Nutritional research and intensive nutritional counselling of the chronic kidney disease patients after kidney transplantation
Background: Dietology treatment is the one of the foundation stones in the complex treatment of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients together with all other treatments. The dietary intervention plays an important role to determine the effects to a decrease of metabolic abnormalities.
Aim: The aim of the long-term study was to monitor nutritional parameters in the post-transplant period.
Subjects and methods: We studied 28 clinically stable consecutive nondiabetic kidney transplant patients: 12 males at the age of 42.8 ± 16.1 years, and 16 females at the age of 47.0 ± 14.9 years. Intensive nutritional counselling and dietary consultation by a dietitian were carried out for all the studied patients during one and a half years after the kidney transplantation. Initial data were compared with the results obtained at the end of the study. During the 3-days dietary records analysis and counselling of CKD patients, giving answers to their questions about their food and portion sizes, the dietitian used the standards portion book with many photographs.
Results: The consumption of vegetables and fruit was modest compared to Estonian food and nutrition recommendations. The food frequency questionnaire revealed that the patients consumed different foodstuffs at different frequencies, but there was a tendency to excessive consumption of foodstuffs rich in proteins and carbohydrates. To consumption of fat-rich foodstuffs a tendency of decrease was found.
Conclusion: An intensive nutritional counselling and healthy diet, avoiding excessive amounts of alcohol as well as regular exercise can help to reduce the chance of developing of chronic transplant nephropathy.