Doping stigmata as pathological clinical signs in the diagnostic field of sports anthropology
An anthropometric and therefore cost-neutral screening approach as an indicator of the abuse of anabolic steroids by bodybuilders is the fat-free mass index (FFMI). Normalized to a body size of 1.80 m, the FFMI is calculated as follows: FFMI = lean mass (in kg) / body height (in m)² + 6.1 × (1.8 – body height (in m)). Furthermore, various physical and anthropological symptoms can be summarized as evidence of anabolic steroids or growth hormone abuse as doping signs or doping stigmata. Doping stigmata are usually identifiable doping signs in the external appearance. Typical doping signs for anabolic steroids are testicular atrophy, swollen, voluminous muscles with elusive smooth contours, exophthalmus, alopecia androgenetica, steroid acne, gynecomastia, cutis verticis gyrata, striae distensae, seborrhea, hematomas, an unproportional development of the upper body compared to the rest of the body and, in females, hirsutism, hypertrichosis, mammary atrophy and masculine growth in width, extreme reduction of subcutaneous fat percentage, lowering of the voice, clitoris hypertrophy, secondary amenorrhoea and the irreversible androgenization of a female fetus during pregnancy. Doping stigmata for growth hormone are gigantism, acromegaly, macroglossia, tooth gaps, prognathism, torus supraorbitalis, visceromegaly (cardiomyopathy, splenomegaly and hepatomegaly), hairs of wire brush consistency, edema, seborrhoea, skin thickening and hypertrichosis, cutis verticis gyrata and the reduction of the percentage of fat. Typical examples of doping signs of erythropoietin are plethora and rubeosis faciei. Doping stigmata of amphetamines are, for example, tachycardia, hypertension, decongestion, tremor, mydriasis or speed pimples.