Baltic Journal of Art History <p>THE BALTIC JOURNAL OF ART HISTORY is a publication of the Department of Art History of&nbsp;the Institute of History and Archaeology of the University of Tartu.<br><br>The concept of the journal is to publish high-quality academic articles<br>on art history of a monographic character or in shorter form. These<br>articles are focused on new and interesting problems and artefacts<br>that can help broaden the communication and interpretation horizons<br>of art history in the Baltic Sea region and Europe. The journal has an<br>international editorial board and each submitted manuscript will be<br>reviewed by two anonymous reviewers. The board will pass the decision<br>on publishing the article on the basis of a short summary as well as the<br>full text and reviewers’ opinions.<br>The languages of the journal are English and German, but next to them<br>also Italian and French.</p> en-US (Juhan Maiste) (Kadri Asmer) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 13:47:14 +0200 OJS 60 CATHEDRALS AND CASTLES OF THE SEA: SHIPS, ALLEGORY AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE IN PRE-REFORMATION NORTHERN EUROPE <p>Revolving around the image of the Ship of the Church (<em>navis</em><br><em>ecclesiae</em>), this article explores the making of visual allegory in the<br>century between the end of the Great Schism (1378–1417) and the<br>beginning of the Protestant Reformation (1517 ff.). Of particular<br>interest here are those images in which the crucifix has been grafted<br>onto the mast and sail-yard of a ship (<em>antenna crucifixi</em>). The material<br>is placed in conversation with contemporary trends in the crafting<br>of complex allegories and new developments in both ship design<br>(most notably the introduction of the carrack into northern European<br>waters) and the visual representation of ships. The focus is mostly<br>on the German-speaking sphere, though select images originating<br>in the Italian peninsula are also taken into consideration.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 WOOD SPECIES AND THE QUESTION OF ORIGIN: REASSESSING THE SCULPTURE PRODUCTION IN THE DIOCESE OF TURKU (ÅBO) DURING THE 14TH CENTURY <p>This paper deals with choices of wood species in the 14th century<br>polychrome sculptures in the diocese of Turku (Åbo), Finland, the<br>easternmost part of the Swedish Realm in the Middle Ages. The aim of<br>the article is to draw an overall picture of the wood use in sculpture<br>and discuss the emergence of the local workshops in the diocese.<br>This is done by presenting new wood definitions and by taking these<br>into account the when analysing the sculptures’ style and form.<br>The emphasis on the research is on sculptures previously defined<br>as carved from birch and which thus are determined as Finnish or<br>Nordic of their origin. The methods for defining the wood species<br>have been ocular observation and microscopy analysis. The choice<br>of wood is approached from the perspective of the wood species<br>availability in the area and suitability for carving. The results of the<br>investigation indicate that in addition to oak, and instead of birch,<br>particularly alder (Alnus) was used in the locally manufactured sacral<br>sculptures, and in some cases using oak sculptures as models. Alder<br>was possibly favored due to its good availability and inexpensiveness<br>as well as workability. It can, however not be ruled out, that sculptures<br>of alder may have been imported to the bishopric as well.</p> Copyright (c) 2020 Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 INIURIA, IUSTITIA, PASSIO, PATIENTIA ET VICTORIA. ZUM FRÜHNEUZEITLICHEN BILD- UND TEXTPROGRAMM AUF DEM MITTELALTERLICHEN ALTARRETABEL IN DER KIRCHE VON PÖNAL (EST. LÄÄNE-NIGULA), 1598 <p>The article focuses on the Early Modern pictorial and textual<br>programme of the late medieval altarpiece of Lääne-Nigula Church.<br>The study examines the new iconographic programme of the 1598<br>altarpiece, its textual and pictorial models. The relationship between<br>the text and image is also analysed. The article looks at how the<br>images of virtues and female saints, as well as Latin verses, are<br>related to the Biblical scenes and the German-language text.<br>The analysis takes a closer look at potential donors, who were<br>members of influential Baltic-German noble families (the Uexkülls,<br>Tittfers, Hoesedes and Farensbachs). The Early Modern iconography<br>of the altarpiece, inspired by Christian humanism and contemporary<br>Flemish engravings, points to the potential female donors. Therefore,<br>the article takes a closer look at the family history of the donors in the<br>context of the complicated political history of Livonia in the second<br>half of the 16th century and its direct relationship to the renewed<br>pictorial and textual programme of the altarpiece.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 DIE ATTRIBUTE DER REVALER KAUFLEUTE – EIN BLICK AUF DAS RETABEL DES MARIENALTARES DER BRUDERSCHAFT DER SCHWARZENHÄUPTER <p>The article focuses on the Tallinn (Reval) altarpiece of St. Mary's altar of<br>the Brotherhood of the Blackheads, attributed to the Bruges Master of<br>the Legend of St. Lucy, which arrived in the late medieval city in 1493.<br>The altarpiece is noteworthy for its very dense network of luxurious<br>details like silk, velvet and gold cloth from Italy, ceramics from Spain,<br>tapestries from Netherlands and an oriental carpet from Anatolia. Early</p> <p>Netherlandish painting is notable for the very detailed, texture and<br>light-sensitive rendering of everyday and luxury objects, from which<br>the works of Jan van Eyck are the best examples.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 DEVELOPMENTS IN APPROACHES TO HERITAGE IN ESTONIA: MONUMENTS, VALUES, AND PEOPLE <p>The purpose of this article is to look at the ways in which heritage is<br>approached, based on the conceptual framework of critical inheritance<br>research. In case of approaches to inheritance, I distinguish between<br>object-based, value-based, and people-centered approaches –<br>depending on which aspects of the heritage are at the heart of the<br>inheritance management process. I use different case studies from<br>the Estonian context as examples. I am particularly interested in the<br>changes in heritage management in the time frame of the 1970s and<br>1980s to the present day.<br>In order to describe object-based heritage management, I will<br>use Kalvi Aluve’s book “The story about architectural monuments”<br>(1983). It is a popular work targeted for the general public, which is<br>why many of the views and concepts that are obviously used on a<br>daily basis by those involved in the matter and have often become<br>an invisible part of the work culture, are explained in detail and<br>defined. Value-based inheritance management sets at the heart of<br>heritage the values attributed to heritage by the various stakeholders<br>in society. While in object-based heritage management people act as<br>groups against the backdrop of monuments, this approach shifts the<br>values that people attach to heritage objects and heritage phenomena<br>to the forefront.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 SLOW AND DISCONNECTED? THE HISTORIOGRAPHY OF 17TH–18TH CENTURY GLASS IN ESTONIA AND THE PROSPECTS OF INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH BASED ON A CASE STUDY OF PÄRNU COUNTY <p>This article provides an overview of the research into 17th–18th<br>century glass in Estonia that has been lacking to date. Works on<br>industrial archaeology, artefact studies and genealogy are discussed,<br>thereby offering a useful reference point for comparative studies on<br>regional dynamics, influences on glass consumption and production,<br>and the origins of foreign products, merchants and glassmakers. The<br>use of art as an iconographic source is described in an attempt to<br>present material that could help to realise art history’s full potential<br>in studying glass in Estonia during this period. The potential of<br>interdisciplinary research that combines all of the sources noted<br>above is highlighted through a case study on the research prospects<br>of Pärnu glassworks based on previously unstudied and unpublished<br>data. Based on information from archival records, genealogy,<br>cartography and typology, it is determined that a factory did exist<br>in Pärnu in the first half of the 17th century that could potentially be<br>even older than the factory at Hüti. This could significantly change<br>our understanding of the beginning of glass production in Estonia.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 CARL JULIUS SENFF (1804–1832) ALS ARCHITEKT UND GRAFIKER. ERGÄNZUNGEN ZUR BAUGESCHICHTE DER UNIVERSITÄT ZU TARTU (DORPAT) <p>Carl Julius Senff (1804–1832) as an Architect and Graphic Arti st. Additions<br>to the Building Hi story of the University of Tartu Ensemble.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200 THE BALTIC PORTRAIT AND STILL LIFE PAINTER ALEXANDRA VON BERCKHOLTZ (1821–1899) <p>The Baltic artist Alexandra von Berckholtz was among the most<br>important portrait painters of her time. However, her works had<br>disappeared from art-historical memory because, after her death, they<br>were sold and spread all over the world. An international research<br>project started in 2014 was able to rediscover her works and her life<br>story.<br>Von Berckholtz was given her first art lessons in 1841 by the court<br>painter Louis Wagner in Karlsruhe, Germany. From 1847 until 1854<br>she studied in Paris at the studio of the history painter Joseph-Nicolas<br>Robert-Fleury, who had considerable influence on her pictorial<br>style which combined realism and idealism. Another significant<br>influence was Richard Lauchert, a former student and close friend<br>of Franz Xaver Winterhalter. Von Berckholtz’s numerous travels,<br>e.g. to Switzerland, France, and the Czech Republic, were also a<br>rich source of inspiration. She changed the conventions of nobility<br>portrait and concentrated on still lifes in her later work, in which<br>she reflected the Dutch style of the Baroque period. Alexandra von<br>Berckholtz associated with important personalities from the fields<br>of art, music, politics, and technology, and was socially active.</p> Copyright (c) Mon, 30 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0200