Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 2020-02-09T14:41:28+02:00 Marin Laak Open Journal Systems <span style="font-size: small;">METHIS. STUDIA HUMANIORA ESTONICA on Tartu Ülikooli kultuuriteaduste ja kunstide instituudi j<span class="tabeltootajategrupeerimine1"><span style="font-weight: normal;">a </span></span>Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi kultuuriloolise arhiivi ühisväljaanne, ilmumissagedusega kaks korda aastas (juuni ja detsember). Ajakiri on rahvusvahelise kolleegiumiga ja eelretsenseeritav</span> Kirjanduslikest linnauuringutest / On Literary Urban Studies 2020-02-09T14:41:28+02:00 Jason Finch <p>Käesolev artikkel tutvustab kirjanduslike linnauuringute (<em>Literary Urban Studies</em>, <em>LUS</em>) uuemaid suundi, visandab olulisemad uurimismeetodid ja eristab neid teistest võimalikest käsitlusviisidest linnakultuuridele, ruumilisusele ja kehalisele kogemusele. Kirjanduslikud linnauuringud seisavad vastu varasemate linnauuringute katsetele teha üldistusi mingil hetkel kuulsaimate või suurimate linnade põhjal. Kirjanduslikud linnauuringud varustavad humanitaarteaduste uurijad vahendite, sealhulgas mõistetega, mis on rakendatavad mistahes perioodi kirjandusele ükskõik millises keeles.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>In the 2010s, a new Literary Urban Studies (hereafter LUS) has developed. It combines spatial humanities scholarship with activism and other public concerns. The Association for Literary Urban Studies (ALUS) has been a key player in developing the new LUS. Publications produced by scholars connected to ALUS have been geographically wide-ranging. They have also developed interests in specific conceptual areas of LUS, including second cities and ‘citiness’, or the cultural elements that are specific to the city and the urban condition. Key issues arising from contemporary ‘citiness’ include the operation of networks, scales and hierarchies in urban cultures. Walter Benjamin called Paris the ‘capital of the nineteenth century’, but LUS looks beyond cities judged the most primary or alpha-level. Studies in the new LUS so far produced engage with and practice urban history and urban planning studies, applying literary reading techniques to texts not commonly judged literary (incuding policy and planning texts, or trial transcripts). Literature has a particular potential for urban planners and activists as a means of staging possibilities for one city or all cities.</p> <p>Despite these boundary-crossing inclinations, LUS is coherent and distinctive. This can be shown by contrasting it with several other activities that somewhat resemble it. LUS belongs in the academic humanities not, with urban studies, in the interdisciplinary social sciences. It is in part an outgrowth of the ‘spatial turn’ associated with names like Lefebvre, de Certeau and Anglophone critical geographers, but it does not consider cities as mere instances of spatiality, however socially produced. It draws on phenomenological accounts of placed human experience but juxtaposes individuals’ perspectives with larger-scale ones. It is multidisciplinary and focused on real-world objects, and cannot be classed as a type of literary geography, which applies geographical methods to literary objects. Nor, as outlined in this article, is LUS to be confused with other areas of spatial investigation, from geocriticism and Deep Locational Criticism to psychogeography and deep topography. It is more multi-polar and more systematic than these approaches focused on the individual human or the individual city over time tend to be. LUS functions in tandem with but not as part of the current mobilities paradigm of the social sciences (recognising the non-static nature of cities). It retains a belief in literature as a primary material which distinguish it from urban cultural studies and other multimedial methods in city investigation.</p> <p>After outlining the emergence of the new LUS and distinguishing it from these alternative approaches, the article examines another account of the relationship between literature and the city, Franco Moretti’s. For Moretti, city literature is essentially modern and a literature of social (more than physical) mobility. The work of Moretti shares with earlier research for example by Benjamin, or the Chicago School in sociology, a belief that in the words of Bart Keunen ‘an impression of magnitude’ was central in twentieth-century views of city cultures. LUS contrasts with this by emphasizing relatively neglected cities, literatures and neighbourhoods, often focusing on the more culturally underdetermined areas in which populations live everyday lives and work. Contra Moretti the image of the city varies across literary forms and genres, and its later expressions are not just ‘a hollowing out’ of that found in classics of nineteenth-century realism. Despite later work foundational to literary spatial studies, the 1980s, at least, Moretti seems now surprisingly unconfident about LUS as a discipline. In the late 2010s, emergent disciplines fuel LUS in new ways, among them the radical urban scholarship of AbdouMaliq Simone and Ananya Roy, and advances in digital humanities research (including those with which Moretti has been involved).</p> <p>Next, the article glances at some foundational figures for LUS from the personal perspective of the author: Jane Jacobs, Doreen Massey, Jeff Malpas and Eric Prieto. Working in urban studies, critical human geography, place philosophy and spatial literary phenomenology respectively, all humanize actual city environments and challenge simplistic conclusions about ‘the city’. Jacobs’s notion of ‘adventuring in the real world’ could help form a manifesto for LUS. The conclusion of the article emphasizes the capaciousness of LUS. This goes beyond individuals of the artist and writer class, and the districts where they have tended to live, opening up textual and experiential equivalents of what Simone calls ‘urban majority’ areas. It may not be at all clear to us what settlements appeared urban in earlier historical eras. LUS enables comparisons between cities of different magnitudes, and the restoration of personhood to city-dwellers and city areas that have had it stripped from them.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Baltisaksa piirilinn. Eduard von Stackelbergi ja Monika Hunniuse Narvad / A Baltic-German Border Town: Eduard von Stackelberg’s and Monika Hunnius’s Narvas 2020-02-09T14:41:26+02:00 Marika Peekmann Reet Bender <p>Käesolev artikkel käsitleb piirilinna Narva kujutamist kahe baltisaksa autori – laulja ja laulupedagoogi Monika Hunniuse (1858–1934) ning provintsiaalpoliitiku Eduard von Stackelbergi (1867–1943) mälestustes. Nende lapse- ja nooruspõlve meenutustest koorub välja baltisaksa Narva – linn, mida pärast II maailmasõda enam olemas ei ole ning mis on suuresti ununenud ka eesti kultuurimälus. Oma geograafilise asetuse ning arhitektuurilise ja kultuurilise mitmekesisusega joonistub Narvast valitud baltisaksa mälestustes välja oluline lääne kultuuri ja saksluse eelpost idas.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The article focuses on the border town of Narva as it emerges in the memoirs of two Baltic German authors – the singer and singing pedagogue Monika Hunnius (1858–1934) and the provincial politician Eduard von Stackelberg (1867–1943). Their recollections of their days of childhood and youth reveal a Baltic German Narva, a city that ceased to exist with World War II and has been largely wiped from Estonian cultural memory. Due to the city’s geographic position as well as its architectural and cultural diversity, these Baltic German memoirs provide a sketch of Narva as a city of symbolic value experienced as an outpost of German culture in the East.</p> <p>Narva has been depicted by the historian of culture and author of non-fiction Erik Thompson in his albums of the city that highlight the specialness of the Baltic German Narva – the Western, German cultural space reached its limit in the border town, while beyond it, the Eastern, Russian cultural space began. The border town was also depicted in literary writings, many of them short poems. The memoirs of Monika Hunnius and Eduard von Stackelberg, however, contain a more extensive retrospective look at Narva as it was in their childhood and youth. Stackelberg went to school in Narva, residing with his parents at Sillamäe during the vacations, and left the city without regret, while Hunnius, who actually lived in the city, remembers it as a nostalgic home space full of sunshine to which she later longs to return.</p> <p>The most important topics emerging from Hunnius’s and Stackelberg’s descriptions of Narva are connected with the town’s geographical location and its social-political conditions. The most significant among these are the river serving as a border, contrasts and confrontations, the German cultural space in Narva, religion as a phenomenon creating and breaking down boundaries, and the (lost) glory of Narva and its close vicinity.</p> <p>For Stackelberg, Narva symbolises a strong border that has found expression in its geographical situatedness at the end of one cultural space and the beginning of another. He sees Narva as an outpost of German culture and his experiences there are coloured by conflicts with the students of the Russian school and the self-protection attempts of Germanness. Like Hunnius, he experiences buildings as symbols of a German Narva that today can only be considered a site in cultural memory. In addition, he creates an opposition between the baroque old town and the ‘ugly’ new suburbs; also, the ritual battles that take place between students are with the boys from the suburbs. As regards the border between the East and the West, Stackelberg even draws a parallel with ancient Rome and calls it a <em>limes</em>, thus comparing the Germans with Romans and the Russians with barbarians. By the time of Stackelberg, the city is declining as its commerce has shifted to Tallinn and St. Petersburg.</p> <p>Due to the profession of Hunnius’s father, a Lutheran pastor, for her the scene of confrontations between the East and the West is that of the church where Russian Orthodoxy and Lutheranism clash. Although the boundary between different denominations is vague in Narva, even a positive contact with Russians through a beloved Russian nanny will not counterbalance the negative experience of an Orthodox service nor prevent the creation of a mental boundary between ’us’ and ’them’.</p> <p>Neither of the memoirs is restricted only to the city of Narva: Hunnius’s childhood paradise also includes a summer house called Schmetzky close to the town, while Stackelberg describes the manor of Sillamäe and the atmosphere of the summer getaway, including an endless quarrel with the neighbours over the boundaries of the land.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Rebenenud linn. II maailmasõja linnamaastikud Bernard Kangro Tartu-tsükli kolmes viimases romaanis / A Ruptured City: Cityscapes of World War II in the Second Trilogy of Bernard Kangro’s Tartu Cycle 2020-02-09T14:41:25+02:00 Ene-Reet Soovik <p>Artiklis käsitletakse linnaruumi kujutamist Bernard Kangro romaanides „Kivisild“ (1963), „Must raamat“ (1965) ja „Keeristuli“ (1969), lähtudes kultuurigeograafia valdkonnast pärinevast rebenenud maastiku mõistest. Vaadeldakse, kuidas Kangro kirjeldab muutusi Tartu linnapildis II maailmasõja ajal, keskendudes nii tehislikule kui ka looduskeskkonnale. Kirjaniku poolt paguluses loodud Tartu-kujutustes esile tõusvaid maastiku- ja miljööelemente kõrvutatakse uurimustega, mida pärast 1941. aasta sõjapurustusi viis läbi Tartu Linnauurimise Toimkond geograaf Edgar Kandi juhtimisel, ning leitakse paralleele muutusi vahetult kirjeldanud loodusteadusliku ja retrospektiivse kirjandusliku lähenemise vahel.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The article proceeds from the concept of ruptured landscape that Jonathan Miles-Watson, Hugo Reinert and Helen Sooväli-Sepping propose in their edited volume Ruptured Landscapes: Landscape, Identity and Social Change (2015). Sharp ruptures, discontinuations and changes in society are reflected in accompanying abrupt landscape changes, which in turn affect the lives of the inhabitants of the landscape. The cityscapes appearing in the three last novels of Bernard Kangro’s (1910-1994) Tartu Cycle: Kivisild (“The stone bridge” 1963), Must raamat (“The black book” 1965) and Keeristuli (“Whirlfire” 1969) can certainly be considered ruptured cityscapes. In these works that Kangro wrote while in exile in Sweden, the city of Tartu is depicted as an occupied territory and as a frontline city in the period 1939–44. Dramatic glimpses are also gained of Tallinn in the wake of the Soviet bombing raids of the German-occupied Estonia in March 1944. The novels testify to breaks and fractures in the material texture of the cityscape that accompany the political violence, while the characters’ relationships, movement opportunities and even temporal coordinates are torn apart. In the wake of the events described, the author himself was torn away from home as he fled from Estonia in 1944.</p> <p>The article discusses Kangro’s cityscapes with a focus on the built and the natural environments from among the four main dimensions of literary cities suggested by Hana Wirth-Nesher. Still, the human and verbal dimensions are also represented in detail and appear in rich combinations with the former two. The novels’ cityscapes are observed side by side with the activities of the Tartu Urban Studies Committee that were started in 1941, after Tartu had been a frontline town suffering from near continuous incendiary artillery fire for two weeks. The Committee, led by Edgar Kant, Professor of Economic Geography at the University of Tartu, launched a research initiative to document the changes in the immedate situation in the city, aiming to fix and describe even short-lived phenomena in the ruined city that could be expected to be erased and forgotten soon. Kangro’s literary descriptions, created in the 1960s, have much in common with the research team’s eyewitness accounts of the devasted city as regards visual details observed. However, the research accounts remained in Estonia and were published only in the twenty-first century. Thus Kangro could not have consulted them when working on the novels.</p> <p>The most acute rupture in the texture of the city was the detonation by the retreating Soviet Army of the eighteenth-century Stone Bridge that was given to Tartu by Catherine the Great and had been one of its most imposing visual landmarks. This event initiated the devastation of the city on 9 June 1941 and it is symptomatic that the title of the first novel of the wartime trilogy derives from the loss of this architectural monument, which was an artery of traffic between the banks of the Emajõgi River. The symbolic aura that the Stone Bridge acquired in Kangro’s work in general has been pointed out by several critics. Kangro pays most attention to the damage incurred in 1941, but also touches upon later bombing raids and the military activities announcing the second approach of the front in 1944. The air raid scenes strongly feature Wirth-Nesher’s category of the human environment, as people are depicted escaping or attempting to save their belongings. The novels also insistently remind readers of the natural environment, ranging from the town’s topography, set in a valley, to the weather and the plants growing in the city. A particularly salient detail is scorched and broken trees left behind from the artillery attacks that nevertheless may retain some green branches promising survival. The life-affirming power of damaged trees, and nature in general also appears in Kangro’s other works.</p> <p>Both the literary and the scholarly depictions emphatically involve the senses: not just vision, but also olfactory and tactile perception. In consequence, readers’ attention is often focused not so much on the landscape, but on the proximity, defined by Kant and his mentor, the Finnish geographer Johannes Gabriel Granö, as the spatial complex observable by the senses that is closest to the observer. Both geographers and writers of fiction select certain elements for their creative or research projects. In the case of Kangro it seems that in creating his imaginary cityscapes in a period of rupture he has concentrated on several aspects that were also shared by the research team of geographers led by Kant who would continue his career in exile at Lund University, in the same Swedish city that became Kangro’s home.&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Kreml ja Kreenholm, Talvepalee ja Toompea. Linnad stalinismiaja eesti luules / The Kremlin and Kreenholm, the Winter Palace and Toompea hill: Cities in Estonian Poetry of the Stalinist Era 2020-02-09T14:41:24+02:00 Mart Velsker <p>Artikkel käsitleb linnade kujutamist Nõukogude Eesti luules aastatel 1940–1955, analüüsimiseks on võetud sel ajal ilmunud luuleraamatud. Eestis kuulutati siis üldkehtivaks kirjanduslikuks meetodiks sotsialistlik realism. Esteetilised printsiibid kujunesid siiski kirjandusliku praktika käigus, sageli kirjutati luuletusi Moskvast ja Leningradist ning nende eeskujul õpiti kujutama ka kohalikke Eesti linnu eesotsas Tallinnaga. Linnaruum – nagu teisedki stalinistliku kultuuri komponendid – oli politiseeritud, mis tähendas esimeses järjekorras sakraliseeritud ruumimudeli ülekannet tekstidesse.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The article aims to give a survey of cities and urban spaces appearing in Soviet Estonian poetry of the Stalinist period. All in all, 93 Estonian-language collections of poetry were published in Soviet Estonia between 1940 and 1955, but not all of these contained urban topics.&nbsp; Estonia was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940 and this brought about an abrupt change in literary texts produced in the country because literature had to take into account the regulations imposed by the doctrine of Socialist Realism and the personality cult of Joseph Stalin. In connection with this, representations of urban space became ideologised in a novel manner. It is difficult to tease forth explicit aesthetic prescriptions from the doctrine of Socialist Realism, but a unified aesthetics was developed in the course of literary practice by authors who copied one another in order not to err unwittingly. The political surveillance of literature increased at the turn of the 1940s and 1950s; it is in this period that the most pronounced standardisation of modes of representation can be observed.</p> <p>Several cities are mentioned in Estonian poetry of the Stalinist era, but implicit rules governing the depiction of urban space become most readily evident in case of five cities. Among these were the largest cities in Russia (Moscow and Leningrad, today’s St. Petersburg) and in Estonia (Tallinn, Tartu and Narva). Depictions of Moscow and Tallinn are the most numerous. Representing Moscow is subject to rules in a particularly noticeable way: the capital of the Soviet Union had to contain the overarching spirit of Stalin and Lenin, and the city was represented as the static central point of a superpower or even of the whole world. In the city space of Moscow, Red Square with Lenin’s mausoleum and the Kremlin emerges as a sacralised space. In comparison with Moscow, the image of Leningrad is somewhat more dynamic for the city is often evoked as the starting point of the 1917 revolution, and Leningrad also appears as a city important in connection with World War II.</p> <p>Representing Tallinn proceeded from the understanding that the capital of the Estonian SSR had to be an unmediated reflection of the power emanating from Moscow. The representations of Tallinn are more varied, though, for the authors more often tended to have a personal relationship with the city. The most important landmark emerging in representations of Tallinn is the medieval tower of Tall Hermann on Toompea hill that serves as the most important flag tower in Estonia. Even in Stalin-era poetry Tallinn was often perceived as ‘ancient’, (the epithet ‘old’ is repreated in many poems), which is partly paradoxical as the pathos of Socialist Realism would prefer to speak of the birth of new cities. The paradox was resolved by introducing a dialectics of ‘old’ and ‘young’ cities; solutions were also offered in the so-called poetry of reconstruction that encouraged the removal of wartime ruins and the erection of new buldings.</p> <p>As concerns other Estonian cities, some poems focus on Narva as a significant industrial town. Tartu had been important in the earlier national history, but its significance waned now that Tallinn’s was rising. Tartu’s reputation as a university town survived into the Soviet period, however, and even the poetry of the Stalinist era contains some depictions of academic life. The urban centres of both Tartu and Narva suffered major damage in World War II, but the ruins receive only scant mention in verse. Still, they are not hidden and war is a recurring topic in the case of both cities.</p> <p>Depiction of large cities, huge spatial elements and city centres suited the poetry of Stalin’s era. Small towns seemed meaningless in this context and outskirts only obtained a meaning in case events of the past were described – thus, slums, represented as the living quarters of workers close to the city limits, would harbour a revolutionary spirit. In the case of contemporary Soviet cities, the outskirts played no particular role, as all the politically favoured meanings were located in the centre.</p> <p>A couple of publicatons specifically underscored the significance of cities, e.g the thematic anthology <em>The Heart of the Homeland: Poetry Dedicated to Moscow by Estonian Authors</em> (1947) and two books dedicated to Tallinn, Debora Vaarandi’s <em>The Old Man from Lake Ülemiste and the Young City Builder</em> (1952) and Paul Rummo’s <em>A Letter from Tallinn</em> (1955). The era’s most significant urban poets include Johannes Barbarus, Debora Vaarandi, Paul Rummo, Mart Raud, Ralf Parve and Vladimir Beekman. The modes of expression of these authors may vary, but their individual styles are less clearly expressed than is usual in poetry, because different authors’ styles became relatively uniform due to the canonised aesthetics of Socialist Realism.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Ida-Virumaa ülesehitamisest pärast sõda kirjanduses ja filmikunstis / On the Reconstruction of the Ida-Virumaa Region in Post-War Literature and Film 2020-02-09T14:41:22+02:00 Elle-Mari Talivee <p>Artiklis on vaadeldud Narva ja Sillamäe linnast inspireeritud kirjandust ja üht mängufilmi, mis tegelevad lähemalt maastikuloomega ning kohamälu tekitamisega pärast II maailmasõda. Sõjajärgse Kirde-Eesti ülesehitamine tööstuspiirkonnana on peegeldunud memuaristikas, tagasivaatelistes omaeluloolistes tekstides ning oma kaasajas ehitust kajastavates allikates. Vaadeldud näited avavad seda, kuidas on kirjeldatud nõukogude perioodi tööstuslinna, alustades sõjajärgsest taastamistööst ning lõpetades Andrei Hvostovi tagasivaatega nõukogudeaegsele lapsepõlvelinnale. Tekstide analüüs võimaldab märgata sõjaeelse maastiku transformeerumist tööstusmaastikuks, selle kajastuste vastuolulisust ning sõltuvust kirjutamisajast.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The article observes literary depictions of two towns in North-East Estonia, Narva and Sillamäe, both of which were reconstructed as industrial towns after World War II, in fiction, life writing and a film script, as well as in a feature film made on the basis of the latter. The texts are simultaneously engaged in the making of landscape and creation of local memory after the region’s dramatic change caused by the war.</p> <p>Ida-Virumaa became an industrial region in the second half of the nineteenth century; the Kreenholm Textile factory was one of the world’s largest by the end of the century. In 1916, industrial mining for oil shale was started in North-East Estonia. Oil shale was a strategic resource in World War II as well. In 1944, with the second occupation of Estonia by the Soviet Union, uranium mining was started as a secret object of interest for the military industry.</p> <p>The historical town of Narva was almost completely destroyed in World War II. Few buildings were restored, while the city was filled with blocks of flats typical of the Soviet period and the historical street network was transformed significantly. Still, Narva did not become a utopian Stalinist city – in Estonia, the only example of the latter is Sillamäe, a closed city built according to an all-Union standardised project, that attempted to embody an image of Communist happiness.</p> <p>Postwar literary depictions of Narva have often proceeded from the baroque city centre that has become a separate symbolic site of memory. In the more recent past, different genres have started to complement one another, different periods have been compared and, as a result, representations of various spaces have received a more analytic artistic treatment that connects the pre-war period with the post-war one.</p> <p>The first set of texts discussed here consists of POW memoirs of the immediate post-war reconstruction works, set down some decades later. After that, contemporary reflections of the reconstruction in Soviet Estonia in the 1950s-1960s are considered. Finally, attention is paid to texts that comment on the reconstruction era from a larger temporal distance: a backward look at Soviet-time Sillamäe from 2011 (expanded edition 2014) by Andrei Hvostov, a journalist with a degree in history, who spent his childhood in the town. Hvostov’s memoirs and his short stories on similar topics that were published earlier serve as attempts at parallel interpretations of several possible local memories. A work that in a way unites all three periods is Vladimir Beekman’s novel <em>The Narva Waterfall</em> (1986). Its protagonist Stiina was born and grew up in Narva, left the war-ravaged city and criticises harshly the changes that have taken place in the city.</p> <p>The examples of memoirs, retrospective autobiographical texts and sources reflecting their contemporary period also reveal how industrial cities of the Soviet era have been depicted in different periods. An analysis of the texts discloses the transformation of the prewar landscape into an industrial one, the contradictory nature of its descriptions, as well as dependence of the latter on the time of writing. Examples are given of the possibilities of representing large-scale industrial constructions that significantly also involve not just the creation of new values but also the way of doing this – reflecting the work of the <em>udarniki </em>of the Young Communist League. According to Katerina Clark’s typology of Stalinist novels, one of the texts observed, the film script concerning the shock workers’ building of the Balti Thermal Power Plant to which the youth from the Young Communist League contributed, can be categorised as the most widespread and ritualised type of Soviet fiction, the so-called production novel.</p> <p>The selection of texts discussed in the article is by no means exhaustive and the Ida-Virumaa region may offer fruitful material for future studies using the categories of space and memory, both as regards ways of describing a real region in literature as well as analysing the stories clustered around a site of memory. The notion of a literary city emerging in the texts is broad, as areas and objects with different functions form part of it. The observed texts display an interesting conflict in spatial memory: a deliberate loss of memory induced during a certain period and the creating of something new as if into a void can be emphasised as can be using rhetorical devices to bring forth a new spatial representation, a site of memory in its own right.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Enam kui kahanevad postindustriaalsed linnad: Detroiti ja Narva linnaruumilised kestvused / More than Shrinking Postindustral Cities: Durations of Urban Spaces in Detroit and Narva 2020-02-09T14:41:21+02:00 Tarmo Pikner <p>Artikkel mõtestab kogemuspõhiste lugude kaudu kahaneva linna olemust, mida sageli määratletakse eelkõige majanduspoliitiliste katkestuste ja kahaneva rahvaarvu kaudu. Kahte autobiograafilist jutustust kõrvutav temaatiline sisuanalüüs toob esile Detroiti ja Narvaga seonduvad linnalisuse-kogemused, mis ilmestavad postindustriaalseid muutusi. Struktuurse kriisi kontekstualiseerimine linnade kahanemises näitab omakorda mitmeid linnaruumilisi kestvusi ja alternatiive otsivad kultuuripraktikaid. Linnalisuse ümbermõtestamine avaldub siin ruraalsete omaduste ja piiride esitamisega linnamaastikes. Ilukirjanduslike jutustuste ja nende kaudu esitatud lugude põimimine kahanevate linnade uurimusse võimaldab märgata kriisi mõjude ambivalentsust ning seejuures uurida kompleksset mitmesuunalist linnastumist.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The article analyses the characteristics and appearances of shrinking cities, which are too often framed in terms of structural economic ruptures and population decline. The notion of “structural crisis” needs to be contextualised in opening up diverse experiences of transformation in postindustrial urbanity. The study includes the literary stories represented in two books about the cities of Narva and Detroit:&nbsp; Katri Raik’s <em>Minu Narva</em> (2013) and Francesca Berardi’s <em>Detour in Detroit</em> (2015). These autobiographical narratives were brought together along with qualitative content analysis, which focused on the emergent qualities of postindustrial cities: rurality, social change, political boundaries and trajectories of the future.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The books analysed represent the shrinking of cities as part of their story of evolution, although the focus is on contemporary situations.&nbsp; This way of seeing adds the time dimension to changes of urban landscapes, working to observe possible trajectories of the future in on-going events. These autobiographical narratives about the cities’ sudden transformations articulate diverse experiences and practices connected to living together, with shrinking infrastructures and economic turbulence.&nbsp; The shrinking city appears as an ambivalent assemblage, because wasteland and unlit silence generate affective fears for one person, but somebody else will associate these conditions with freedom of practice and of interpretation. The decline of industry as a marker of structural crisis flickers in the narrated landscapes. Beside this, lively initiatives are represented, which associate industrial decline with the potential for emergent new beginnings. Some possible solutions to the postindustrial crisis become entangled with changes in everyday streetscapes. The narratives indicate that there is no reason to view the cities’ shrinkage as a total crisis extending into all spheres of urban life.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>Comparing these narratives about Detroit and Narva revealed similarities in the changes and in the experiences of the landscapes of the shrinking cities. The large-scale end of industrial production, the rapid decline of inhabitants and ethnic segregation – these are shared aspects of the shrinkage and in Narva, post-socialist transformation is a further factor. Therefore, the context and crisis of post-industrial urbanity evolve through diverse glocal interactions. The narratives show that global change and crisis inhabits particular places, and the search for solutions can lead to shifting urban characteristics. Reductions in municipal infrastructure made the cities more rural, so that such characteristics of dispersed settlements as silence, less lighting and growth of edible plants became widespread in them. Therefore, the framings of ‘nature’ and ‘rural’ in processes of post-industrial urbanity require more attention in future research. The (temporary) shrinkage renders visible coexistences between urbanity and nature-based practices, which problematize both the city as a form and the assumption that trends of global urbanisation are linear.</p> <p>The boundaries and borders that appear in different scales can be approached as spatial spheres of coexistence, which transform in the crisis and simultaneously try to reproduce social integrity. Geopolitical territories appear side by side with the shifting of meaningful boundaries in the streetscapes. In Narva, the nearness of the frontier came, through events, into the everyday lives of people, affecting situations and indicating possible alternatives. Border-making entanglements with geopolitical neighbours were not so important in Detroit’s narrative, but changes in the city were presented as a sensitive barometer offering understanding of wider post-industrial transformations. The experience-based and comparative approach to tendencies in the shrinking city indicated a slowness and temporal shift which exist in the middle of turbulence. This spatiotemporal shift exists with fragmentary infrastructures, which accumulate certain cultural practices and simultaneously push to find alternatives for the future.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>These texts, with their diverse narratives, enrich the spectre of experience in approaching the tendencies displayed by shrinking cities. The situations and emotional affects represented in the stories can give important hints towards new methods for analysing and rethinking the tendencies summed up as the “shrinking city”. A contextual approach is needed to explain settings experiencing structural crisis, which often becomes to frame the shrinking cities. In the narratives analysed, the flickering post-industrial crisis appears alongside a combination of shifting cultural and economic tendencies, which as well as disturbances also generate spatial conditions and publics for re-inscription of political alternatives. Declining industrial production in cities is combined with diverse processes of shrinkage, change-seeking initiatives and durations of urban spaces, helping people cope with sudden turbulences and create meaningful places.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Maailmalinnad ja teisesed linnad: kasvu ja hübriidsuse kujutlus moodsas kirjanduses / World Cities and Second Cities: Imagining Growth and Hybridity in Modern Literature 2020-02-09T14:41:20+02:00 Bart Keunen Ene-Reet Soovik <p>.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c) Linnade (ümber)kirjutamise võimalustest / City (Re)writing Possibilities 2020-02-09T14:41:18+02:00 Berk Vaher <p>.</p> 2019-12-09T00:00:00+02:00 Copyright (c)