Activity of shoulder muscles during shots of different difficulty level in more and less skilled novus players


  • Viire Talts
  • Jaan Ereline
  • Helena Gapeyeva
  • Tatjana Kums
  • Mati Pääsuke



cuesports, electromyography, bioelectrical activity, expert-novice differences


The aim of the present study was to compare the activation of the shoulder muscles in more and less skilled novus players during shots of different difficulty level. Nineteen competitive novus players (9 more skilled and 10 less skilled) were recruited to examine bioelectrical activity of the shoulder muscles (trapezius, deltoid lateral and posterior muscles) during a striking accuracy task. Participants performed 3 series, each consisted of 10 novus shots – 10 penalties, 10 cut and 10 rebound shots. Surface EMG (sEMG) amplitude of posterior and lateral deltoid and trapezius muscle of the subjects' dominant side was measured during the shot and compared between successful versus unsuccessful shots in more skilled and less skilled players. Unsuccessful penalties and rebound strokes compared to successful ones in more and less skilled players, and unsuccessful cut shots compared to successful ones in more skilled players are characterized by higher activity in trapezius muscle. Higher activity of trapezius muscle is a characteristic feature of less skilled players' novus shots. During successful penalties, cut and rebound shots the sEMG amplitude of trapezius muscle in more skilled players was significantly lower (34%; p<0.05; 19%; p<0.001 and 60%; p<0.01, respectively) than in less skilled players.


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