Kiusamisvastane sekkumine koolis

Peter K. Smith


Toetudes mõningatele taustauuringutele koolikiusamise olemuse, levimuse ja selle võimalike negatiivsete tagajärgede kohta, antakse artiklis ülevaade kiusamisvastasest sekkumisest viimasel 30 aastal. Kirjeldatakse mitmeid olulisimaid programme, sealhulgas Olweuse kiusamise ennetamise programm (Olweus Bullying Prevention Program), KiVa, Steps to Respect ja Friendly Schools. Samuti arutletakse sekkumise olemuse ja sekkumisele antud hinnangute üle, millele järgnevad metaanalüütilised ülevaated programmide tõhususest. Vaatluse all on mõju eri vanuses lastele, sekkumise komponendid, töö eakaaslastega, distsiplinaarmeetodid, mittekaristav lähenemisviis ja lepitusmeetodid, küberkiusamine, vanemate roll, õpetajate roll ja nende koolitamine, nn kindla menüü või à la carte’i põhimõte, sekkumise jätkusuutlikkus ja sotsiaalne kontekst. Järeldustena leitakse, et traditsioonilise kiusamise puhul on sekkumisest olnud mõningane kasu. Samas tuleb tugevdada sekkumise teoreetilisi aluseid ja võitlust küberkiusamisega.

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kiusaja, ohver, sekkumine, küberkiusamine, hindamine, õpetajad

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