T-2 mycotoxin induced apoptosis in broiler’s liver tissue


  • Piret Hussar Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  • Tõnu Järveots Institute of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia
  • Lazo Pendovski Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ss. Cyril & Methodius University in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  • Katerina Blagoevska Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ss. Cyril & Methodius University in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  • Trpe Ristoski Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ss. Cyril & Methodius University in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
  • Florina Popovska-Percinic Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ss. Cyril & Methodius University in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia




T-2 mycotoxin, apoptosis, broilers, liver


Apoptosis is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. As T-2 toxin is known to induce apoptosis in mammalian cells, the aim of the present experiment was to study the toxic effect of T-2 on chicken liver tissue using apoptosis-related antibodies p21 and p53 which are involved in the p53/p21-mediated apoptotic signalling pathway.

The experiment was conducted on fourteen 40-day-old broilers (Gallus gallus domesticus) who were divided into control and T-2 toxin groups. For the T-2 toxin group, T-2 toxin (Sigma, Germany) was dissolved in water and given per os for three consecutive days. The material of the liver was taken 24 hours after the last application. The specimens were fixed with 10% formalin and embedded into paraffin; slices 5 μm in thickness were cut followed by immunohistochemical staining with polyclonal primary antibodies p21 and p53 (Abcam, UK) according to the manufacturer’s guidelines (IHC kit, Abcam, UK).

Strong expression of p21 and p53 found in hepatocytes, endotheliocytes and around blood vessels together with large tissue destructions in T-2 toxin group birds’ liver indicates apoptosis and histopathological changes in liver tissue during T-2 mycotoxicosis.


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