Eesti kõrgkoolide esmakursuslaste õpi- ja teadmuskäsitus

Einike Pilli, Marek Sammul, Piia Post, Ülle Aasjõe, Karl Kruusamäe

Abstract


Mitmed üliõpilaste seas läbi viidud uuringud näitavad seost epistemoloogiliste uskumuste ehk teadmuskäsituse ja õpikäsituse vahel. Need uskumused ise aga tingivad selle, kuidas üliõpilased võtavad vastu erinevaid õppejõu tegevusi ja kuidas nad õpivad. Viimasel ajal levivad ka Eestis üha enam aktiivõppe meetodid, mis eeldavad üliõpilastelt teistsugust valmisolekut kui passiivne loengu vormis õppimine. Käesoleva töö eesmärk oligi kirjeldada, millised on Eesti esimese kursuse üliõpilaste epistemoloogilised uskumused ja õpikäsitus ning kuidas need mõjutavad üliõpilaste õpieelistusi. Lähtuti hüpoteesist, et Eesti esmakursuslased on pigem passiivsed, fikseeritud laadi epistemoloogiliste uskumustega ning ootavad õppejõult kui autoriteedilt nn valmisteadmisi. Seetõttu eelistavad nad töötada pigem üksi, mitte rühmas.

Uurimuse hüpotees leidis üldjoontes kinnitust. Enamik uuritud esimese kursuse üliõpilastest käsitab teadmist oskuse või kogemusena. Õppimine on uute teadmiste omandamine õppejõult, kaaslastel on eelkõige vaid motiveeriv roll. Esmakursuslased eelistavad õppejõudu, kes on autoriteet ja ekspert, mistõttu oodatakse, et õppejõud tooks elulisi näiteid ja selgitaks õpitavat samm-sammult. Suur osa küsimustiku täitnud üliõpilastest on pindmise õpihoiakuga: nad mõistavad teadmist eelkõige fakti, kogemuse või oskusena ja eelistavad õppida üksi. Samal ajal on neil pluralistlikku laadi epistemoloogilised uskumused. Uuringust selgus ka, et sügava õpihoiakuga üliõpilased näevad õppimist protsessina ning teadmisi sealjuures ajas muutuvate ja arenevatena.

Ainsaks kõrvalekaldeks esialgsest hüpoteesist olid üliõpilaste valdavalt pluralistlikud epistemoloogilised uskumused, mis võivad viidata ühiskonnas üldiselt levivale arusaamale, et pole ühtset tõde, vaid on palju tõlgendusi.

Summary


Keywords


epistemoloogilised uskumused, õpikäsitus, õpihoiakud, esimese kursuse üliõpilased, kõrgharidus

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.12697/eha.2013.1.08

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