Beyond “caution, pragmatism and cynicism”? France’s relations with the Eastern Baltic in times of crisis (1918–1922; 1988–1992) [Kokkuvõte: Kas ainult “ettevaatlikkus, pragmatism ja künism”? Prantsusmaa ja Baltimaade suhted kriisiaastatel (1918–1922; 1988–1992)]


  • Una Bergmane
  • Louis Clerc



France, Finland, Baltic states, international relations, 1918–1920, 1988–1992


France’s relations with the small states in the Eastern Baltic have been the object of studies focusing mostly on geostrategic elements. Seen through that lens, France appears to concentrate mostly on supporting Russia as a stabilizing force in the Baltic, with little interest in the claims of small states. But there are other elements shaping France’s policy towards these small states, elements that this article will present and that allow for a more varied view of French policy towards Finland and the Baltic states.


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Author Biographies

Una Bergmane

(b. 1985), Postdoctoral Fellow at Mario Einaudi Centre for International Studies, Cornell University

Louis Clerc

(b. 1976), Professor in Contemporary History at the University of Turku, Finland