Episteemilistest modaalpartiklitest eesti kirjakeeles

  • Annika Valdmets Tartu Ülikool
  • Külli Habicht Tartu Ülikool
Keywords: episteemilised modaalpartiklid, grammatisatsioon, (inter)subjektiivsus, eesti kirjakeel

Abstract

Artikli eesmärgiks on kirjeldada mõningate episteemiliste, tõeväärtushinnangut kandvate modaalpartiklite kujunemist ja kasutamist eesti (kirja)keeles. Täpsema vaatluse all on sõnad nagu kahtlemata, loomulikult, põhimõtteliselt ja tegelikult, mis on peamiselt viimase sajandi vältel arenenud täistähenduslikest viisiadverbidest modaalpartikliteks. Selle protsessi käigus on teisenenud nende semantilised, morfosüntaktilised ja pragmaatilised omadused. Käsitletavad üksused on tänapäeva eesti keeles polüseemsed: olenevalt kontekstist saab neid kasutada nii täistähenduslike viisiadverbide kui ka mittetäistähenduslike episteemiliste partiklitena. Episteemiliste modaalpartiklite kirjeldamisel on kaasatud ka subjektiivsuse ja intersubjektiivsuse mõisted. Artiklit illustreerivad näited Tartu Ülikooli kirjakeele korpustest ja vanadest eesti keele grammatikatest.

About epistemic modal particles in Estonian. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the development and use of some of the epistemic modal particles in written Estonian. More specifically, this paper detangles the topic with the examples of the words like kahtlemata ’undoubtedly’, loomulikult ’of course’, põhimõtteliselt ’in principle’ and tegelikult ’actually’, which are particles that have evolved from (manner) adverbs and, as polysemous items, are being used in both functions nowadays. During this evolution, the words’ semantic, morphosyntactic and pragmatic properties have changed. The data for this study mainly come from the Corpus of Estonian Literary Language, the Balanced Corpus of Estonian, and old Estonian grammars. The theoretical background is based on grammaticalization approach. More specifically, the topics of subjectivity and intersubjectivity are examined in greater detail. The most important function of the particles studied here is indeed appearing on the pragmatic level because these items add epistemic modality to the clause which can only originate from the speaker/writer (subjectivity) or which can cover also the addressee (intersubjectivity).

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Published
2013-06-20