Papers on Anthropology <p><em>Papers on Anthropology</em> is a journal issued under the auspices of the European Anthropological Association. The journal publishes research reports from various areas: physical and clinical anthropology, human biology, exercise sciences, and other topics related to biological, social, physical etc. development of human beings.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US (Andres Arend) (Ivo Volt) Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Factors affecting reproductive behaviour in Estonia in the 21st century <p>In Estonia where the population size is quite small (less than a million ethnic Estonians) the low birth rate has been a problem throughout known history.</p> <p>In Estonia as in other Eastern European countries, the so-called transition shock appeared in the 1990s after regaining independence. As a result of the shock, the birth rate fell sharply; the number of births in 1994–2000 was twice less than the number of births ten years earlier, in 1984–1990. Intensive migration also lasted for about 25 years, and, as a result, the population of Estonia decreased by more than for 250 000 people (one sixth of the population). The ethnic structure of the population of Estonia also changed. Depending on the direction and volume of foreign migration, the share of ethnic Estonians in the population, which was 61.5% in 1991, increased to 67.9% by the turn of the century.</p> <p>Postponing of births has been an important trend throughout the world, including in Estonia, in recent decades. In Estonia the average age of mothers who gave birth increased from 1991 to 2021 by almost 6 years. This means that, for 30 years, nearly a fifth of children were not born each year. The total fertility rate depends on the change in the average childbearing age. When the childbearing age increases (which has been happening in Estonia during the last 30 years), the total fertility rate (TFR) underestimates the average number of children born to a woman in her lifetime. Although TFR is relatively low in Estonia now, oscillating between 1.5 and 1.7, this does not mean that the average number of children born by a woman is so low.</p> <p>If a cohort of women (e.g., women born 45–49 years ago) has passed the fertile age, it is possible to determine the average number of children whom they actually gave birth during their lifetime. This indicator gives a much more optimistic picture about the fertility behaviour of Estonian women than TFR.</p> <p>Ethnic Estonian women are more active in giving birth than the women of other ethnic origins. On average, Estonian women aged 40+ have given birth to 2 children.</p> Ene-Margit Tiit Copyright (c) 2023 Papers on Anthropology Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Head size and academic performance <p>The aim of the paper was to study the potential correlation between school students’ head size and academic performance. As the material, the head length and breadth measurement data of 5034 7–18-year-old ethnic Estonian school students measured by Prof. J. Aul in 1966–1969 were used. To get an overview of head size and the development of its growth, head module A was used. The correlation between head size and school students’ academic performance was studied using the data of 4840 school students aged 8–18 years (2406 boys and 2434 girls). Academic performance was assessed based on school students’ grades in a three-point system: I – low, II – medium, III – good academic performance. As a result, head module A was found to increase relatively evenly and relatively modestly in Tallinn school students during their school years (7% in boys and 4.5% in girls), while boys’ heads were larger than girls’. Relative head module A decreased in school students with age in both boys and girls. Until the age of 14 years, relative value of head module A is greater in boys than in girls; from the age of 16 years, however, the relative value of head module A becomes greater in girls than boys. A significant correlation between academic performance and head size was found in both boys and girls. The greatest differences in head size were between students with low and good academic performance. Head module A of the latter was essentially greater. In puberty, a few years later in boys than in girls, the mentioned correlation was weaker.</p> Leiu Heapost Copyright (c) 2023 Papers on Anthropology Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Offensive pass tactics analysis of volleyball setters in olympic finals of 2000 and 2021 <p>The aim of the current study was to analyse offensive pass tactics in Olympic Games finals in 2000 and 2021. The authors of the study were interested how the game of volleyball has developed in 20 years, whether it has become faster or even slower. We were also interested whether setters’ game tactics had changed in 20 years. Therefore, we undertook three tasks: to compare offensive pass tactics according to types of sets; to compare the distribution of offensive passes between zones and to compare the ball flight phase times of offensive passes. Based on videos of two Olympic finals (eight sets), a total of 327 offensive passes were analysed, which were divided into different types of sets, and the ball flight phase time of each offensive pass was fixed. It was also taken into account whether the setter had had an excellent, good or bad reception or first touch before performing the set. The videos were analysed using the Kinovea program; the quality of the first video was 360p and of the second 1080p. The first final studied was played in Sydney, Australia, on 1 October 2000 between the men’s volleyball teams of Yugoslavia and Russia, and the second on 7 August in Tokyo, Japan, between the men’s teams of France and Russia.</p> <p>To find statistically significant differences in data, Student’s t-test, p &lt; 0.05, was used. The results revealed that in 20 years setters’ offensive pass tactics had changed; new offensive pass types had been introduced in both back and front zones. As a result of comparison of mean times of ball flight phases, the authors state that in one case the flight phase speed increased, namely in the case of offensive pass into zone 4; in another case, it became slower – in the case of offensive pass tempo forward. In addition to offensive passes played in 2000, new types of offensive pass were played in 2021, such as back line set between zones 6 and 1, back line set between zones 5 and 6, and the shoot set. The tandem combination played in 2000 was not performed once in 2021. The five most popular offensive passes turned out to be sharp sets into zone 4, sharp sets into zone 2, tempo sets forward, sharp back line sets into zone 2, high sets into zone 4. The difference of 2021 compared to 2000 was that the shoot combination was played on the frontline (6% of all the sets), and the back line attack was used 5% more often. The comparison of ball flight phase times revealed that the mean time of the flight phase decreased only in the case of the sharp set into zone 4. Namely, the mean time of the ball flight phase in 2000 was 1.12 seconds, in 2021, however, 0.97 seconds. This can be explained by sharper and faster sets into zone 4. But in the case of the tempo set forward, the mean time of the ball flight phase increased from 0.40 to 0.49 seconds by 2021. The authors’ explanation is that tempo sets were not hit from so near to the setter but, to make blocking more difficult, tempo sets were set longer, or somewhat higher tempo set was used. A statistically significant difference between the two finals was found in the case of sharp set into zone 4 and tempo set forward.</p> Raini Stamm, Meelis Stamm, Sergei Ovtšinnikov, Reeda Tuula-Fjodorov Copyright (c) 2023 Papers on Anthropology Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Sports anthropological studies of adolescent karateka and judoka in comparison <p>The approach of the present study was to look for differences in body development in children practicing karate or judo. 50 children between the age of 7 and 16 years were measured for this study. Parnell’s and Heath and Carter’s somatotypes were used as well as the German constitution schools of Conrad as well and Knussmann. The influence on higher muscle development through practice of these martial arts cannot be denied, although no significant differences between the martial arts were found.</p> <p>Only with a version of Conrad’s checkerboard pattern graph specially tailored for children, we could work out impressive differences between the sports. Differentiated according to age groups, it is noticeable that the male judoka make the most significant development from the hypoplastic area towards hyperplastic with increasing age.</p> Christoph Raschka, Michael Anders Copyright (c) 2023 Papers on Anthropology Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Health issues of the indigenous communities with special reference to the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) of Odisha: a review <p>As India is a country in epidemiological transition, the indigenous populations agonise from a dual burden of illnesses, including undernutrition, infectious diseases and lifestyle-related issues like hypertension, obesity and diabetes. Few concrete efforts have been made to understand these emerging public health problems with emphasis on the indigenous populations living in this country. This review paper focuses on the epidemiological transition, prevalence of communicable and non-communicable diseases, nutritional status, dual burden of malnutrition and the availability, acceptability and accessibility of the health care services among the tribal communities with special emphasis on the Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) of Odisha. This study is based on the review of published articles in different online databases using search engines like Google Scholar, Pub Med, INFLIBNET, JSTOR. A total of 195 articles published during the period from 1956 to 2022 were reviewed. The review is focussed on the indigenous populations living in the Indian state of Odisha. Migration and urbanization are the leading causes of epidemiological transition among them. The health scenario in terms of nutritional status, disease burden and availability of health care facilities of Odisha was found to be far behind the national average. Compared to other groups, the situation of the PVTGs of this state is the worst. The review suggests more action-oriented ground level research with targeted goals that would address the health needs of the indigenous populations at a micro level.</p> Priyanka Kanrar, Monali Goswami, Subho Roy Copyright (c) 2023 Papers on Anthropology Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Fellow traveller’s look at Helje Kaarma’s creative life <p>Fellow traveller’s look at Helje Kaarma’s creative life</p> Ene-Margit Tiit Copyright (c) 2023 Papers on Anthropology Thu, 28 Sep 2023 00:00:00 +0000