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The problem of infant mortality arose in the discussion on risks connected with new-borns’ vaccination. When we compare infant mortality about ninety years ago and nowadays, then it is easy to see that children’s mortality has decreased enormously. But this process has not been uniform during the whole 90-year period: we can see the sub-periods of rapid progress and also sub-periods of stagnation. Obviously, some social and political factors have an impact here, but the mechanism of this influence is not clear.