Semantilised rollid keeleuurimise vahendina

  • Liina Lindström Tartu Ülikool
  • Piia Taremaa Tartu Ülikool
Keywords: semantilised rollid, temaatilised rollid, rollihierarhiad, kontroll, mõjutatus, elusus, eesti keel, semantic roles, thematic roles, role hieararchies, control, affectedness, animacy, Estonian

Abstract

Semantilised rollid väljendavad semantilisi suhteid entiteetide ja sündmuste vahel ning on keeleteaduses laialt kasutatav vahend lause predikaadi ja tema argumentide omavaheliste suhete selgitamiseks semantilisel tasandil. Sellegipoolest ei ole keeleteaduses välja kujunenud ühest arusaama sellest, kui palju ja millised semantilised rollid on keele kirjeldamisel vajalikud. Käesolevas artiklis tutvustatakse olulisemat semantiliste rollidega seotud problemaatikat. Artiklis antakse ülevaade semantiliste rollide ajaloost, enamkasutatavatest semantilistest rollidest, rollide hierarhilisusest ning rolle eristavatest olulistest joontest (kontroll, mõjutatus, elusus), rollide markeerimisest ja kuhjumisest eesti keele näidete varal.

Semantic roles as a linguistic tool. Semantic roles are widely used in linguistics to analyse and describe language and are most commonly understand as semantic concepts which show how participants and events are related. However, there is no general agreement about the number of semantic roles; the definitions of semantic roles vary from study to study likewise. In this paper we provide an overview of the history of semantic roles and also give a short list of main semantic roles. Our purpose is to highlight some key aspects of establishing semantic roles, such as narrow vs. wide definitions of semantic roles, the hierarchies of semantic roles, and the main features (namely, control, volitionality, and affectedness) that are related to the content of semantic roles. We also address an issue concerning expressing semantic roles, that is, how a particular semantic role may be lexicalised with different linguistic means and how semantic roles may be conflated.

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Published
2013-06-19