Baltic Journal of Art History <p>THE BALTIC JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY is a publication of the Department of Art History of&nbsp;the Institute of History and Archaeology of the University of Tartu.<br><br>The concept of the journal is to publish high-quality academic articles<br>on art history of a monographic character or in shorter form. These<br>articles are focused on new and interesting problems and artefacts<br>that can help broaden the communication and interpretation horizons<br>of art history in the Baltic Sea region and Europe. The journal has an<br>international editorial board and each submitted manuscript will be<br>reviewed by two anonymous reviewers. The board will pass the decision<br>on publishing the article on the basis of a short summary as well as the<br>full text and reviewers’ opinions.<br>The languages of the journal are English and German, but next to them<br>also Italian and French.</p> University of Tartu Press en-US Baltic Journal of Art History 1736-8812 Looking Back at the Roots of University of Tartu’s Department of Art History Juhan Maiste Kadri Asmer Copyright (c) 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 20 5 7 10.12697/BJAH.2020.20.00 Inside the Dwelling: Clay Figurines of the Jägala Jõesuu V Stone Age Settlement Site (Estonia) <p>Sculpted clay figurines were widespread in Stone Age Europe. They<br>were common in the hunter-gatherer communities in the territories<br>of Sweden, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Western and Northwestern<br>Russia. In these territories they were mainly associated with the<br>Comb, Pitted and Pit-Comb Ware cultures, ca 4000–2000 years<br>calBC. This paper examines clay sculptures from the Jägala Jõesuu<br>V Comb Ware culture settlement site in northern Estonia, where 91<br>fragments of figurines were found, making it the most abundant<br>deposits of clay figurines and their fragments in the eastern Baltic.<br>Among them, three different types of image were distinguished:<br>one zoomorphic (harbour porpoise) and two anthropomorphic. All<br>the figurines were fragmented intentionally in ancient times, as<br>determined by microscopic and experimental research. Most of the<br>fragments were situated in the filling of a pit-house, which indicates<br>that the dwelling had a sacral as well as a habitational dimension.<br>During the research process, Stone Age clay figurines from nine more<br>Comb Ware culture sites of Estonia and Ingria were catalogued. The<br>catalogue contains 13 previously published and 21 newly discovered<br>instances and radiocarbon dates taken at the sites, some of which<br>are being published for the first time.</p> Irina Khrustaleva Aivar Kriiska Copyright (c) 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 20 11 57 10.12697/BJAH.2020.20.01 Artistic Genius versus the Hanse Canon from the Late Middle Ages to the Early Modern Age in Tallinn <p>In the article, the author examines one of the most outstanding and<br>problematic periods in the art history of Tallinn as a Hanseatic city,<br>which originated, on the one hand, in the Hanseatic tradition and<br>the medieval approach to Gothic transcendental realism, and on<br>the other, in the approach typical of the new art cities of Flanders,<br>i.e. to see a reflection of the new illusory reality in the pictures. A<br>closer examination is made of two works of art imported to Tallinn<br>in the late 15th century, i.e. the high altar in the Church of the Holy<br>Spirit by Bernt Notke and the altarpiece of Holy Mary, which<br>was originally commissioned by the Brotherhood of Blackheads<br>for the Dominican Monastery and is now in St Nicholas’ Church.<br>Despite the differences in the iconography and style of the two<br>works, their links to tradition and artistic geography, which in this<br>article are conditionally defined as the Hanse canon, are apparent<br>in both of them.<br>The methods and rules for classifying the transition from the<br>Middle Ages to the Modern Era were not critical nor exclusive.<br>Rather they included a wide range of phenomena on the outskirts<br>of the major art centres starting from the clients and ending with</p> <p>the semantic significance of the picture, and the attributes that were<br>employed to the individual experiences of the different masters,<br>who were working together in the large workshops of Lübeck, and<br>somewhat later, in Bruges and Brussels.<br>When ‘reading’ the Blackheads’ altar, a question arises of three<br>different styles, all of them were united by tradition and the way<br>that altars were produced in the large workshops for the extensive<br>art market that stretched from one end of the continent to the other,<br>and even further from Lima to Narva. Under the supervision of<br>the leading master and entrepreneur (Hans Memling?) two other<br>masters were working side by side in Bruges – Michel Sittow, who<br>was born in Tallinn, and the Master of the Legend of Saint Lucy<br>were responsible for executing the task.<br>In this article, the author has highlighted new points of reference,<br>which on the one hand explain the complex issues of attribution<br>of the Tallinn Blackheads’ altar, and on the other hand, place<br>the greatest opus in the Baltics in a broader context, where, in<br>addition to aesthetic ambitions, both the client and the workshop<br>that completed the order, played an extensive role. In this way,<br>identifying a specific artist from among the others would usually<br>remain a matter of discussion. Tallinn was a port and a wealthy<br>commercial city at the foregates of the East where it took decades<br>for the spirit of the Renaissance to penetrate and be assimilated.<br>Instead of an unobstructed view we are offered uncertain and<br>often mixed values based on what we perceive through the veil of<br>semantic research.</p> Juhan Maiste Copyright (c) 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 20 59 80 10.12697/BJAH.2020.20.02 „Die vornehmsten Plätze und Gebäude, die in Danzig zu sehen sind“. Aegidius Dickmans Ansichten von Danzig 1617 <p>The paper discusses a set of etchings depicting different buildings<br>in Gdansk (Danzig) and different parts of the city, first published<br>in 1617. The artist was the little known Ægidius Dickman, active in<br>Gdánsk and probably also in the Netherlands in the first quarter of<br>the 17th century. In the same year that these etchings were published,<br>Dickman also finished a large birds-eye view of Gdánsk. The set<br>of town views and the panorama were both republished by Claes<br>Janszoon Visscher in 1625.<br>The author of the article discusses the relationship between<br>Dickman and Visscher and their collaboration on this project, as<br>well as their wider artistic relationship. Dickman seems to have been<br>trained in the Netherlands, the etchings proving his familiarity with<br>Visscher´s topographical prints.</p> Lars Olof Larsson Copyright (c) 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 20 81 107 10.12697/BJAH.2020.20.03 Three Sources of Michael Johann von der Borch’s Poem “The Sentimental Park of Varakļāni Palace” <p>History permits us to trace so-called Polish Inflanty, in the territory<br>of the former Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania, to the contemporary<br>Republic of Latvia. In this case we are particularly interested in the<br>estate of Warkland (Warklany, Varakļāni). The ensemble of manor<br>and park is typical for large estates in Eastern Europe, including a<br>village and its infrastructure and a separate manor and park as a<br>spatial, architectural, botanical and social entity.<br>Originating from Baltic-German nobility, ‘Polonised’ count<br>Michael Johann von der Borch-Lubeschitz und Borchhoff (1753–<br>1810) was the son of a Chancellor of Poland and Lithuania. He was<br>a member of several academies of science, in Siena, Dijon and Lion,<br>and penfriend of Voltaire and academicians in Russia and France.<br>After researching the mineralogy of Italy, Sicily, France, Germany,<br>England, the Netherlands and Switzerland M. J. von der Borch left<br>for his estate in Varakļāni, the Polonised part of eastern Livonia,<br>called Polish Inflanty. At this time he also composed literary works<br>and poems, among which is one remarkable piece of didactic and<br>emblematic content “The Sentimental Park of Varakļāni Palace” (Jardin<br>sentimental du château de Warkland dans le Comté de Borch en Russie<br>Blanche, 1795). This poem illustrates in a passionate and classical<br>way an emblematic approach to contemporary political structures,<br>and the goals of education in general. In Jardin sentimental, which<br>is a theoretical and didactic manual, Borsch describes, through the<br>metaphor of the estate park of Warkland, the route of an imaginative<br>hero, full of expectation and temptation.<br>The main subject of the report is an analysis of the text of the<br>poem contextualised by history and contrasted with evidence from<br>contemporary Warkland.</p> Ojārs Spārītis Copyright (c) 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 20 109 144 10.12697/BJAH.2020.20.04 The Bergholtz Collection: Architectural Drawings of the Palaces in Jelgava and Rundale from Nationalmuseum (Stockholm) <p>The article deals with two Courland palaces built by the Duke Ernst<br>Johann Biron in Mitau and Ruhental (today, respectively, Jelgava and<br>Rundale, Latvia) in connection with architectural drawings of the<br>so-called Bergholtz collection, which is part of the Tessin-Hårleman<br>Collection (THC) in Nationalmuseum in Stockholm. Twelve drawings<br>of the two Courland palaces make this collection of special interest<br>to those interested in the art of the Baltic region.<br>The first part of the paper is dedicated to the person of Friedrich<br>Wilhelm von Bergholtz and to his collection. Who was the creator<br>of the collection, what were the reasons to gather it and what other<br>drawings are stored there? Born in the German duchy of Holstein,<br>Bergholtz spent in all about 15 years in Russia. An extremely rich<br>and diverse collection of architectural drawings was gathered mainly<br>(presumably totally) during his third visit in 1742–1746 as tutor of<br>Karl-Peter-Ulrich, heir to the Russian throne and future emperor of<br>Russia under the moniker Peter III. The circumstances of compiling<br>the collection and reasons for it are quite obscure. All the assumptions<br>made by different authors remain mere guesswork. The greater<br>part of the Bergholtz collection deals with St Petersburg and its<br>surroundings. All other drawings, numbering 174 in total, refer<br>to Moscow, to several provinces of the Russian empire and to the<br>Duchy of Courland.<br>The second part of the article reveals and describes 12 sheets<br>from the Bergholtz collection dedicated to the Baroque palaces in<br>Courland constructed in the 1730s for duke Ernst Johann Biron<br>according to the projects of the great architect Francesco Rastrelli.<br>The research resulted in the discovery of seven sheets depicting plans<br>and façades of the palaces in Ruhental, showing how they are almost<br>exact copies of the original projects stored in the collection of the<br>Albertina museum in Vienna. Of the five drawings that represent<br>the palace in Mitau, two are also copies of the Vienna sheets, and<br>three are copies of completed projects. Thus, the most valuable among<br>the architectural drawings from the Bergholtz collection are three<br>drawings depicting the façade, and plans for two floors, of the palace<br>in Mitau – the only known copies of Rastrelli’s project, the originals<br>of which have not yet been discovered.</p> Georgy Smirnov Tatyana Vyatchanina Copyright (c) 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 20 145 172 10.12697/BJAH.2020.20.05 Utopia and Nostalgic Return <p>The term ‘traditional Japanese architecture’ often causes confusion<br>because people want the architecture of a certain period to either<br>continue endlessly, or to be substituted by some kind of facsimile.<br>This paper maintains that the roots of Japanese architecture continue<br>and that these roots make themselves evident at times of upheaval<br>and renewal.<br>Japan consists of a number islands which have had periods of<br>isolation both internationally, and nationally from ‘political lockdown’<br>within. And yet these periods of isolation have often produced<br>a veritable zenith in the houses of what Bruno Taut called “the<br>peasants”, and the author has chosen to call ‘commoners (minka)’.<br>One example this is the Japanese tea house, which came about at a<br>time of heightened military dominance. Castles were the strongholds<br>of power complete with large rooms in which the rituals of state<br>demanded order by rank. Beside this show of power came the humble<br>tea house, used for the simple tea ceremony, sometimes between as few as two people.</p> <p>The roots of this humble hut, if we can call it<br>such, carried with it the same structural principles as the minka, or<br>commoner’s house. A non-loadbearing structure of post and lintel<br>construction for the sole purpose of concentrating on “the sound of<br>boiling water”. Out of the dream of power came the need for humility.<br>The warrior’s power lay in the control of space; the tea master’s in the<br>control of time. The architecture responds. The building is an event</p> Fred Thompson Copyright (c) 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 20 173 187 10.12697/BJAH.2020.20.06 Heavenly Jerusalem – the Start or the Finish? Kaur Alttoa Copyright (c) 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 20 191 196 10.12697/BJAH.2020.20.07 Still Life with Grapes and Nest <p>A complex conservation process revealed the layer of the painting in<br>its original subtlety and delicate retouchings recreated the integral<br>surface of the painting. As a result, we can confirm that it is a painting<br>of high artistic quality dating most probably from the middle of<br>the 17th century, painted on an oak panel of German origin. We<br>remain doubtful about the Internet auction suggested authorship,<br>as the painting does not reach the artistic quality of Jan Davidsz<br>Dé Heem, a top rank artist from the Netherlands. It is possible to<br>continue with the art-historical analysis (and other investigations)<br>of the painting, to find further proof for the hypothetical dating and<br>maybe even reach an attribution but we must not forget to ask the<br>questions whether and to whom it would be necessary. What matters</p> <p>for the owner of the painting is the fact that an artwork which decorates</p> <p>the wall of his home has both aesthetic and historical value –</p> <p>even without knowing its exact date or the painter.</p> Hilkka Hiiop Andres Uueni Anneli Randla Alar Läänelaid Kristina Sohar Copyright (c) 2020-12-27 2020-12-27 20 197 211 10.12697/BJAH.2020.20.08