Effects of Diets Containing Different Types of Carbohydrates on Hepatic Metabolism
The study of diets rich in different quantities of simple and complex carbohydrates is essential as an aid in the prevention of several types of organic damage. Objectives: To assess the effects of hyperglycidic, isocaloric diets with variations in carbohydrate type (simple or complex) on the metabolism of rats. Methodology: Forty Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control group (57.96% starch and 12.04% saccharose - CG), carbohydrate mixture group (35% saccharose, 35% starch - MG), simple-carbohydrate-group (70% saccharose - SG), and complex-carbohydrate-group (70% starch - CCG). The animals were allowed to habituate to the diets and then received them for 28 days, with free access to water. Results: Ration weight and consumption did not differ between groups. The amount of hepatic fat was found to be greater in SG compared to CG. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) determination revealed that SG presented the lowest value, although this result was accompanied by the lowest vitamin E value, demonstrating that the consumption of this antioxidant was higher in SG. Reduced glutathione values did not differ between groups, raising the hypothesis that in this case vitamin E was the first antioxidant barrier to be utilized. Blood glucose levels differed between CG, MG and SG in relation to CCG only on day 14; however, the oral glucose tolerance test performed at the end of the experiment did not demonstrate a difference between groups. Serum fructosamine differed significantly between MG and CG and CCG and also between SG and CG and CCG, with the values for MG and SG being higher than those for the other groups. Conclusion: The consumption of simple carbohydrates led to hepatic steatosis and altered the antioxidant system even within a short period of time, in addition to modifying the fructosamine values, revealing an increase in glycated serum proteins that may cause damage over a longer period of time.