Papers on Anthropology 2019-06-16T14:14:18+03:00 Helje Kaarma Open Journal Systems <em>Papers on Anthropology</em><span> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</span> Preface 2019-06-16T14:14:18+03:00 Helje Kaarma <p>Preface</p> 2018-10-16T00:00:00+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On the importance of the Estonian constitutional typing system for sports anthropology 2019-06-16T14:14:17+03:00 Christoph Raschka <p>In sports anthropology, two main international schools of constitutional typing are used: on the one hand the Anglo-American tradition of somato typing, but in the German-speaking world, on the other hand, the checkerboardtype constitution type system (Conrad) has dominated. A unique innovative approach to determining the individual constitutional type was achieved by Helje Kaarma: the Estonian constitutional typing system, con sisting of the 5 height-weight class system (small, medium, large, pyknomorphic and leptomorphic). In a series of follow-up studies, Kaarma and her daughter R. Stamm succeeded in establishing this system in sports anthropology. Furthermore, <em>Papers on Anthropology</em> is an important scientific platform for international sports anthropological research.</p> 2018-10-16T12:20:53+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Demographic data and figures derived from Estonian Iron Age graves 2019-06-16T14:14:15+03:00 Raili Allmäe <p>Three Iron Age cremation graves from south-eastern Estonia and four graves including cremations as well inhumations from western Estonia were analysed by osteological and palaeodemographic methods in order to estimate the age and sex composition of burial sites, and to propose some possible demographic figures and models for living communities.</p> <p>The crude birth/death rate estimated on the basis of juvenility indices varied between 55.1‰ and 60.0‰ (58.5‰ on average) at Rõsna village in south-eastern Estonia in the Middle Iron Age. The birth/death rates based on juvenility indices for south eastern graves varied to a greater degree. The estimated crude birth/death rate was somewhat lower (38.9‰) at Maidla in the Late Iron Age and extremely high (92.1‰) at Maidla in the Middle Iron Age, which indicates an unsustainable community. High crude birth/death rates are also characteristic of Poanse <em>tarand</em> graves from the Pre-Roman Iron Age – 92.3‰ for the 1st grave and 69.6‰for the 2nd grave. Expectedly, newborn life expectancies are extremely low in both communities – 10.8 years at Poanse I and 14.4 years at Poanse II. Most likely, both Maidla I and Poanse I were unsustainable communities.</p> <p>According to the main model where the given period of grave usage is 150 years, the burial grounds were most likely exploited by communities of 3–14 people. In most cases, this corresponds to one family or household. In comparison with other graves, Maidla II stone grave in western Estonia and Rõsna-Saare I barrow cemetery in south-eastern Estonia could have been used by a somewhat larger community, which may mean an extended family, a larger household or usage by two nuclear families.</p> 2018-10-16T12:32:04+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## On preservation and development of Estonian as a research language in anthropology – The role of the yearbooks of the Estonian Anthropometric Register (1998–2002) in it. Part III 2019-06-16T14:14:14+03:00 Jaan Kasmel Tiiu Kasmel <p>On 18 July 2018, the Centre for Physical Anthropology at the University of Tartu marked its 25th anniversary. The specialists of different research areas from whole Estonia who had gathered around the Centre also considered it necessary to preserve and develop Estonian as a research language in anthropology. When cooperation was established with the Estonian Anthropometric Register (founded in 1995), it became possible to publish the Estonianlanguage Yearbook of the Estonian Anthropometric Register (YEAR), the first of which was published in 1998, i.e. 20 years ago.</p> <p>The article deals with the YEARs published in 1998–2002 – who were the authors who decided to publish their research papers on anthropology in Estonian in this serial, how many of them there were, in which towns and institutions they worked?</p> <p>The first part of the overview briefly described the publications by anthropologists originating in Estonia, starting with publications in Latin and finishing with English as the main present-day language of research. Table 1 provided a general characterisation of the five yearbooks and Table 2 the distribution of the published articles according to the number of authors.</p> <p>Tables 3–7 in the second part of the overview presented the distribution of articles over the years according to their first authors. Table 8 presented the distribution of authors between Tartu and Tallinn, and the institutions and their subunits in these towns according to the first authors of the articles.</p> <p>Table 9 in the next, third part of the overview enables us to establish who were the researchers who participated in the YEARs as co-authors of the On preservation and development of Estonian as a research language in anthropology articles published in Estonian: at which article in which YEAR they were co-authors; their rank in the order of co-auth ors; at which institution or its subunit they worked at that time, and at how many articles in total they published as co-author in the five YEARs.</p> 2018-10-16T12:36:56+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Organizing the Estonian Physicians’ Nutritional and Dietetics Society in Tartu University Hospital 2019-06-16T14:14:12+03:00 Liidia Kiisk <p>Along with everyday clinical work, many nurses and physicians are dealing with clinical nutrition – counselling of patients, nutrition research and cooperation with specialists. It is essential to organise the clinical nutrition of inpatients, outpatients and home-care patients. Patients with chronic diseases and their carers expect increasingly profound information and guidelines about their nutrition from their attending physicians or department nurses and later at home – for this, specific guidelines are needed.</p> <p>An initiative group of physicians at Tartu University Hospital founded the Estonian Physicians’ Nutritional and Dietetics Society. The aims of the Estonian Physicians’ Nutritional and Dietetics Society are development of cooperation and information exchange with specialists in different areas, development and conducting of continuing education programmes in dietetics in cooperation with the Centre for Continuing Medical Education at the University of Tartu. The terminology of dietetics needs unification and updating. Disease-specific clinical nutrition guidelines have to be compiled and published.</p> 2018-10-16T12:44:15+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Constitutional differences between Muay Thai fighters from Thailand and from Germany 2019-06-16T14:14:11+03:00 Christoph Krick Christoph Raschka <p>The aim of the following study is to present the body composition of male Muay Thai fighters that were measured in Thailand and in Germany. As a control group, German college students were also measured.</p> <p>The three groups were separated into five different groups: experienced and inexperienced. Muay Thai fighters from Thailand were not separated since they were much more experienced, more advanced, than their German counterparts.</p> <p>Experienced and inexperienced were defined by the amount of training that each fighter conducted every week: Training of less than three times a week was considered as “inexperienced”.</p> <p>The measurements in this study were performed under a standardized method by the author. The measured results were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel 2010 and IBM SPSS 16.</p> <p>The results of the present study showed that the Muay Thai fighters from Thailand were significantly smaller than the German Muay Thai fighters and the college students.</p> <p>This study also used the methods developed by Parnell, Heath and Carter, Knussmann and Conrad. The body mass index was also used in the study.</p> 2018-10-16T12:50:24+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sportsanthropometric and performance parameters of elite rock ‘n’ roll dancers 2019-06-16T14:14:10+03:00 Anna Fritzsche Jürgen Fritzsche <p>Rock ‘n’ roll dancing is one of the technical compositional sports. The current state of scientific knowledge on it can be described as minimal. To change this state, the first sports science survey regarding squad training was conducted under the guidance of the authors at the Austrian national rock ‘n’ roll team. The study group consisted of 26 A, B and C level athletes in the sport of rock ‘n’ roll acrobatics. The mean BMI of the male athletes with the mean age of 23.0 years was 23.3 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. The female subjects’ mean age was 19.5 years and their mean BMI 19.8 kg/m<sup>2</sup>. The bounce values of the men were as follows: squat jump (SQJ) 37.1 cm and counter- movement jump (CMJ) 41.9 cm. Men’s mean result in long jump was 256.0 cm. The women had a lower mean bounce of 25.8 cm and 27.2 cm in SQJ and CMJ respectively. Their mean length of the long jump was 204.6 cm.</p> <p>The anthropometric data showed that the male subjects’ mean body height was 1.81 m and weight 76.2 kg. The BIA measurement yielded a value of 15.8% body fat. The women’s mean height was 1.64 m and percentage of passive body substance 23.5%; their mean weight was 53.4 kg. The waist/hip ratio was 0.9 in both men and women. The Broca index was 1.2% in women and 6% in men. The AKS-index reached 1.02 in men and 0.91 in women.</p> <p>Data were collected to determine the one-repetition maximum (1RM) of the upper and lower extremities: lat pulldowns (m: 76.9 kg; w: 39.4 kg), rowing (m: 58.1 kg; w: 31.9 kg), bench press (m: 75.0 kg; w: 33.8 kg) and knee flexion (90°) (m: 82.1 kg; w: 44.7 kg). The result of the sit and reach test was 7.8 cm for male subjects and 16.2 cm for female athletes.</p> 2018-10-16T12:56:09+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reliability and validity of analytical construct in the case of virtual work 2019-06-16T14:14:09+03:00 Kandela Õun <p>Social scientists are interested in understanding social reality as accurately as possible, trying to measure observable and indirectly measurable phenomena as well as the phenomena that still need to be constructed for measurement. Constructing social phenomena so that they can be measured is the everyday work of social scientists as the development of societies constantly brings forth new phenomena that attract authors’ interest to investigate and interpret them. Technology-enhanced telework as a research theme has become topical because of advances in information and communication technology and the fact that they have become widespread. The biggest obstacle to the investigation of technology-enhanced telework (also called <em>virtual work</em>) is the huge range of different definitions and approaches; virtual work mostly described rather than measured in surveys.</p> <p>The current article focuses on the reliability and validity of the analytical construct of virtual work previously developed by the author on the basis of service sector organisations.</p> <p>Reliability is quite simple to measure – Chronbach’s alpha is well known to measure it, but there are several approaches to the measurement validity beginning with the first authors Cronbach and Meehl [14] to Messick [32], Kane [29], Bornstein [7] and Slocum et al [48]. Every researcher adds a new point of view that makes understanding and using the methods of validity more complicated, but it is important to find a proper and suitable way to analyse the validity of construct of virtual work. In the article, the author will analyse the reliability and validity of two models which measure technology-enhanced telework.</p> 2018-10-16T13:17:19+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Proficiency of Attack in volleyball and its relations with anthropometric characteristics in U-16 boys 2019-06-16T14:14:08+03:00 Raini Stamm Meelis Stamm Mark Kristjan Pitk <p>Attack has a very significant role in volleyball. It can be considered one of the most essential elements for scoring points. To perform successful attacks, certain body build characteristics are needed, which would facilitate the training of attack competence.</p> <p>The aim of the current study was to assess the performance of attack by boys of the U-16 age group considering their body build and to analyse the differences of attack in sets won and lost. To achieve the aim of the study, we had to solve the following tasks.</p> <p>1. To assess the boys’ body build based on height and weight in 5SD body build classes. <br>2. To analyse the players’ proficiency at attack depending on their body build. <br>3. To find the main differences in attack in sets won and lost.</p> <p>The number of boys studied was 66, and they all belonged to the eight best U-16 age group teams at the Estonian volleyball championships of 2017. The study showed that spikes were performed most sucessfully by boys belonging to the big and leptomorph classes. The comparison of sets won and lost revealed that statistically significant differences were not caused by the number of points won at attack but by the number of failed spikes. In the sets won, the boys made statistically significantly fewer errors at spike.</p> 2018-10-16T13:22:29+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Using of new control methods of efficiency of hippotherapy for children with singularities of psychophysical development 2019-06-16T14:14:07+03:00 Tatiana Tereshkova Ludmila Loseva <p>The number of disabled people is increasing, and the problem of their rehabilitation and social adaptation is important. In the Republic of Belarus, hippotherapy began to be applied about ten years ago. Within this time, about 200 children sick with cerebral spastic infantile paralysis (severity levels I–III), epilepsy, autism and other diseases underwent rehabilitation. About 70 of them started moving independently; the disability degree of 25 children was lowered or removed.</p> <p>The study on using the method of X-ray fluorescent analysis (RFA) during hippotherapy was the first of its kind in the Republic of Belarus.</p> <p>The aim of the research was the detection of efficiency of impact of hippotherapy on children with psychophysical peculiarities with use of modern control methods.</p> <p>The need for correction of the following elements – calcium, potassium, ferrum, cuprum, zinc, selenium, iodine – in children’s ration at the time of hippotherapy sessions was shown. The need for increasing the frequency of sessions of hippotherapy from once a week to three times a week was established.</p> 2018-10-16T13:30:33+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Grandparents and great-grandparents in Estonian population 2019-06-16T14:14:05+03:00 Ene-Margit Tiit <p>The paper estimates the probability of living until the age of a grandparent and a great-grandparent in different cohorts of Estonian population. The objects of comparison are men and women born in 1939, 1959, 1989 and nowadays (2016). It turned out that (assuming the stability of demographic behaviour) people born in 1989 have the highest probability to see the grandchildren and also great-grandchildren. In the case of people born in 21st century, the probability is going down in spite of increasing life expectancy. The reason for this feature is massive postponing of family creation.</p> 2018-10-16T13:36:43+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## In memoriam: Mart Viikmaa 2019-06-16T14:14:04+03:00 Leiu Heapost <p>In memoriam: Mart Viikmaa</p> 2018-10-16T13:39:03+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Remembering Ülo Hussar – Estonian professor of histology and embryology 2019-06-16T14:14:03+03:00 Piret Hussar <p>Remembering Ülo Hussar – Estonian professor of histology<br>and embryology</p> 2018-10-16T13:41:39+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Helle Tapfer: Her influence on anatomy, medical sciences and Prof. Rauber’s museum collection 2019-06-16T14:14:02+03:00 Liina Pärnsalu Aade Liigant <p>Helle Tapfer: Her influence on anatomy, medical sciences and Prof. Rauber’s museum collection</p> 2018-10-16T13:48:52+03:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##