Õpilaste heaolu resilientsus ja mõistestruktuuri areng: erinevused kooliga rahulolu säilitamisel ebameeldivate koolikogemuste ja klassiõpetaja kasvatusstiili taustal

Aivar Ots

Abstract


Artiklis käsitletakse seoseid õpilaste kognitiivse arengu ja koolis kogetava heaolu vahel, tuginedes kolmanda kuni viienda klassi õpilastega (N = 495) tehtud pikiuuringule, millega selgitati koolilaste psühholoogilise resilientsuse seoseid mõistestruktuuri arenguga. Resilientsus tähendab psüühilist toimetulekut stressi ja üleelatud õnnetustega viisil, millega säilitatakse või taastatakse enda heaolu ja tegevusvõime (vt Rutter, 2006; Shiner & Masten, 2012). Resilientsuse avaldumisena käsitleti uurimuses kooliga rahulolu säilitamist kõrge ebameeldivate tundeelamuste taseme korral. Selliste tundeelamuste taseme määramisel lähtuti asjaomaste kogemuste subjektiivsetest kirjeldustest. Lisaks selgitati õpilaste heaolu ja resilientsuse seoseid klassiõpetaja kasvatusstiiliga. Oletati, et arenguliselt hilisema mõistestruktuuri kasutamine (Toomela, 2003a; Võgotski, 1934/1999) võiks soodustada õpilasel suurema resilientsuse esinemist. Tulemused on oletusega kooskõlas, näidates, et kolme aasta vältel arenguliselt hilisemat mõistestruktuuri kasutanud õpilased säilitasid kõrgema negatiivsete elamuste taseme puhul sagedamini kooliga rahulolu. Samuti leiti, et klassiõpetaja hoolivust väljendavad ja toetavad tegevused soodustavad õpilaste sagedasemat rahulolu kooliga ning psühholoogilist ja käitumuslikku kontrolli taotlevad tegevused sagedasemat rahulolematust. Statistilise andmetöötluse jaoks kasutati konfiguratsioonilisi sagedusanalüüse (von Eye, 1990). 

Summary


Keywords


psühholoogiline resilientsus, mõistestruktuuri areng, subjektiivne heaolu, põhikool, õpetamisstiilid, negatiivsed tundeelamused

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.12697/eha.2014.2.1.06

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