Baltic Journal of Art History 2023-08-22T09:17:08+00:00 Kadri Asmer Open Journal Systems <p>THE BALTIC JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY is a publication of the Department of Art History of&nbsp;the Institute of History and Archaeology of the University of Tartu.<br><br>The concept of the journal is to publish high-quality academic articles on art history of a monographic character or in shorter form. These articles are focused on new and interesting problems and artefacts that can help broaden the communication and interpretation horizons of art history in the Baltic Sea region and Europe. The journal has an international editorial board and each submitted manuscript will be reviewed by two anonymous reviewers. The board will pass the decision on publishing the article on the basis of a short summary as well as the full text and reviewers’ opinions.</p> <p>The languages of the journal are English and German, but next to them also Italian and French.</p> Art History as a New Discipline at the Estonian University in Tartu after the Long 19th Century 2023-08-22T08:01:52+00:00 Eero Kangor <p>The article is the first attempt to present the beginnings of Estonian professional art history in the 1920s in a regional and global context. The author strives to situate the University of Tartu (Dorpat) in the pan-European network of universities, where art history had gradually become regarded as a new discipline during and after the long 19th century. Art history is rooted in the Age of Enlightenment, with Johann Joachim Winckelmann retrospectively named the father of art history. But it was about a half century after his death that art history was incorporated into a general subject of aesthetics taught at universities. It took another fifty years for art history to become a separate discipline in the modern universities of Germany and Austria-Hungary, and another half century to receive a separate chair at the Estonian national university in Tartu. The development of art history as a discipline at the University of Tartu is analysed on a very granular level, based on primary sources from Estonian and Swedish archives. During the 19th century art and its history were used to the ends of national politics and in search of national identities. In Estonia, this was hindered by the activities of another ethnic group, the Baltic-Germans, who had been the ruling class in the Baltic provinces of the Russian Empire. The first professor of art history at the Estonian University of Tartu, Helge Kjellin, wanted to bridge the gap between Estonian and Baltic art history. He attempted to merge these two concepts and define the territorial concept of Estonian art from the Middle Ages to the beginning of the 20th century. He also defined this as a proper field of study for Estonian art historians. However, after his departure from Estonia, art history was neglected and irrelevant for the Estonian University and the Estonian Republic. Science and academic professions were regarded as a masculine field of activity until after the Second World War. Only the lack of men, who had died in the war, enabled women to start seeking a more equal place in the academic world worthy of their intellectual ability. Despite there being many capable female students among those who studied art history with Kjellin, the first female professor of art history in Estonia, Krista Kodres, was elected to the Estonian Academy of Arts only in 2003.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 University of Tartu and the authors Wooden Manor Houses In Estonia 1700–1850: From Archaic Traditions to Modern Ideas 2023-08-22T08:19:51+00:00 Elis Pärn <p>Estonian manorial architecture has been a topic of interest to<br>architectural and art historians for the last hundred years, but<br>hundreds of wooden manor houses, of which many still exist day,<br>have largely remained unnoticed. The reason for this lack of research<br>into wooden architecture are manifold but can most easily be<br>associated with socially complex relationships and previous research<br>methods, resulting in the only monograph to date, Gustav Ränk’s <em>Die</em><br><em>älteren baltischen Herrenhöfe in Estland</em> (1971), which analysed wooden<br>architecture in the 17th century, known in Estonia as the Swedish<br>period. Since it is generally accepted that previous classifications<br>of wooden architecture do not allow for great conclusions, the aim<br>of this article is to give an overview of the architectural genesis of<br>wooden manor houses during the manorial ‘golden era’, asking how<br>modern ideas made their way into local architecture. In this regard,<br>this paper also deals with architectural treatises and handbooks from<br>the 18th and early decades of the 19th centuries and the question of<br>the adaptation of architectural theorists’ ideas to local architecture.<br>The genesis of Estonian wooden manorial architecture can be<br>divided into three distinguished periods that are similar to the overall<br>development of manorial architecture in the Baltics. Although the<br>very first wooden noble residences built at the beginning of the 18th<br>century were small urbaltisch buildings with a central chimney that<br>resembled those built in the Swedish era, newer architectural forms<br>more in touch with the architectural trends of the time appeared<br>on lands that had either escaped the negative consequences of the<br>Great Northern War and plague or had been donated by the Russian<br>rulers. In other places, manorial architecture continued with the<br>traditions, which began to change more strongly in the second half of<br>the century, reflecting the landlords’ greater need for representative<br>purposes. This not only brought changes to construction techniques<br>but also to the buildings’ overall appearance: most wooden dwellings<br>doubled in size and were decorated according to late Baroque or<br>early Neoclassical elements. More major changes took place in the<br>first decades of the 19th century, which gave contemporaries a chance<br>to describe wooden dwellings as ‘light and summery’, testifying to<br>changes in building traditions.<br>Since at this stage of research only a handful of building masters,<br>masons and construction carpenters are known to have worked in<br>the building of wooden manor houses, this article suggests that the<br>landlords may also have drawn the ground plans themselves, with the<br>help of architectural treatises and handbooks of the time. Although<br>the architectural ideas of Nikolaus Goldmann, Friedrich Christian<br>Schmidt and David Gilly are tangible, it is possible that in many<br>cases the influence was more indirect and depended on the general<br>stylistic and technical changes of the period. This architectural<br>conservativism can partly be explained by the fact that Baltic manors<br>largely depended on local craftsmen and peasants from nearby<br>villages, but also by the nobility’s general aversion to all things new.<br>A much more accessible treatise for many noblemen at the time may<br>have been the economic handbook written by local pastor August<br>Wilhelm Hupel, which included some thoughts on the building<br>process; however, since he did not introduce any new architectural<br>ideas, but rather carried on with the local traditions, it is possible<br>that his ideas were put to practice elsewhere, where landlords did<br>not actively live. The same conclusion can be drawn about the<br>standardised model façade projects, which made certain façades<br>compulsory for cities in the Russian Empire in the early decades<br>of the 19th century, but had very little effect on Estonian wooden<br>manor houses.<br>Although this article brings clarity to many aspects of wooden<br>manorial architecture, the most important contribution to the history<br>of Baltic manorial architecture is bringing attention to the fact that<br>wood as a building material was not only widespread but held a<br>dominant role in building practice. This not only emphasises Baltic<br>manorial architecture’s peripheral role on the map of European art,<br>but also creates new perspectives to delve deeper into the connections<br>with Scandinavia and other countries, where the material played a<br>part in the building practices of the higher and lower strata of society.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 University of Tartu and the authors Jean-Baptiste Du Bos: Reflections on Genius and Art 2023-08-22T08:42:44+00:00 Holger Rajavee <p>In 1719 Jean-Baptiste Du Bos publishes his treatise<em> Réflexions Critiques</em><br><em>sur la Poésia et sur la Peinture</em>, which Voltaire has called ‘the most<br>useful book that has ever be written on the subject by any European<br>nation’. In his book the author deals with the problem of artistic<br>genius, a phenomenon that was in focus from late 17th century in<br>many treatises on theory of art, especially in France and England.<br>This article concentrates on the interpretation of this particular<br>idea in the work of Du Bos, who tries to explain it through a wide<br>range of empirical examples, using the latest achievements from<br>different branches of science. His concept of ‘physiological genius’<br>and ‘climatic genius’ can be seen as unique. His reflections on<br>sensation-based aesthetic experience and the new way of defining<br>the relationship between the artist-genius and the dilettante art<br>experiencer, influenced later 18th century authors who wrote about<br>art theory and aesthetics (Lessing, Home, Herder, even Kant). Du<br>Bos's idea of wider public engagement with art, and art appreciation,<br>becomes relevant in the 18th and 19th centuries, so one can say that in<br>many respects Du Bos's treatment is ahead of its time and that these<br>ideas are also relevant in the contemporary context.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors Cultural and Artistic Dialogues in Galicia in the Second Half of the 20th Century 2023-08-22T08:47:04+00:00 Maryan Besaha Yuliya Babunych Orest Holubets <p>The research aims to define the dialogical nature of cultural<br>and artistic processes in the historical environment of late 20th<br>century Galicia, and to determine a list of significant events, artist<br>associations, and personalities. The Research methodology is based<br>on the principles of combining the system approach with historical<br>principles, comparison, and synthesis. Historical and cultural, and<br>formal-analytical, approaches with elements of comparative and<br>descriptive analysis are used.<br>The mutual impact of policy and authorities on the artistic<br>environment and education processes is analysed for the first time.<br>The movement of individual artistic practices and artist unions as<br>the main factors shaping the artistic environment in Galicia in the<br>second half of the 20th century is highlighted.<br>We conclude that pressure from the communist totalitarian<br>authorities on the artistic community in Galicia, deportations,<br>bullying, and isolation failed to destroy the structure of artistic<br>dialogue. With changes in leadership and control vectors, cultural and<br>artistic life searched for a unique form of expression, and Lviv (being<br>a centre of culture and education) played an important role in shaping<br>many new names that would later influence the environment. After<br>the collapse of the Soviet Union and the appearance of independent<br>Ukraine, the processes to rehabilitate artistic values, based on<br>national form and the dialogical form of the first third of the 20th<br>century, took place. Artist unions and new galleries that appeared<br>to cater to the needs of cultural and artistic life in Galicia became<br>instrumental in developing new artistic ideas both in Ukraine and<br>beyond. Consideration of views and the importance of the creativity<br>of individual artists and artist associations in cultural and artistic<br>processes in late 20th century Galicia created the preconditions by<br>which to determine the importance and patterns of social and political<br>influences on the development of Ukrainian art in the 20th and 21st<br>centuries.</p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors The Story of the Altarpiece of St Peter’s Church in Kõpu 2023-08-22T09:05:19+00:00 Hilkka Hiiop Reet Pius 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors Saint Dymphna by Goossen van der Weyden – An Up-to-date Princess 2023-08-22T09:10:27+00:00 Kerttu Palginõmm <p>In 2020, two major exhibitions brought to Tallinn by the Phoebus<br>Foundation, the largest private art collection in Belgium, opened at<br>the Art Museum of Estonia. While the exhibition at the Kadriorg<br>Art Museum exhibited numerous works from the Golden Age of the<br>Flemish painting, the exhibition at the Niguliste Museum made the<br>Dymphna altarpiece from the Goossen van der Weyden workshop<br>(ca 1505) its focus. The altarpiece was dismantled in the 19th century<br>after which the panel depicting the decapitation of Dymphna was lost.<br>The exhibition was accompanied by a monograph reflecting on the<br>major topics connected to the Dymphna altarpiece and presenting<br>the results of the conservation work carried out between 2017 and<br>2020. One of the aspects the book considers is the material culture<br>represented in the Dymphna altarpiece.<br>The clothing and textiles of the protagonists receive special attention<br>in the monograph, for example when questions such as if the garments<br>worn by the princess and the king are fashionable or out of date<br>are raised. This article explores this question taking the portraits<br>of Habsburg and Castilian princesses painted in around 1500 and<br>not used for comparison in the monograph as its point of departure.<br>In this paper I propose, that the clothing and accessories of<br>princess Dymphna are modelled on the image of contemporary<br>Habsburg-Castilian princesses, and that such modelling has political<br>implications. The role of Antwerp as a merchant city must also not<br>be forgotten in this context, as the appearance of luxury objects in an<br>artwork is in direct correlation with the city’s milieu of merchandise,<br>luxury production, and the marketing of the city.<br><br></p> 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors A Philosophical Eulogy for Ülo Matjus Who Knew How to Lead the Way 2023-08-22T09:13:22+00:00 Margit Sutrop 2023-08-22T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 University of Tartu and the authors