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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.


    Submission of a manuscript implies that the paper has not been submitted to or published in any other journal. The manuscript has to meet the current ethics and research standards. The author must ensure that all those who have contributed to the manuscript are properly acknowledged to avoid possible conflicts of interest and plagiarism.


    Manuscripts should be submitted electronically to the editor’s address shown in the invitation for submission for special or free issues. The manuscript should be submitted in the form of two separate files: (1) the complete manuscript containing the biographical information of the author(s) and the article text with all the references and acknowledgements, and (2) the anonymised manuscript containing only the article text without summaries and no mention of the name(s) of the author(s).


    To guarantee the authors’ anonymity in the process of blind reviewing the submitted manuscripts should not reveal the authors’ identity or information about their earlier work. All references to the earlier work should be given as "Author, 2011" or "Author et al., 2011". In the reference list the following should be used: "Author, 2011 (information concealed for the blind-reviewing process)".


    Manuscripts should be written in grammatically correct Estonian and conform to the standards and style of scientific writing. The article in Estonian should include a longer summary in English. To avoid spelling mistakes Microsoft Word's spell check should be used.


    Manuscripts should be written in grammatically correct Estonian and conform to the standards and style of scientific writing. Detailed instructions can be find here (docx, pdf). The article in Estonian should include a longer summary in English (6,000–9,000 characters with spaces). To avoid spelling mistakes Microsoft Word’s spell check should be used.


    Manuscripts should be written in grammatically correct Estonian and conform to the standards and style of scientific writing. Detailed instructions can be find here (docx, pdf). The article in Estonian should include a longer summary in English (6,000–9,000 characters with spaces). To avoid spelling mistakes Microsoft Word’s spell check should be used.

    All submissions should follow the American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines (Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition). For more information, please consult:  and

    The following table provides a brief overview of the most common citations used.

    In-text citations
    All the authors whose ideas are mentioned in the article should be referred to. Only sources cited in the text should be included in the reference list.
    In parentheses in the textIn-text citations consist of the surname(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication in parentheses. Page numbers must be supplied for direct quotations. Two or more works by different authors within the same parentheses are ordered alphabetically and separated by semicolons.
    (Anson & Schwegler, 2005)
    (Anson & Schwegler, 2005, p. 24)
    (Anson & Schwegler, 2005; Bergman & Wångby, 2014)
    One or two authorsIf there is one or two authors, the surnames of both authors are listed. In the case of two authors the names are joined by ’and’; in the parentheses, by ampersand (&).
    (Toomela, 2014)
    (Anson & Schwegler, 2005)
    Three or more authorsIf there are three or more authors, only the surname of the first author is listed, followed by et al. All the authors should be included in the reference list.
    Blom et al. (2001)
    (Blom et al., 2001)
    Two or more works by the same authorTwo or more works by the same author are ordered by the year of publication. The dates are separated by commas.
    (Biddle, 1986, 1998)
    No author
    When there is no author, the title is used in place of the author's name. If the title is too long, only the first two to three words are used. In the reference list the full title is given.
    (American Psychological Association, 2009)
    Secondary referencingSecondary referencing should be avoided and used only when the primary source is not available. When citing such work, the author of the primary source and the author of the work it was cited in should be used.
    (Lewin, Lippitt, & White, 1939, viidatud Baumrind, 1967 j).
    Reference list
    All publications cited in the manuscript must be included in the reference list. If the article has a doi-number, it should be presented in the list of references.
    Ordering the reference listAll sources cited in the text are listed alphabetically by the author’s surname. All entries should include the following: the name(s) of the author(s), the year of publication, and the publisher. When there is no author, the work in the reference list is alphabetised by title.
    Journal articleExample
    Krämer, S., Möller, J., & Zimmermann, F. (2021). Inclusive education of students with general learning difficulties: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 91, 432–478.
    Newspaper articleExample
    Heidmets, M. (2013, 6. dets). Uus ajakiri: kes kirjutab, kes loeb? Õpetajate Leht, lk 4.
    The book has an authorExample
    Võgotski, L. (2014). Mõtlemine ja kõne. Tartu: Ilmamaa.
    The book has an editorExample
    Kikas, E. (Toim). (2010). Õppimine ja õpetamine esimeses ja teises kooliastmes. Tartu: Ecoprint.
    No author or editorExample
    Looduse entsüklopeedia (2013). Tallinn: Varrak.
    Multiple works by the same author in the same yearExamples
    Lyons, J. (1981a). Language and Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Lyons, J. (1981b). Language, Meaning and Context. London: Fontana.
    Chapter from a bookExample
    Wischmeier, I. (2012). Primary School Teachers' Beliefs about Bilingualism. J. König (Ed.), Teachers' Pedagogical Beliefs (pp. 171–189). Münster: Waxmann Verlag.
    Electronic documents 
    When citing electronic documents the surname of the author, the title of the article  and the exact URL where it can be found should be included.
    Online journal articleExample
    Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. volume3/ pre0030001a.html.
    Document with the author and dateExample
    Taimalu, M., Uibu, K., Luik, P., Leijen, Ä., & Pedaste, M. (2020). Õpetajad ja koolijuhid väärtustatud professionaalidena. OECD rahvusvahelise õpetamise ja õppimise uuringu TALIS 2018 uuringu tulemused. Retrieved from
    Document without the author and dateExample
    Koolivägivald (s.a.). Külastatud aadressil
    Document from the website of an organisationExample
    American Psychological Association (1996). How to cite information from the world wide web. Retrieved from webref.html.
    Tables and figures
    Tables and figures supplement the text and do not duplicate the results described in it. All tables and figures should be numbered sequentially in the order to which they are referred in the text. Smaller tables and figures are placed in the text as near as possible to where they are first referred.  Longer tables and figures should be submitted as separate files or at the end of the manuscript. Tables are formatted according to APA guidelines. Only horizontal lines can be used to separate information and make it clearer.

Author Guidelines

Both empirical research and review articles will be accepted. The volume of the manuscript is 40,000 – 60,000 characters with spaces together with a longer summary in English (6,000 – 9,000 characters with spaces).

Article structure

Summary and abstract. A summary is required in two languages: a longer summary in English (6,000–9,000 characters with spaces) and a concise abstract in Estonian (1000 characters with spaces). The summary should provide a precise and exhaustive overview of the Estonian article. The abstract should include the objective of the study, the methods used, the most important results obtained and the conclusions based on the results. Both the abstract and summary should contain the title of the article in the relevant language.

Keywords. The list of a maximum of six keywords is presented immediately after the abstract  (summary). The list could be based on “General Keywords in Estonian” (For more detailed information see: The referred list contains education related keywords in Estonian with their corresponding equivalents in English. 

Main text. The body of the empirical research article should include the following sections:

Introduction. This section should state the purpose of the study, the research problem and hypotheses (research questions) as well as provide a theoretical background and literature review on relevant studies. The most important aspects of the research should be emphasised and connections between the current and earlier research discussed.

Method. This section should describe what research methodology was used and how the research was conducted. An overview of the sample and research instrument(s) along with the strategies used to collect and analyse the data should be provided.

Results. The results should be based on reliable and valid data and presented clearly. All significant results should be given, including those which did not confirm the hypotheses.

Discussion/ Conclusions. This section should interpret the results in the light of research questions and/ or hypotheses as well as to show how the results connect with or interrupt current understanding and knowledge of the issue under review. The validity of the conclusions as well as the strengths and limitations of the study are also to be identified. If applicable, potential for practical application of the results and recommendations for further research should be provided. In the case of qualitative research, combining the results and discussion into a single section may be advisable.

Appendices. The appendices should be listed in the order they are mentioned in the text and should be identified as A, B, etc.

Acknowledgements. All contributors who provided help during the research should be listed in this section. If the research has been supported by grants, a funding acknowledgement statement should be included.


Eessõna või juhtartikkel ajakirja eri- või vabanumbri toimetaja(te)lt.

Introduction or article from the editor(s) of the journal’s special or free issues.


Artikkel hõlmab eestikeelset annotatsiooni (.html), ingliskeelset kokkuvõtet (.pdf, 6000–9000 tähemärki koos tühikutega) ja eestikeelset täisteksti (.pdf, 40 000–60 000 tähemärki koos tühikutega). Igas ajakirja numbris avaldatakse ka ülevaateartikkel või 1-2 välisautori tõlkeartikkel, mille autorid loovutavad eestikeelsele ajakirjale.

The article should include an abstract in Estonian (.html), a summary in English (.pdf, 6000–9000 characters with spaces) and a full text in Estonian (.pdf, 40 000–60 000 characters with spaces). Each issue of the journal will publish a review article or 1–2 translated articles whose copyright is assigned to the journal by their authors.

Book review

Raamatute tutvustused, retsensioonid.

Book and article reviews.

Privacy Statement

Eesti Haridusteaduste Ajakiri. Estonian Journal of  Education is an open access journal. This means that all content is freely available without charge to the user, and enables the research to be freely available to the public and supports a greater global exchange of knowledge. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI (Budapest Open Access Initiative) definition of open access.