to the male.</p> 2020-07-14T12:59:05+03:00 Copyright (c) Life quality of injured defence forces veterans who play sitting volleyball 2020-07-14T13:18:16+03:00 Raini Stamm Laura Rogenbaum Meelis Stamm <p>The purpose of the study was to analyse the life quality and changes in it throughout three different periods in Estonian injured war veterans’ life (before the injury, after the injury and after starting to play sitting volleyball). The main questions the veterans were asked concerned the positive and negative aspects of sitting volleyball, the effect of sitting volleyball on their health and social life, the motivating factors for participating in athletic activities, and whether the rehabilitation process followed the national strategies. The interviewees were nine male injured Estonian Defence Forces war veterans who play sitting volleyball. Veterans’ subjective assessments of life quality were examined with paired samples t-test in SPSS program to find the mean values of veterans’ assessments. The results of the study reveal that it is very important for the disabled to socialise through team sports. The support of family and friends, also setting smaller result-oriented goals help to keep discipline, contribute to a feeling of belonging and self-esteem, and all these help the veterans to get back on track after life-changing injuries. In conclusion, the analysis of the life quality of nine Estonian war veterans revealed that the decrease of mean values after the injury was significant [t = 6.825 (p &lt; 0.001)], and the increase after they started playing sitting volleyball was also significant [t (8) = –8.083 (p &lt; 0.001)].</p> <p>According to the study, Estonian war veterans found many positive aspects in playing sitting volleyball, which affected their quality of life. The main aspects were team spirit, feeling of usefulness, improvement of balance, physique and health, setting goals and achieving results in sports, sharing their problems with others involved and that other people respected their ability to play instead of looking at their injuries. The most important aspect was better social life. The factors that motivated veterans to continue their rehabilitation were support by family and friends, self-growth, teammates and other injured veterans. The Estonian Defence Forces support veterans thoroughly and introduce them to different sports including sitting volleyball during their rehabilitation. By doing that, the Defence Forces fill the requirements of national strategies to help veterans return to their regular lifestyle. The current study could be helpful for veterans for making better and more informed choices in rehabilitation after the injury and faster return to their desired quality of life. The results could also help to improve the restoration of health and social life. The results are helpful for the development and popularisation of sitting volleyball in Estonia.</p> 2020-07-14T13:03:40+03:00 Copyright (c) Households and families in Estonian population 2020-07-14T13:18:13+03:00 Ene-Margit Tiit <p>The statistical distribution of households and families by their size and structure can be received from population and household censuses, but it is also important to know this information between the censuses, as changes during the ten-year period can be quite remarkable. It is demonstrated that, since the last census in Estonia in 2011, the share of older age-groups has increased and the rate of children – decreased. The age at first marriage has increased for men and women respectively by 3 and 4 months per year. Consequently, the share of young people living without a partner has increased, but the process is different in men and women. The number of divorces has dropped, but this seems to be caused by the decline of marriages during the last decades. The age of women giving birth has also increased. During the last years, the number of third children has increased, but the number of first children has decreased. The distribution of households by their types was also studied and is presented in Table 1. It is evident that about one-sixth of the population lives alone; single-person households form the most numerous household type in present-day Estonia. From all households containing a couple, somewhat more than two-thirds are households with a married couple, others are households with a cohabiting couple. In average, the first ones are much older than the second ones. The number of households where two or more generations live together is marginal.</p> 2020-07-14T13:06:39+03:00 Copyright (c) Sportanthropological and sports traumatological aspects of women’s soccer 2020-07-14T13:18:10+03:00 Yvonne Voss Christoph Raschka <p>The aim of the study is to improve talent search, training methodology and injury prevention in women’s soccer. It analyses to what extent there are physical differences between top female soccer players (S) and a control group of sporty females (ff = fitness females). Furthermore, it examines whether differences in injuries can be identified between individual game positions (defense, midfield, forward, goalkeeper) and/or somatotypes. For this purpose, the anthropometric measurements of 233 top female soccer players (Ø 22 years old) and 40 fitness females (Ø 25 years old) who had been doing regular strength/endurance training twice a week for 2 years were statistically recorded, evaluated and used for determination of constitutional types according to Heath and Carter, Conrad and Knussmann and the AKS index according to Tittel and Wutscherk.</p> <p>In addition, body fat percentage according to Siri and the body mass index (BMI) were calculated. For the sample of soccer players, the types of injuries (categories: cruciate ligament, other knee, ankle joint/foot, shoulder/torso/hip, other injuries) and injury frequency according to the game positions, somatotypes and various body mass indices were compared statistically. There were significant differences between the anthropometric measurements of pelvic circumference (S: 81.2 ± 4.3cm; ff: 95.7 ± 7.7 cm; p ≤ 0.001) and maximum femoral circumference (S: 54.1 ± 3.1 cm; ff: 51.1 ± 4.4 cm; p ≤ 0.001).</p> <p>In terms of kinanthropometry, there were significant differences in the somatochart according to Heath and Carter [9] (S: 4/5/2; ff: 6/5/3), in the checkerboard pattern according to Conrad [3] (S: leptomorphic/hyperplastic; ff: metromorphic/hyperplastic) and in body fat percentage (S: 18.1 ± 2.1%; F: 25.0 ± 4.3%; p ≤ 0.001). The goalkeepers differed significantly from the field players with higher heights, lengths, sizes, higher body weight and a higher proportion of other injuries (e.g. hand, arm and head injuries). In constitutional terms, they differed only slightly from the field players. These appeared homogeneous in terms of body structure and injury mechanisms.</p> 2020-07-14T13:10:53+03:00 Copyright (c) Secular changes in anthropometric measurements of schoolchildren in Ankara, Turkey (1950–2017) 2020-07-14T13:18:06+03:00 Başak Koca Özer Ayşegül Özdemir <p>This study aimed to examine the physical growth of Turkish children and determine secular changes in their height and other anthropometric measurements since 1950. For this purpose, three cross-sectional surveys of a total of 4,902 healthy schoolchildren from Ankara (2,490 boys and 2,412 girls) between the ages of 6 and 17 years conducted in 1950, 2005 and 2017 were studied. Body height and sitting height were measured, centile curves were constructed using the LMS method, and sitting height/height ratio was calculated. The results of this study demonstrated positive secular changes in height and sitting height. The increasing rate of height for boys was approximately 2.5 cm/decade for their respective pubertal ages, whereas for girls, the rate was approximately 1.9 cm/decade at ages 9, 10 and 12; however, at the age of 11, the increment in girls was over 2 cm/decade. Data sets presented sexual differences at most ages, arising due to a difference in response to environmental and socio-economic conditions. However, due to the socio-economic fluctuations in Turkey, secular increase was not comparable to the increase experienced within developed countries; therefore a continuation of this secular increase can be expected in the near future.</p> 2020-07-14T13:14:51+03:00 Copyright (c)