Methis. Studia humaniora Estonica <span style="font-size: small;">METHIS. STUDIA HUMANIORA ESTONICA on Tartu Ülikooli kultuuriteaduste ja kunstide instituudi j<span class="tabeltootajategrupeerimine1"><span style="font-weight: normal;">a </span></span>Eesti Kirjandusmuuseumi kultuuriloolise arhiivi ühisväljaanne, ilmumissagedusega kaks korda aastas (juuni ja detsember). Ajakiri on rahvusvahelise kolleegiumiga ja eelretsenseeritav</span> en-US (Marin Laak) (Heiki Epner) Thu, 05 Sep 2019 17:37:46 +0300 OJS 60 Eessõna / Foreword <p>.</p> Marin Laak ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 03 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Kirjandus ja digitaalne tehnoloogia / Literature and Digital Technology <p>Eesti kirjanduse ja digitehnoloogilise pöörde suhted ulatuvad juba enam kui kahekümne aasta tagusesse aega. Siinse artikliga antakse ülevaade, kuidas digitaalne tehnoloogia on mõjutanud Eestis kirjanduse, sh kirjandusajaloo üle mõtlemist ning nüüdisaegseid kirjanduslikke vorme. Tuuakse näiteid Eestis teostatud digihumanitaariaga seostatavatest projektidest ja digitaalse kirjanduse avaldumisvormidest. Samuti arutletakse artiklis digihumanitaaria mõiste üle ja selle üle, mida tähendab eesti kirjanduse uurimine digihumanitaaria kontekstis. Püstitatakse ka küsimus, kas digihumanitaaria muudab kirjandusuurimises midagi olemuslikult – kas ta on kirjandusuurimise tööriist/meetod või hoopis täiesti uus distsipliin.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The relations between Estonian literature and the digital technological turn date back to more than twenty years. The aim of this article is to give an overview as to how digital technology has influenced re-thinking about literature and literary history in Estonia as well as has had impact on creating new digital literary genres.&nbsp; The authors of the article have a twenty-year experience both as researchers and practitioners in this field.</p> <p>The article introduces some examples of the projects created in Estonia that can be related to digital humanities and also some examples of Estonian digital literature. Also, the concept of digital humanities and its meaning for Estonian literary studies will be discussed below.</p> <p>The concept of digital humanities has been used actively during last decade. Although the field of digital humanities is quite broad, in Estonia this concept has been used rather as a synonym for methods of quantitative computer analysis: linguists have used it very productively in analysing text corpora and computer linguistics has developed it into an independent discipline. Up until now, there have been only a few attempts to analyse literary texts using quantitative computer analysis method in Estonia.</p> <p>However, the concept of digital humanities can be interpreted in a much broader sense. Susan Schreibman, Ray Siemens, John Unsworth (2016) find that digital humanities is not only computational modelling and analysis of humanities information, but also the cultural study of digital technologies, their creative possibilities, and their social impact (Schreibman et al 2016, xvii–xviii). It appears, then, that the concept of digital humanities is wider and it can be said that it encompasses also creative digital practices and analysing it, as well as creating, interpreting and analysing digital projects of literary historical narrative and cultural web resources.</p> <p>In Estonia, the research on the electronic new media and the application of digital technology in the field of literary studies can be traced back to the second half of the 1990s.</p> <p>Up to the present, the research has followed these three main directions:</p> <p>1)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; New forms of literary genres in the electronic environment. Digitally born literature and the appearance of other new forms of art have been examined in Estonia since 1996, when the first hypertextual poems were created, followed by more complex works of digital literature combining different media (text, video, sound, image) and literature in social media. The article gives a short overview of this kind of literature in Estonia and poses a question about the limits of literature. What defines literature if digital literature is a hybrid artefact combining text, image, and video? Can we still talk about literature when it is created using the technology of virtual reality and has no traditional features at all? Is it still literature or rather a VR movie or a VR computer game?</p> <p>2)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Digitisation of earlier literature and the creation of digital bookshelves. These are literary environments created using digital technologies. As examples there can be mentioned the ongoing project “EWOD. Estonian Writers Online Dictionary” (University of Tartu) and the project for digitising earlier Estonian literature and creating a digital bookshelf “EEVA. The Text Corpus of Earlier Estonian Literature” ( The latter was created at the University of Tartu already in 2002; it makes accessible mostly the works of Baltic German writers.&nbsp;</p> <p>3)&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Development of a new model of the literary historical narrative; application this model in the digital environment.</p> <p>Three large-scale projects for digital representation of Estonian literary history were initiated during the years 1997–2007, with the objective of developing a model of the new literary historical narrative for applying in the digital environment and creating new interactive information environments.</p> <p>The Estonian Literary Museum carried out an Estonian Tiger Leap project “ERNI. Estonian Literary History in texts 1924–25” in 1997–2001 ( The project tested the method of reception aesthetics in representing the Estonian literary history of the 1920s. Its objective was to use a relatively limited amount of well-studied material in testing a new type of literary historical narrative and it was based on the visualisation of the network of relations between literary texts and metatexts in the form of hypertext.</p> <p>At the University of Tartu, the project “The Estonian National Epic The Kalevipoeg” was developed within the framework of the project CULTOS (Cultural Tools of Learning: Tools and Services IST-2000-28134) in 2001–2003. Again, it was a project for visualising literary relationships, requiring the knowledge of the source text and intertexts and reproducing them in the form of a network of intertextual relations.</p> <p>The project “Kreutzwald’s Century: the Estonian Cultural History Web” (in progress) was created at the Estonian Literary Museum in 2004 with the objective of modelling and representing a new narrative of literary history ( This was a hybrid project which synthesised the study of the classical narrative of literary history, the needs of the user of the digital new media theory, and the development of digital resources for memory institutions. The underlying idea of the project was to make all the works of fiction of one author, as well as their biography, archival sources, etc., dynamically visible for the reader on an interactive time axis.</p> <p>However, the final and so far open-ended question posed in the article is whether digital humanities is essentially a tool for literary research, or is it an entirely new research approach, a new discipline – Computational Literary Analyses or Digital Literary Studies. A further discussion is needed for finding answers to this challenging question.</p> <p>Regardless, it is clear that rapid developments in technology bring along also rapid changes in the humanities. Hence, the future of literature and literary research depends both on the developments regarding digital technology as well as the humanities and the mutual impacts of both domains.</p> Marin Laak, Piret Viires ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Küberpunk ilma teadusulmeta / Cyberpunk without Science Fiction <p>Artikkel lähtub hüpoteesist, et mida tehnilisemaks muutub nüüdisaegne globaliseerunud kultuuriruum, seda teadusulmelisemaks muutub realism, mis püüab seda kultuuriruumi usutavalt peegeldada. Selle hüpoteesi taustal vaatleb artikkel nii poeetilisest kui ka kultuuriteoreetilisest aspektist realismi ja teadusulme otsustavat lähenemist nüüdisaegses žanrisüsteemis ning käsitleb sellest lähtuvalt küberpunkulme nüüdisaegset s(t)aatust realistliku praktikana. Artikkel määratleb ja sisustab teadusulmeta küberpungi mõiste ning vaatleb selle eri avaldumisvorme kirjanduses, filmis, teleseriaalides ja popkultuuri nähtustes.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>My article follows the premise that as the contemporary late-capitalist cultural environment becomes increasingly technological, its literary realism, aspiring towards a plausible encompassing reflection of this environment, becomes increasingly science-fictional. In other words, technological development, together with an increasingly accelerating pace of change, has also brought about changes in the way we perceive the contemporary genre system, and specifically the relative positions of realism and science fiction therein.</p> <p>From this perspective, the article focuses on the present fate of cyberpunk, a prominent subset of science fiction in the 80s and 90s, whose main topics of reflection were the influence of the emerging virtual technologies, the increasing technological supplementations to the body, and their impact to (post)modern subjectivity. The article fleshes out the historical emergence of a new generic phenomenon that Sherryl Vint has tentatively called non-SF cyberpunk, or, cyberpunk without science fiction. This new phenomenon can be characterized as a fully realist practice that nevertheless maintains the science-fictional “feel” of cyberpunk’s earlier, classic incarnation. In my article, I exemplify the emergence of non-SF cyberpunk in various works of fiction, film, TV-series, and pop-cultural phenomena.</p> <p>During the first years of the 21st century, history – or more precisely technological development – finally seemed to have caught up with cyberpunk. The various technological phenomena and processes the cyberpunk readers and watchers were used to while devouring fiction increasingly started to pop up in everyday reality. Virtual communication technologies, digital networking and the emerging social media platforms; advances in genetic engineering and increasingly common prosthetic supplementations to the body; the mediated intimacy of historical events and the eventual emergence of cyber-war; as well as the overall onslaught of the society of the spectacle and the virtualization of finance capital – all of these, in whatever particular shape or form they happened to take historically, became more evident, more strongly felt in quotidian late-capitalist reality. In a way, several of cyberpunk's central speculative elements seemed to have “bled” straight from fiction into the everyday.</p> <p>More important than the manifold materializations of cyberpunk's particular thematic elements, though, was the sheer speed and intensity of overall techno-scientific developments that brought them about, and the corresponding over-accelerated pace of cultural change felt in common everyday life. All of a sudden, change, as the now well-known saying has it, seemed to have been the only constant of contemporary globalized existence. And this, in turn, posed some novel imaginative and representational problems to SF in general and cyberpunk (as its most immediately extrapolative sub-genre at the time) in particular. Since the specific tropes and thematic motifs that seem to have “bled from fiction into reality” are ones that feature most centrally in the repertoire of cyberpunk, it would be fair to claim that of all the subgenres of SF, cyberpunk is the one most directly involved in the current close feedback-loop between realism and SF.</p> <p>I claim that cyberpunk has by now realized itself to such an extent that, to borrow a very attentive remark from Sherryl Vint, it would be more useful to see cyberpunk less as a subgenre of science fiction and more as part of the cultural milieu that informs our contemporary existence of technologically mediated reality. Vint develops this notion on Thomas Foster's claim that (probably sometime during the 80s and 90s) cyberpunk experienced a sea change into a more generalized cultural formation. Vint’s “non-SF cyberpunk” is a generic concept for contemporary works that convey precisely this cultural formation.</p> <p>My article develops this notion of non-SF cyberpunk a little bit further. It has two aims: (1) to demonstrate, on the basis of Gibson's prose in <em>Blue Ant </em>trilogy, that there is a solid common ground between the poetics of realism and SF which ultimately enables the emergence of non-SF cyberpunk; and (2) to map several more recent works of literature, film and TV that, each in their own specific way, can be read as non-SF cyberpunk.</p> Jaak Tomberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Tehnikapööre ja luulekääne: tule jumal appi / A Technical Turn and Poetic Declination: God help us <p>Manifestilaadne artikkel „Tehnikapööre ja luulekääne: tule jumal appi“ kuulutab uute jumalate kohalesaabumist autori isiklike kogemuste varal. Kogunenud teadmisi ja aimdusi tõlgendatakse Heideggeri-järgses mõtiskluses, mis ühelt poolt lähtub filosoofi post-metafüüsilisest luulekesksest süsteemist, teisalt aga kasvab sellest kriitiliselt üle.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>“A Technical Turn and Poetic Declination: God help us” is a post-Heideggerian contemplation with a touch of personal manifest[ation]. It takes his post-metaphysical poetry-driven system as its point of departure for a free, idiosyncratic interpretation, yet simultaneously critically challenges it. Graphically, Heidegger’s theoretical vision – not so self-evident in the whole heideggeriana – is depicted as a four-step decline of epochs of subsequent worldviews: mythological, religious, humanistic (i.e., modern), and technological (post-modern). The important question is: What comes next? Heidegger assumes that the post-technological era (in a sense, post-post-modernism) must involve some return of the gods in a vague fading form; however, he does not yet recognize its arrival. He has not personally experienced it, he only speculates and hopes for the best.</p> <p>Five theses are postulated upon this concept. First, technological supremacy should not be&nbsp; demonized since a new worldview might emerge from the inner way technology surfaces. Second, art should not deny the technological manner of revelation, given its importance. Third, Heidegger’s speculation about a new god who will manifest itself in a hint could not originate from his actual encounter with god. Fourth, he speaks of a possible turn within the technology-induced world yet still hopes to restore the ancient quadrangle of mortals, immortals, earth, and sky, which does not represent any transcending change. Five, new gods can grow out of human beings themselves, being very close to them. This can stem from a reflective feedback mechanism, a morally grounded mirroring power human beings possess. Epiphanic happenings originate from human minds and deeds but return to them from the outside and, thus, can’t be deliberately created and controlled. Subsequently, individual insights can merge to unite larger groups into social patterns: a new, fully scientific religion can emerge.</p> <p>A marvelous example to consider is recorded in the documentary about recently deceased Catholic priest Vello Salo: <em>Vello Salo. Igapäevaelu müstika</em>. <em>Film vanaks saamise ilust </em>(Vello Salo: The Mystery of Everyday Life: A Film on the Beauty of Ageing, 2018). Director Jaan Tootsen manages to address one instance of divine feedback, which may provide unique value to theology and phenomenological philosophy. At the request of a sister of the Pirita Convent, Salo screwed a portable sculpture of Christ onto a wooden cross. Although the priest saw that he had failed to turn the screw in fully, he was certain it would hold. Nevertheless, in the middle of mass, the statue of Christ jumped to the floor right in front of the congregation and Salo among them. The psychological origin of this event can be sought from his internal conflict. The film depicts a grumpy old man on the verge of death who actively protests being old and insults everyone around him; and yet, it represents the act of a servant of God who has preached the salvation of heaven his whole life to feel more at peace with death’s approach. This moral dilemma resulted in a disgraceful “punishment,” attributable not to some God in the clouds, but rather traceably to Salo himself: he chastises himself through this instructive, albeit impersonally mediated act. This event was based entirely on himself, his pre- or unconsciousness, yet was not consciously actualized. This was an objectified moral reflection from an external environment. We can admit, however, that Father Salo was a happy person, who, by the end of his life, had managed to become the humble “donkey of Christ” he had always dreamed of being. This, then, proves to be an unprecedented, representative, and theological tool of study.</p> <p>These kinds of reflective events have long interested the author of this article, having experienced them several times in his own conscious life. It is important to note, however, that one should not paranoically interpret or project non-existent meanings. Even if moral punishment seems to be the influence behind these cases, their broader meaning remains favorable to human beings in that they act as divine precautions. It is possible, then, to be a convinced atheist, but still acknowledge the phenomenon, which ancient people frequently had reason to call divine. Such divinity is very close to man, originating directly from within himself, not from an abstract and hypostatic distance. The new gods that Heidegger still has not met are apparently just so: coming together, step-by-step, and not escaping from us.</p> Arne Merilai ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Kirjandus, kontrapunkt ja cantus technicus / Literature, Counterpoint, and Cantus Technicus <p>Artikkel uurib tehnika representeerimise poeetilisi viise kirjandustekstides. Võttes kompositsiooniteooriast muusikas tarvitusele kontrapunkti mõiste, näitab autor, et iseäranis modernistlikes tekstides, kus tehnikat esitatakse sageli kas vastandlikuna loodusele või ängistavana tegelaste meeletundmustele, saame rääkida kontrapunktist kui poeetilisest võttest, mille eesmärk on eriomaselt rõhutada tehnika kohalolu ja kaalu tegelaste tunde- ja argielus. Autor väidab, et tehnika kui ühe pingestava „hääle“ – <em>cantus technicus</em>’e – tegelaste tundmus- ja kogemusvälja polüfoonsest häälterägastikust eristamine aitab meil paremini mõista üha jõudsamalt argiteadvusse hiiliva tehnilise ajastu loomulaadi ning sünkroniseerib lugeja mõjusalt senitundmatu modernsuse-kogemusega.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>This article explores D. H. Lawrence’s and Virginia Woolf’s literary responses to modern technology by analyzing their most typical poetic ways of representing technology-related themes in their works. Since technology, in its various modern industrial forms, is generally depicted as being set <em>against </em>nature or otherwise estranging to Lawrence’s characters, it is suggested that it may be useful to explain his peculiar representational framework for technology via the concept of counterpoint. Indeed, by adopting the term from composition theory, it is argued that the contrapuntal approach to describing technology forms a distinctive literary device for Lawrence in an effort to communicate the “polyphonic” experiences of everyday technical consciousness of the “bewildering pageant of modern life” and thereby synchronizes the readers more effectively with the realities of industrial modernity. While adopting the counterpoint for tracing the technicity in Lawrence promises, perhaps, no overarching solutions, it nevertheless provides a viable literary model, and a novel perspective, for exploring “the dynamic interplay of tensions and contradictions” that technology typically triggers in the poetic creation of the experience in his texts.</p> <p>While critics have found Virginia Woolf’s works exhibiting, perhaps, certain passivity in dealing with the themes of industrialism and technological machine, the article argues that there is, in fact, a very nuanced and rich position to be found on human relationship with modern technology in closer readings of Woolf’s works. Despite the fact that counterpoint as a literary technique has been noticed as forming a crucial method in advancing several important aspects in her works, viewing it as a device for extracting particularly modern technology and its many variants has not been researched in depth. By offering new techno-poetic readings of Woolf’s seminal works <em>Mrs. Dalloway</em> (1925) and <em>Between the Acts</em> (1941), the article shows that the contrapuntal approach, in analyzing the key passages, where technology genuinely affects the characters, proves to be a helpful method in making sense of the full impact of modernity in its many and varied aspects. The article identifies the appearances of cars and planes, for example, to represent predominantly Britain’s imperial power, which acts as a counterpoint to the diverse sensibilities of Woolf’s main characters.</p> Indrek Männiste ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Johannes Semper hobusega. Avangard, takerduja tehnika ja looduse vahel / Johannes Semper with a horse: Avant-garde between technology and nature <p>Artikkel annab ülevaate 20. sajandi alguse kirjandusliku avangardi suhetest tehnikaga. Avangardi (eriti futurismi) jaoks pidi tehnika saama loomise eeskujuks ja masinate seadused esteetilise loovuse seadusteks. Artikkel väidab, et paljud avangardi tekstiuuenduslikud ideaalid on vastuolus tehnika ideaalidega ja iseloomustavad ennekõike loodust. Tehnika väärtustas tulemust, avangard protsessi. Tehnika väärtustas süsteemsust, ennustatavust, koopialisust, avangard vabarütme, ennustamatust ja originaalsust. Tehnika nõudis ratsionaalsust ja eesmärgipärast tegutsemist, avangard kuulutas intuitsiooni ja prohvetlikku kujutlust. Tehnika tõi odavad masstooted, avangard hindas haruldust. Tehnika väärtustas funktsionaalsust, avangard ebafunktsionaalsust. Tehnika väärtustas puhtust ja hügieeni, avangard järgis inetuse esteetikat. Tehnika nõudis tootmises vigade ja häirete vältimist, avangard tõstis vea loovaks ideeks.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The article examines the relationship between the early twentieth century international and Estonian literary avant-garde and new technology, which radically changed life and interpersonal relationships in Europe and America (trains, airplanes, metro, telephone, telegraph, skyscrapers, fast food, etc.).</p> <p>At first, I highlight general features connecting the new technology and its products, which emerged in distinct opposition to nature. The central activity in the world of technology appeared to be efficient, planned, and purposeful production, in which the main agents were engineer, designer, and worker. The new technology emphasized the value of the product, which rapidly became standardized and cheaply made mass-produced perfect copies of each other. The beauty of the new era was to be a technological, functionalist beauty. Production as a process had to operate without failures and the ideal product had to be without any defects. Therefore, the technological process had to be clean, even hygienic. The new technology established its own rhythm in modern cities, characterized by repeatability and predictability. At the same time, the technology covered cities by the voices that made up the noise of technology.</p> <p>It could be said, even, that the new technology exceeded the limits of time and space. The result was a world of simultaneity. At the same time, relationships and links between people became increasingly loose and the world and man’s worldview was characterized by increasing fragmentation.</p> <p>The early European avant-garde at the beginning of the twentieth century greeted the new world of technology and speed with great enthusiasm (Italian futurism, constructivism, etc.). Perhaps only early expressionism and Russian futurism had even more ambivalent attitude to the technology. The First World War significantly decreased the pre-war fascination with technology. The war destroyed the faith in the machines; the machine now became a destroyer, and the new mechanical man (a fusion of man and machine) came into view as a killer with killed soul. At the same time, modern technology became more and more common in the everyday life, and, hence, the attitude towards technology changed. The technology became a harrowing phenomenon.</p> <p>For early European avant-garde, the new technology was supposed to become a model for the creation and laws of machines laws of aesthetic creativity (Marinetti). We can find several features in the texts of avant-garde (especially in poetry), which are in accordance with the new world of speed and technology.</p> <p>Simultaneous and fragmented text represented simultaneity and fragmentarity of the world. The speed was intermediated by the telegram style, parataxis, glossolalia, onomatopoeia, mathematical symbols, etc. The artist’s ideal was engineer and machine had to become a model for making the text. I present examples of such new texts in Estonian avant-garde poetry and prose.</p> <p>However, much of the avant-garde ideas and ideals for textual innovation contradicted the ideals of technology. Whilst technology predominantly esteemed the result, the avant-garde valued the process of making the text. In addition, the world of technology expected systematics, predictability, repetitive rhythms, and copies while avant-garde proclaimed free rhythms, free verse, unpredictability, and originality. Technology insisted on rational and purposeful acting; avant-garde proclaimed intuition and prophetic imagination. Technology brought cheap mass products; avant-garde appreciated the rarity and expensiveness. Technology promoted utilitarianism and functionality; avant-garde non-functionality. Technology put stress on the cleanliness and hygiene of the products; avant-garde often followed the aesthetics of ugliness. Technology required efficiency and economy of production, avoiding mistakes and disturbances; avant-garde regarded error as a creative idea.</p> <p>I argue that many of these avant-garde ideas are very similar to nature. For example, chaos, illogicality, glossolalia, words-in-freedom, and <em>zaum</em> truly characterize nature. Originality, variability, unpredictable rhythms, non-systematicity are also the qualities of nature. Lack of purpose, irrationality, and lack of thought are features of nature. An error or a shift as the basis of creation and inefficiency characterizes nature, too. The aesthetics of ugliness parallels the ugliness of nature.</p> <p>Thus, the observance of the avant-garde ideals results in a text that, on the one hand, craves the world of technology and machines, but on the other hand goes back to the ideas and ideals of nature and seeks solutions largely in the same way as nature.</p> Tiit Hennoste ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 „Muutume masinateks“. Tehnoloogia ja soolistatud kehad ameerika modernismis / “We Twiddle … and Turn into Machines”: Technology and gendered bodies in American modernism <p>Käesoleva artikli eesmärgiks on analüüsida, kuidas tehnoloogilised kuvandid sobituvad modernsuse perioodi laiemasse soolistatud kriisidiskursusesse. Palju on kirjutatud modernsusega seotud tajukriisist ja selle seotusest tehnoloogiaga, kuid vähem on uuritud seda, kuidas tajukriisi saab sobitada samal ajal domineerinud tajutud soolise kriisiga, eelkõige mehelikkuse kriisiga. Kuna paljud modernsuse kehalised, tajumuslikud ja esteetilised otsingud olid soolistatud, siis on viljakas küsida, kuidas soolistas modernism masinat ning kuidas mängisid selle soolistatud masinavärgiga modernsed naisautorid. Naisautoritele oli meesautoritest olulisem – või ka paratamatum – kirjutamine kehast lähtuvalt või kehast distantseerudes ning masinaesteetika on neile mitmest perspektiivist atraktiivne võimalus kirjutamise käigus vabaneda naistele omistatavast kehalisest ja immanentsest bioloogilisest paratamatusest. Käesolevas artiklis kasutatakse kirjandusnäiteid futurismi ja dadaismiga seotud inglise-ameerika naisluuletajalt Mina Loylt, kuid eesmärgiks pole niivõrd tema tekstide lähilugemine kui laiem arutelu masinaloogika ja soodiskursuste ristumise üle modernismi kontekstis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The present article sets out to explore how technological imagery interacts with the gendered crisis discourses prevalent in the period of modernity. Much has been written about the crises of perception and their associations with technology, but much less attention has been given to how they intersect with the perceived gender crisis, especially the crisis of masculinity dominant at the time. On the one hand, modernity celebrated the machine and sought to make male bodies into machines. Henry Ford was one of the lauded gods of the era and bodybuilding seemed to offer a way of treating the human body as a similar, sleek and controlled machine. On the other hand, although technology was engendered by male-centered society, it also seemed to be eating its sons, as it eroded male autonomy and rendered him into a mere cog in the machine. This creates a contradictory set of gendered images in which modernity is frequently associated with emasculation, especially when we consider the fact that the period also saw the assertive entry of women onto the public arena, as voters, creators and also consumers. The often openly violent radicalism of the new women posed a challenge to the male modernists who were seeking to achieve a revolution in perception but whose pursuits were confined to the pages of literary magazines. This creates a love-hate relationship between Anglo-American male modernists and feminism, as has been previously demonstrated by Marianne DeKoeven, Rachel Blau DuPlessis, and others. One way of resolving this tension is by rendering the woman machine-sleek, yet non-threatening, a technologically updated cyborg to fit the modern Pygmalion. This cyborg, as texts such as Fritz Lang’s <em>Metropolis</em> show, was nevertheless unsettling in its potential uncontrollability. It is this gendered ambivalence that the present article focuses on to ask whether the woman is just a cog in the wheel of modernism or whether she can also act as a spanner in the system.</p> <p>Specifically, the article asks how modernity gendered the machine and how women writers manipulated this gendered machine imagery. Women more than men had to write through or against the body and thus machine aesthetic was attractive to them as a means of writing themselves free from the bodily immanence traditionally attributed to women. The article builds on the work of Tim Armstrong (1998), Sara Danius (2002), Amelia Jones (2004), and Alex Goody (2007). The examples have been borrowed from the work of Anglo-American poet Mina Loy, but the aim is not a close reading of her literary texts, but the discussion of the intersection of machine logic and gender discourses in the context of modernism and modernity more broadly. Loy is placed into the Dadaist milieu where gender play was a widespread artistic tool for male and female artists (Marchel Duchamp, but also the much more marginal Elsa von Freytag-Lohringhoven). Loy, a major minor writer, was broadly celebrated in her day as an embodiment of modernity, somebody whose life was as important as her writing. Forgotten for decades, Loy has emerged again in literary scholarship owing to her frank representation of female body and sexuality. The present article, however, is less interested in her engagement with embodiment, but rather tackles her struggle in the field of tension between the impersonal aesthetics of high modernism and the need to write female subjectivity. This is where the use of machine imagery offers a creative solution. However, Loy’s machines do not copy those of Marinetti and other futurists whom Loy openly satirizes in her writing. She does not make the human body a machine prosthetic. Loy’s machines are organic, vulnerable and leaky.</p> <p>The article concludes that while male avant-garde writers projected their fear of the machine to the female body, the women writers are able to render the machine that does not work into a subversive critique of techno-reality that is defined from a narrowly male-centered perspective. This critique is the more subversive because it is presented in the impersonal language of male-centered high modernism. The woman modernist is both an ally and an enemy: she is mechanized as a part of the new technological culture but her physical body, with its leakiness and porousness, also breaks the rigid boundaries of machine aesthetics and perhaps also binary modes of perception.</p> Raili Marling ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 N. Katherine Haylesi posthumanistlik vaade digitaalsele kirjandusele. Saatesõna tõlkele / N. Katherine Hayles' Post-human View of Digital Literature. Foreword to the translation <p>.</p> Jaak Tomberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 11 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300