Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica <p><span style="font-size: small;">METHIS. STUDIA HUMANIORA ESTONICA on Tartu Ülikooli kultuuriteaduste ja kunstide instituudi j<span class="tabeltootajategrupeerimine1"><span style="font-weight: normal;">a </span></span>Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi kultuuriloolise arhiivi ühisväljaanne, ilmumissagedusega kaks korda aastas (juuni ja detsember). Ajakiri on rahvusvahelise kolleegiumiga ja eelretsenseeritav</span></p> Estonian Literary Museum en-US Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 1736-6852 Roheliste rattaretked aastail 1988–1993 / Green Bicycle Tours in the Years 1988–1993 Tambet Muide Copyright (c) 2022 Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 24 30 228–235 228–235 10.7592/methis.v24i30.22117 Keskkonnahumanitaaria / Environmental Humanities Kati Lindström Copyright (c) 2022 Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 24 30 223–227 223–227 10.7592/methis.v24i30.22116 Timothy Mortonist, romantismist ja keskkondlusest / On Timothy Morton, Romanticism, and the Environmentalism Ene-Reet Soovik Kadri Tüür Copyright (c) 2022 Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 24 30 211–222 211–222 10.7592/methis.v24i30.22115 Keskkondlus / Environmentalism <p>Reproduced only in the print version of the journal Methis with permission of the Licensor through PLSclear .</p> Timothy Morton Copyright (c) 2022 Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 24 30 10.7592/methis.v24i30.22114 Stanislavski süsteem kui draamatõlkija töövahend / Stanislavsky System as a Tool for a Drama Translator <p>Tõlkija seisab oma töös silmitsi paljude probleemidega. Tekstilise ja kultuurilise tasandi probleemide lahendamiseks õpetatakse tõlkijale mitmesuguseid võtteid, kuid subjektiivsemate aspektide puhul, näiteks rääkija kõnemaneerile sobivama vaste leidmisel või karakteri eripära ja meeleolu edasiandmisel kõne kaudu tuleb loota rohkem tunnetusele. Artiklis on fookuses võimalike probleemide, eeskätt tunnetuslike küsimuste lahendamine draamatõlkija töös. Autor kõrvutab draamatõlkija ja näitleja tööd ning pakub võrdleva analüüsi kaudu välja võimaluse, kuidas draamatõlkija saaks tekstile läheneda samamoodi nagu näitleja, ja selgitab, mida see lavastustervikule juurde annaks.</p> <p><strong>Summary</strong></p> <p>This article argues that the Stanislavsky system can be applied in approaching plays to be translated.</p> <p>The first part of the article is focused on mapping the intersemiotic system of a stage production in order to determine the position of an interlingual translation in it. Even though several theatre researchers have attempted to categorise the various sign systems of a stage production, no single and universally approved categorisation exists yet. Even though such an attempt of categorisation can also be attributed to a number of drama translation scholars and practitioners, drama translation can rarely be found as a separate sign system.</p> <p>The second part of the article is focused on illustrating the extent to which a drama translator can contribute to the creation of a stage production. It includes examples from renowned drama translators, showing the different levels on which the awareness of a drama translator can make a difference. It also raises the question of whether drama translators could have a more systematic approach at their disposal when translating plays.</p> <p>The third part of the article gives a short overview of the staging process according to the Stanislavsky system. Konstantin Stanislavsky (1863–1938) was a Russian actor and stage director who is most famous for creating a system of acting and actor training. His system is currently applied in most of Western theatre and is the primary basis for actor training in Estonia. A large part of the system comprises a method for approaching and analysing a play.</p> <p>The fourth part of the article is focused on comparing the specifics of the works of an actor and a (drama) translator to determine the comparable parts of both professions. Even though the specifics of the work of an actor and a translation seem to have nothing in common, there is a significant similarity in the way of approaching a play text. Both an actor and a translator should thoroughly analyse the source text to find an optimal way of translating it into a new sign system: an interlingual translation in the case of a translator and an intersemiotic translation in the case of an actor.</p> Raili Lass Copyright (c) 2022 Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 24 30 184–197 184–197 10.7592/methis.v24i30.22113 Sõjakas kaitse – konfliktid loodus- ja kultuuripärandi hoiu kujundamisel / Warlike Protection – Conflicts in Shaping the Preservation of Natural and Cultural Heritage <p>Artiklis uurime Eesti looduse ja kultuuri kaitsel tekkinud teravaid vastasseise, mida osalejad on mõnikord nimetanud sõdadeks. Näitejuhtumid ulatuvad pühapaikade kaitselt metsa ja linnalooduse kaitseni. Vaatleme artiklis, kuidas vastasseisud on arenenud, milliseid argumente kasutatakse ning millised konflikti osapooled neis eristuvad. Meie eesmärk ei ole otsida konfliktidele lahendusi või neid ennetada – selle asemel soovime mõista, miks mõnikord muutub looduse ja kultuuri kaitse sõjakat retoorikat kasutavaks konfliktiks.</p> <p><strong>Summary</strong></p> <p>This paper studies examples of the protection of natural or cultural objects in Estonia developing into sharp conflicts during the past couple of decades. Various mechanisms have been developed to avoid, prevent and solve conflicts, yet sharp oppositions still occur. Our aim is not to provide yet another methodology of conflict solving, but rather to look behind it: who participates in such conflicts, what their reasons and arguments are, what kind of rhetoric they use. Such an approach proceeds from Juri Lotman’s suggestion that it is not agreements, but contradictions that make a dialogue fruitful.&nbsp;</p> <p>The case studies discussed in the paper range from folkloric sacred sites to the protection of forest and natural objects in urban environments. In all examples, we could observe the presence of two parties that we call the ‘developers’ and the ‘protectors’. In all cases, the developers found themselves in the middle of a conflict they had not foreseen and could not handle, as their only purpose was to develop the initial project, be it a building, forest clearing or the like. In terms of conflict management, ‘developers’ have always been followers of the conflict, reacting to it, but not leading it. The other side, ‘protectors’, consists of an amorphous group of people, some of whom are local inhabitants, while others participate in the protection because of their world view, moral or ideological reasons. In all cases observed it is the ‘protectors’ who lead it to a conflict – mostly as they are un-institutionalised, and thus less visible, so in order to become an equal partner and force developers into a discussion, they use conflict rhetoric and methods. Conflicts are usually expanded in public and on social media in the form of short and easy-to-read messages. Mediatisation is the main characteristic of contemporary conflicts and is adopted by both sides.&nbsp;</p> <p>Our cases demonstrate that a clear and uniform narrative is important in order to control a conflict and make the other side&nbsp; accept it. Protection of folkloristic sacred sites has been guided by Maavalla Koda, a representative body of a leading contemporary pagan organisation in Estonia. Likewise, protecting forests from clearcutting has been directed by grass-root organisations. In the case of the folkloric sacred sites, the protectors have been successful and the developments have been stopped in almost all cases. Avoiding forest clearcutting has not been so unambiguously successful, but the aggressive rhetoric and active public campaigns have certainly influenced the public opinion in Estonia. Other cases, in which there have been no organisations in the background and that have lacked a common narrative, e.g. protecting a white willow in Tallinn’s suburb of Haabersti, have not been successful. Due to the missing common narrative and lack of a leader, several persons or groups were trying to act as leaders and distribute their message, which ended with a mixture of dissimilar statements, which eventually led to the protectors losing their credibility.</p> <p>The core of such conflicts lies in a collision of different worldviews, characterised by opposing rhetoric, in which one party is using economical reasoning, while the arguments of the other are based on nature conservation, protecting of cultural and national values, and mixed with spiritual claims. Such different standpoints lead any discussion into a situation of opposition in which a compromise and solutions are difficult or even impossible to find. However, in Metsapoole the local dwellers, who acted against the State Forest Management Centre, deliberately excluded any spiritual arguments. Choosing rational rhetoric let them speak the same “language” as the Forest Management authorities and the conflict ended with a reappraisal of the plans of the State Forest Management Centre.</p> <p>There certainly are multiple reasons why conflicts arise in protecting natural and cultural objects. In addition to differences in world views, the effects of NIMBY attitudes or personal disagreements are obvious. Still, often the cases follow a similar pattern in which the conflict is brought to the public and is guided by social media and media rules. In this process, emotional arguments become more important than rational ones, which deepens the gap between the two sides involved in the conflict.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Tõnno Jonuks Atko Remmel Lona Päll Ulla Kadakas Copyright (c) 2022 Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 24 30 156–183 156–183 10.7592/methis.v24i30.22112 Vastuseisust protestideni / From Opposition to Protests Olev Liivik Copyright (c) 2022 Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 24 30 132–155 132–155 10.7592/methis.v24i30.22110 Keskkonnakaitse autoritaarsetes ühiskondades / Environmental Protection in Authoritarian Societies <p>Artikkel käsitleb riigi sekkumist keskkonnaprobleemidesse autoritaarse riigikorraga riikides, tuues võrdluseks ka näiteid liberaalsetest demokraatiatest 20. sajandi teisel poolel. Keskkonnast kõnelemisel ökoloogiliste argumentide asemel majanduslikele kaalutlustele rõhumine on võte, mida on kasutatud mõlemal pool nn raudset eesriiet. Üksiknäidetena käsitleb artikkel Reini jõe reostust Lääne-Saksamaal, Ladina-Ameerikast Guatemala ja Tšiili juhtumeid, kus eri argumentide toel on autoritaarsed võimud olnud huvitatud džunglite muutmisest keelualadeks. Keskkonna kahjustamist tarbimise kaudu esindab Tallinna Limonaaditehase juhtum. Sotsialistliku Ungari näitel analüüsitakse moodsate reoveepuhastussüsteemide ehitust ning nende rakendamist propagandavankri ette.</p> <p><strong>Summary</strong></p> <p>This article discusses the complex relationships between the natural environment and authoritarian governments in comparison to addressing similar problems in liberal democracies during the second half of the 20th century. A brief survey of the main theoretical sources is provided. Emphasising economic instead of ecological arguments in addressing environmental problems is a method that has been used on both sides of the Iron curtain of the Cold War.</p> <p>Individual cases discussed include the management of the pollution of Rhein river in Western Germany, establishing of jungle areas as no-go-zones by the Guatemalan and Chilean juntas, but also Hungarian cases of the construction of wastewater treatment plants and the shortcomings in the production in Tallinn Lemonade Factory. The individual cases are related to a broader context of environmentalism to study how and why authoritarian and democratic governments have used technology and propaganda to promote the conservation of natural resources. In conclusion, this article aims to explain how and why various approaches under various political and economic circumstances to mend the environment eventually failed.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Viktor Pál Copyright (c) 2022 Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 24 30 117–131 117–131 10.7592/methis.v24i30.22109