Papers on Anthropology https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA <em>Papers on Anthropology</em><span> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</span> en-US antrop@ut.ee (Helje Kaarma) Ivo.Volt@ut.ee (Ivo Volt) Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:47 +0300 OJS 3.1.1.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Preface https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.00 Preface Andres Arend ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.00 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:44 +0300 Ganglionic and non-ganglionic neurons in frog heart: do they differ? https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.01 This study was designed to compare the morphology of neurons in relation to their distance from the major nerve trunks in the heart of the frog <em>Rana temporaria</em>. Seventy-nine intracardiac neurons were labelled intracellularly with fluorescent markers Lucifer Yellow CH and Alexa Fluor 568. The neurons located on the extensions of the vagus nerve were considered as ganglionic, while neurons spread loosely at further distance from these extensions were considered as non-ganglionic. The mean area of the soma in ganglionic neurons was about 25% larger than in non-ganglionic neurons. Ganglionic neurons had a higher soma area/nucleus area ratio than non-ganglionic neurons. Although both the total number and the total length of dendrite-like processes was similar between the two groups, ganglionic neurons had significantly fewer dendrite-like processes from the soma (1.5±0.3 vs. 3.9±1.0; P&lt;0.05) and shorter total length of these processes from the soma (63±18 μm vs. 178±51 μm; P&lt;0.05). In conclusion, ganglionic and non-ganglionic frog intracardiac neurons exhibit substantial morphological differences. We hypothesize that these differences may indicate different projections or variations in the number of their preganglionic inputs. Darius Batulevičius, Gertrūda Skripkienė, Greta Graužinytė, Augustina Grigaitė, Valdas Skripka ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.01 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:44 +0300 Quantitative study of synaptic boutons on frog intracardiac neurons https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.02 The frog is a useful model to study the structure and function of intracardiac neurons. The goal of this study was to evaluate the size and distribution of synaptic boutons on the intracardiac neurons in the frog <em>Rana temporaria</em>. Interatrial septa from four animals were double-labelled immunohistochemically for the cholinergic marker choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the marker of synaptic vesicles synaptophysin (SYP). One hundred intracardiac neurons were analysed by confocal microscopy. Terminals of preganglionic axons were strongly positive for ChAT, while synaptic boutons were strongly positive for both ChAT and SYP. The number of synaptic boutons per neuron ranged from 2 to 121 and was 10±2 (mean±SE). The total area of synaptic boutons ranged from 6 μm<sup>2</sup> to 270 μm<sup>2</sup> and was 98±6 μm<sup>2</sup>. The largest total area of synaptic boutons was found on the axonal half of neuronal soma (59±4 μm<sup>2</sup>). The total areas of synaptic boutons on both the non-axonal half of soma and the proximal axon were smaller (36±3 μm<sup>2</sup>; 6±2 μm<sup>2</sup>; P&lt;0.001). Synaptic boutons occupied 13±1% of the area of the neuronal soma profile. Conclusions: 1) The axonal half of the soma of the frog intracardiac neuron is more densely innervated than the non-axonal half of the soma. 2) The axosomatic and axoaxonic synapses are present on frog intracardiac neurons. The study provides a framework for further experimental studies on the formation and rearrangement of synapses on frog intracardiac neurons. Darius Batulevičius, Gertrūda Skripkienė, Denas Andrijauskis, Berta Kėrytė, Valdas Skripka ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.02 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:44 +0300 Human mummification practices among the Ibaloy of Kabayan, North Luzon, the Philippines https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.03 The province of Benguet, situated in North Luzon, the Philippines, holds a large number of ancient mummified remains, mostly located within the municipality of Kabayan. Such bodies are mainly associated to the Ibaloy – one of the indigenous groups collectively known as Igorot – and are stored in natural rockshelters or caves carved into the stone, inside wooden coffins often obtained from hollowed pine tree segments. Recent inspections of some of these corpses, carried out in 2002 and 2012, indicated the nature of their mummification process as well as some details regarding their bioanthropological features. Although very little information was initially available on these bodies, the authors have gathered significant oral information on funerary rituals and attitudes towards the ancestors via interviews with the local elders, as well as data on the vegetal materials employed and the practice of tattooing. This paper is the first critical evaluation of these mummies and demonstrates the uniqueness and preciousness of this biocultural heritage now in danger. Ronald G. Beckett, Gerald J. Conlogue, Orlando V. Abinion, Analyn Salvador-Amores, Dario Piombino-Mascali ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.03 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:44 +0300 Twenty-four years of the Centre for Physical Anthropology https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.04 The article provides an overview of the activities of the Centre for Physical Anthropology at the University of Tartu from its foundation in 1993 to the present. Helje Kaarma, Gudrun Veldre, Liidia Saluste, Mart Lintsi, Jaan Kasmel, Ene-Margit Tiit, Raini Stamm, Maie Toomsalu ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.04 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:44 +0300 Teaching and learning innovation in present and future of human anatomy course at RSU https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.05 <p>With the emerging presence of IT based technologies in medical education, virtual anatomy has become a part of medical teaching, learning and healthcare. Building on the foundation of strong basic sciences, teaching and learning, Rīga Stradiņš University (RSU) offers its students the Anatomage Table. The Department of Morphology enabled new possibilities and allowed students to learn anatomy through a high-quality and interactive 3D tool.</p><p>The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the Anatomage Table (Virtual Dissection Table) and overall satisfaction among students in the teaching and learning of Human Anatomy course at RSU.</p><p>The sample included Latvian and Foreign students and several tutors from the Human Anatomy course in the period of 2016–2017. This study was conducted in a real practical class context and under actual learning conditions. The Anatomage Table was used in two or three semester courses for the students of the Faculty of Medicine and the Faculty of Dentistry. In practical classes the learning, comparison and students satisfaction were explored. At the end of each practical class, the tutor performed a discussion session with the students’ about increasing of their knowledge and success on the Human Anatomy study process.</p><p>The majority of students felt that the Anatomage Table had a positive role and it was an additional tool in terms of their learning. Students also noted several advantages of using the Anatomage Table in the medical teaching, learning and healthcare. The results indicated that learning Human Anatomy can be significantly impacted with virtual anatomy. The use of virtual dissection technology seems to have a promising role in future educational training.</p> Dzintra Kažoka, Māra Pilmane ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.05 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:45 +0300 Multiform spectrum of pulmonary disease in lethal HIV infection cases in Latvia (2012–2016) https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.06 In 2016, the proportion of HIV-infected persons in the Baltic countries was as follows: Latvia 18.5, Estonia 17.4, Lithuania 7.4 per 100,000 of population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the spectrum and morphology of combined lung pathologies in fatal HIV/AIDS cases in Latvia from 2010 to 2016. We did a retrospective review of the HIV/AIDS patients’ medical autopsy case files and histological slides at the Pathology Centre of Riga Eastern Clinical University Hospital. All statistical data were processed in IBM SPSS Statistics 23. We analysed 455 cases – 311 (69%) men, 134 (31%) women. The mean age of the analysed patients was 40 years (±9 SD, range 22–68). The conditions leading to death were opportunistic infections (OI) – 28%, tuberculosis (TB) – 23%, wasting syndrome complicated by nonspecific pneumonia and sepsis or HIV/AIDS unrelated conditions – 27%, malignancies – 11% (B large cell lymphoma, primary and secondary cancers of the lung, Kaposi sarcoma), and end stage liver disease – 11%. Lungs were affected in 380 cases (83.5%). We identified 112 cases of tuberculosis (TB). In 21%, it was isolated pulmonary TB, in 79% – disseminated TB. Additionally, OI were proved in 26% of these patients. The prevalence of OI was higher in patients who died from isolated pulmonary TB. We also identified 10 cases of disseminated atypical mycobacteriosis. Opportunistic infections were diagnosed in 126 persons – 77% (n=97) of them had one, but 23% (n=29) had two or more OIs. The most common isolated OI with lung involvement was <em>Pneumocystis jiroveci</em> (PC) pneumonia (n=71, 15.6%); 10% had cryptococcosis, 1% – pulmonary aspergillosis and Candida pneumonia each. 40 patients (9%) had disseminated cytomegalovirus (CMV). Among the various combinations of oppor tunistic infections, the most common was PC+CMV. 81% of HIV patients were unemployed and prisoners with interrupted treatment. We concluded that our study revealed that combined opportunistic infections and TB were the most frequently observed pulmonary infections, followed by primary and secondary lung malignancies and bacterial pneumonia in HIV/AIDS unrelated cases of multiorgan disease. Diagnostic difficulties occurred mainly in disseminated diseases due to nonspecific clinical presentation, similar appearance on imaging studies and limited bacterial diagnostic possibilities after death. Regina Kleina, Olga Fjodorova, Anita Dabužinskienė, Jurijs Nazarovs, Oksana Mahmajeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.06 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:45 +0300 Tracing the historical origin of Joseon mummies considering the structural similarities between the burial systems of Korean and Chinese dynasties https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.07 Joseon mummies have proved to be excellent subjects for scientific research on the health and disease statuses of pre-modern Korean peoples. Despite its academic significance, the origins of the <em>Hoegwakmyo</em> tomb in which the Joseon mummy was discovered have not yet been entirely revealed. Meanwhile, over the past several decades, there have been some reports on mummies and cultural artifacts preserved very well in the tombs of several Chinese dynasties (especially Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing). Although the Chinese tombs were very diverse in structure, we note that some graves among them were structurally very similar to Joseon <em>Hoegwakmyo</em> tombs. Before the <em>Hoegwakmyo</em> tomb in Korea, there were already similar tombs in China, inside which dead persons were mummified like the Joseon mummies. Considering that the <em>Hoegwakmyo</em> tomb of the Joseon Dynasty was established by the influence of the Confucian ideology, the Korean and Chinese mummies might share common cultural origins in history. Chang Seok Oh, In Uk Kang, Jong Ha Hong, Sergey Slepchenko, Jun Bum Park, Dong Hoon Shin ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.07 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:45 +0300 Morphological peculiarities of the testes in 41–50-years-old men https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.08 <p>The morphological parameters such as the length, width, height and weight of 20 pairs of testes were measured in this study. The volume of the testis was calculated using the formula: Volume = length (L) × width (W) × height (H) × 0.71. These morphological parameters of the right and left testes were compared.</p><p>The total length, width and height of both testes of 41–50-years-old men were 4.53±0.46 cm, 3.05±0.31 cm and 2.58±0.36 cm respectively. The total volume and weight were 25.53±6.06 cm3 and 20.93±4.75 g respectively. The length, height, volume and weight of the right testis were significantly larger than of the left testes in 41–50-years-old men. Only the width of the right and the left testes differed statistically non-significantly.</p> Kristina Lasienė, Donatas Gasiliūnas, Nomeda Juodžiukynienė, Anita Dabužinskienė, Aleksandras Vitkus, Birutė Žilaitienė ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.08 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:45 +0300 Analysis of cadets’ anthropometric characteristics https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.09 Anthropometric data reflect the quality of life, high working capacities and potentiality of individual creative abilities. The physical working and physical fitness capacities depend on physical health, physical development level, physical activity and healthy lifestyle. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the principal anthropometric characteristics, levels of physical activity and sports tests results in a group of cadets. We assessed the principal anthropometric characteristics (height, body mass) as well the anthropometric indices (body mass index) of cadets of the National Defence Academy in their 1st year of study and in the same group of cadets after three years, in their 4th year of study. We provided a questionnaire for the cadets in the study group concerning their physical activity and analysed the data of the standardized Nordic Questionnaire about Musculoskeletal Symptoms. The average values of the main anthropometric characteristics of the respondents in the 1st year of study were the following: height – 180.4±1.3 cm and body mass – 79.5±1.7 kg. After three years, we fixed the changes of body mass in the examined group: in 53% of cadets, the body mass had increased by more than two kg, but in 47% of respondents, body mass had remained at the same level. The average data in the study group of the 4th year students were: height 181.2±1.3 cm and body mass – 81.3±2.5 kg. Physical fitness is an indispensable part in the daily routine of each cadet. Physical fitness characterizes an individual’s cardiorespiratory status, muscular strength and endurance as well as velocity and coordination. The fitness level of a person determines the results of the annual sports tests (sit-ups, push-ups and cross-country race). The results were stable for 68% of respondents. We also included the questions related to musculoskeletal symptoms (pain). Musculoskeletal pain symptoms have an impact on each individual’s physical fitness level. The physical activity levels in the respondents’ group were high. They were closely associated with physical fitness, 76% of the respondents showed high results in annual physical fitness tests. Liana Pļaviņa, Silvija Umbraško ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.09 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:45 +0300 Infection as the cause of perinatal mortality in Latvia https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.10 <p>Infection is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality worldwide – accounting for 36% of cases. Perinatal mortality in Latvia is slowly decreasing: from 7.3 per 1000 live births in 2013 to 6.7 per 1000 live births in 2015. Intrauterine infection still is a global problem and a significant factor that affects morbidity and mortality of the mother and the child.</p><p>This study includes data about the cause of death, including infections, from 417 autopsy protocols of all fetuses and neonates between 22 weeks of gestation and &lt; 7 days postpartum from 2013 to 2015.</p><p>The main cause of perinatal mortality was antenatal fetal asphyxia in 50% (n=210), followed by infections – 39% (n=163), including cases of chorioamnionitis. The highest mortality rate was found in the 22nd–27th+6 (i.e. 27 full weeks and 6 days) gestational weeks – 32% of cases (n=135). Intrauterine pneumonia accounted for 24% (n=39) of all the infection caused deaths, meconium aspiration pneumonia – 0.04% (n=6), early neonatal sepsis – 0.03% (n=4) and specific infections like syphilis and cytomegalovirus – 0.02% (n=3). Histological examination of the placenta, the placental cord and fetal membranes was made in 61% (n=255) of cases, and 19.6% (n=50) of them had an infection.</p> Ivanda Franckeviča, Liene Rucka, Santa Smilga, Agnese Anna Jaunākā ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.10 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:46 +0300 Long-term complications evidenced studying the explanted Gore® HELEX® atrial septal defect occluder seven years after implantation: a case report https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.11 We present the results of the first morphological study of a Gore® HELEX® Septal Occluder 30 mm that was explanted seven years after interventional implantation due to a significant left-to-right shunt (7 mm) which resulted from the stretching of the concomitant patent foramen ovale by the occluder after atrial septal defect closure. Complete endothelialization of the surface of the device, the formation of the connective tissue around the implant, minor chronic inflammation, the appearance of foreign body giant cells and weakened myocardial cells adjacent to the implant as well as enhanced expression of matrix metalloproteinases were demonstrated. Jurijs Sekretarjovs, Mārtiņš Kalējs, Ainārs Rudzītis, Ivars Brečs, Hermanis Sorokins, Sandra Skuja, Pēteris Stradiņš, Valērija Groma ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.11 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:46 +0300 Molecular events in the Wharton’s jelly and blood vessels of human umbilical cord https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.12 <p>The umbilical cord is seen as the main junction between the developing embryo or fetus and placenta. We studied the antimicrobial response, the presence of undifferentiated cells and TGF-α, as well as tissue degeneration and compensatory remodelling processes in the cells of human umbilical cord.</p><p>Seven umbilical cord tissue samples obtained during premature and full term births were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and by immunohistochemistry for human beta defensin 2 (hBD-2), hematopoietic progenitor cell antigen CD34, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), the tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), nestin and transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α). The intensity of staining was graded semiquantitatively.</p><p>Antimicrobial response was more prominent in the Wharton’s jelly – we found numerous hBD-2-containing cells, while hBD-2 positive cells in the walls of arteries and vein varied from moderate to abundance. Numerous cells in the Wharton’s jelly contained CD34, while in the walls of blood vessels few to moderate stained positive for CD34. MMP-2, TIMP-2 and nestin positive cells were found in all the tissue samples and varied from numerous in the walls of blood vessels to abundance in the Wharton’s jelly and the inflammation region. The abundance of TGF-α-containing cells was found in Wharton’s jelly and moderate to numerous cells of blood vessels contained TGF-α.</p><p>Conclusions: The human umbilical cord possesses antimicrobial activity and shows the presence of undifferentiated cells. The striking distribution and the expression of MMP-2, TIMP-2 and nestin suggest their role in the very effective and extensive tissue degeneration and compensatory remodelling processes. TGF-α seems to be an important growth factor for extra-embryonic tissue development.</p> Elga Sidhom, Māra Pilmane, Ilze Kreicberga ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.12 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:46 +0300 Use of waist to hip ratio in the determination of the body composition in preschool children in Latvian population https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.13 <p>According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2008, the waist to hip ratio (WHR) has been suggested superior to the body mass index (BMI) in predicting the cardiovascular disease risk in adults and adolescents. There have been studies about the WHR in preschool children in the populations of Pakistan, Chile and Mexico; and it is not the WHO which recommended it as a routine method in preschool children.</p><p>The present study includes 85 children (41 girls and 44 boys), aged 5 to 7 years, without any chronic conditions. Body height, body weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, triceps skinfold, abdominal skinfold and subscapular skinfold were measured. The WHR, the BMI, the sum of three skinfolds and the percentage of body fat (%BF) were calculated.</p><p>It was found that the WHR decreased with age in girls; there were no specific changes found in the WHR with age in boys. The present study found no correlation in boys or girls between the WHR and the BMI; the WHR and the sum of three skinfolds; the WHR and the percentage of BF. There was also no correlation between the Z-scores of the BMI and Z-scores of the WHR.</p><p>Conclusions. The WHR is a questionable body composition marker in preschool children in the Latvian population and must be evaluated separately from other body composition markers.</p> Gundega Skruze, Dzintra Kažoka ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.13 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:46 +0300 Anthropometrics parameters for Latvian women in the age over 40 years https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.14 The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the anthropometrics parameters for the evaluation of overweight and obesity in adult population that is one of the risk factor for metabolic disorders and cardio-vascular pathology. The target of our study is to describe the variations of anthropometric parameters of the Latvian women population. The present paper includes the analysis of data of 200 women in the age 40–65 years. We evaluated the anthropometrics indicators in Latvian women in the age over 40 years, various somatometric measurements – height (cm), the body mass (kg), the circumference of the waist and hips (cm) – and calculated the mean parameters, the Body Mass Index and the Waist Hip Ratio. The respondents of the study group were divided into five age subgroups. We provided the analysis of anthropometric data, compared them with the data from other European countries. We have fixed the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the examined women groups and proposed potential activities to reduce them. Jekaterina Stankeviča, Liāna Pļaviņa, Silvija Umbraško ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.14 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:46 +0300 Human small cell lung cancer cell line (NCI-H146) tumor behaviour on the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane after the sodium valproate treatment https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.15 Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive form of cancer with 5-year survival rate and poor prognosis. Since patients' initial response to therapy is rapidly followed by a relapse with the drug-resistant disease, new therapies are required. The aim was to evaluate whether H146 cell line tumor was able to maintain the morphological pattern when grafted on the chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Also, to evaluate the morphological changes in the CAM after grafting the tumor without or with treatment with sodium valproate (NaVP). The cell culture of the commercial NCIH146 cell line was used for the formation of the tumor. The tumor of 1x10<sup>6</sup> cells and I type rat tail collagen was dropped onto the absordable sponge and instantly grafted on CAM. After 5 days of incubation chicken embryos were sacrificed and CAMs were cut out. Standard H&amp;E staining and immunohistochemistry (CD56) were performed. The histomorphometrical analysis of non-treated (n=5), 4 mM NaVP-treated (n=5) and 8 mM (n=5) of NaVP-treated groups was performed. The thickness of the CAM was measured in all the investigated groups in the areas under the onplant and in the neighbouring sites. H146 cells are able to maintain morphological appearance on the CAM and retained the expression of specific profile for CD56. H146 cell tumor increased the thickness of the CAM under the tumor in the non-treated group (509.2±184μm). After treatment with 4 mM and 8 mM of NaVP CAM thickness decreased (362±232.6 μm and 147.8±98.4 μm respectively; p&lt;0.0001). The effect of NaVP on CAM increased with increasing solution concentrations of 4 mM and 8 mM. CAM thickness in the non-treated group neighbouring to the tumor site was 139.1±138.4 μm, in 4 mM NaVP-treated group – 104.9±81 μm and in 8 mM NaVP-treated group CAM thickness reached only 70.8±51.5 μm. CAM thickness in the non-treated group significantly differs compared to 4 mM and 8 mM of NaVP – the treated groups (p&lt;0.05, p&lt;0.0001). Difference between both NaVP-treated groups is also significant (p&lt;0.05). CAM is a suitable model for in vivo analysis of human H146 cell line formed tumor. Cells grafted on the CAM preserved their morphology and expressed characteristic immunohistochemical markers. CAM mesenchyme proliferation was suppressed under the influence of NaVP in concentration–dependent manner. Lina Šlekienė, Raminta Mozūraitė, Ruta Vosyliūtė, Ingrida Balnytė, Angelija Valančiūtė ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.15 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:47 +0300 COPD affected lung tissue remodelling due to the local distribution of MMP-2, TIMP-2, TGF-β1 and HSP-70 https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.16 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is strongly associated with progressive airway limitation where the key mechanism is abnormal airway remodelling of bronchial mucosa maintained by complex crosstalk of tissue remodelling and regulatory factors. The aim of this study was to determine the appearance and local distribution of tissue remodelling factors in COPD-affected lung tissue and to compare the findings with the control group. In this study, lung tissue specimens were obtained from 27 patients with COPD and 49 control patients. Tissue samples were examined by routine hematoxylin and eosin staining. Remodelling and regulatory factors matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), as well as heat shock protein-70 (Hsp-70) were detected by immunohistochemistry in airway mucosa. The numbers of positive structures were evaluated semiquantitatively. Non-parametrical statistical analysis was performed. Overall COPD-affected lung tissue presented chronic inflammation and tissue remodelling in routine histological analysis. Compared to the control group, statistically significant (P&lt;0.05) difference was calculated between COPD-affected lung tissue and control group with overall more immunoreactive cells containing MMP-2, TIMP-2 and TGF-β1 and less Hsp-70 immunoreactive bronchial epithelial cells, subepithelial connective tissue fibroblasts, bronchial smooth muscle cells and secretory cells of bronchial glands with more pronounced findings of TGF-β1, however, less Hsp-70. Study findings suggest pronounced tissue damage and remodelling with the local regulatory environment of up-regulated TGF-β1. Increased numbers of MMP-2, TIMP-2 and TGF-β1 immunoreactive cells suggest the key role of these remodelling factors in COPD pathogenesis. Decrease of Hsp-70 proves increased cell damage in COPD-affected airway mucosa. Zane Vitenberga, Māra Pilmane, Aurika Babjoniševa ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.16 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:47 +0300 Anthropological study of Sami from the Kola Peninsula (Russia) https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.17 <p>A study of the Sami burials on the territory of the Kolsky Bay was launched in 1976. All the material dates back to the 19th – the beginning of the 20th century. Collected skulls of 74 males and 51 females were compiled. We have investigated all the available material in the storage skulls. A homogeneity group analysis was conducted.</p><p>Sami males from the settlement of Yoakanga and Chalmnu-Varre vary by range of facial skeleton forming parameters. Sami females from the settlement Yoakanga and Chalmnu-Varre vary by facial skeleton widths. Based on the characters of lifetime body length and the proportion indexes of extremities, the Sami are the most adaptable to living conditions of the Far North.</p> Sergey Vasilyev, Svetlana Borutskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.17 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:47 +0300 Correlation of variations in geocosmic processes and thinking parameters https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.18 <p>Earlier we discovered gender-specific multiyear variations in functional brain asymmetry (FBA) indices, synergistic with variations in geocosmic processes [Volchek, 2013]. FBA serves as a foundation for different types of learning, perception and processing of information. In its turn, type of learning dominating in society manifests itself in social processes, cultural events and working styles of inventors and artists. The purpose of this work was to study thinking and musical creativity indices in relation to geocosmic processes. With Torrance method, we collected data about logical, intuitive and combined thinking styles in over 3400 citizens of St. Petersburg, Russia, born in 1930–1991. Gender-specific daily, seasonal and multiyear variations in thinking indices were revealed at p≤0.001. Content analysis of 3352 Soviet songs and romances composed in 1935–1982 showed evolution of musical thinking.</p><p>Of special interest is the data on multiyear variations in thinking indices in relation to geocosmic conditions. Significant and reliable variations in thinking types were discovered. For instance, the highest scores for logical thinking type (114.2) were found in men born in 1956, while the lowest scores (82.6) were found in men born in 1959, p≤0.001. According to the results of correlation analysis for the periods of 1940–1991 and 1946–1991, there are correlations between variations in thinking types and geocosmic indices. The most influential factors are Earth’s rotation rate ERR and interplanetary magnetic field IMF. With these indices rising in year of birth and preceding year, scores for left-brain logical thinking type increase, p≤0.001.</p><p>Conclusion: geocosmic processes influence coordination and activation of human brain hemispheres, as well as leading thinking type in society and evolution of music. Such phenomena can be reflected in social processes up to emerge of periods of so-called Thaw or Cold war.</p> Olga D. Volchek ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/PoA/article/view/poa.2017.26.2.18 Mon, 18 Sep 2017 16:07:47 +0300