Kahesuunalise keelekümblusprogrammi kasutuselevõtt ja arendus Eesti lasteaedades ruumilisest vaatenurgast. Ressursid ja riskid

  • Kara Brown


Ethnic and racial segregation is a common challenge around the world, and resistance to school integration is all too familiar. Exceptions to these patterns thus merit special attention, particularly in contexts where communities have maintained high degrees of separation for generations. In Estonia, where the dominant Russian-speaking minority throughout the Soviet period seldom learned the language, (re)independence in 1991 reversed the ethnic power structure and left most Russian residents with little to no competency in the sole official language of Estonian.


Andmeid allalaadimiseks pole.


Aab, A. (2015, January 30). Innove viib keelekümbluse õpetajad kogemusi koguma Ameerika Ühendriikidesse [Innove brings immersion teachers to the United States to collect experiences]. Innove.

Alanís, I., & Rodríguez, M. A. (2008). Sustaining a dual language immersion program: Features of success. Journal of Latinos and Education, 7(4), 305–319. https://doi.org/10.1080/15348430802143378

Armendáriz, A. L., & Armendáriz, E. J. (2002). An administrative perspective of a two-way bilingual immersion program. Bilingual Research Journal, 26(1), 169–179. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2002.10668704

Bartlett, L., & Vavrus, F. (2014). Transversing the vertical case study: A methodological approach to studies of educational policy as practice. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 45(2), 131–147. https://doi.org/10.1111/aeq.12055

Bearse, C., & de Jong, E. J. (2008). Cultural and linguistic investment: Adolescents in a Secondary two-way immersion program. Equity & Excellence in Education, 41(3), 325–340. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680802174817

Beech, J., & Artopoulous, A. (2016). Interpreting the circulation of educational discourse across space: Searching for new vocabularies. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 14(2), 261–271. https://doi.org/10.1080/14767724.2015.1025713

Bekerman, Z. (2016). The promise of integrated multicultural and bilingual education: Inclusive Palestinian-Arab and Jewish schools in Israel. Oxford University Press.

Berezkina, M., Brown, K. D., & Koreinik, K. (2021). Vene keel kui ressurss. Emakeele Seltsi Aastaraamat, 66, 39–63. https://doi.org/10.3176/esa66.02

Brubaker, R. (2011). Nationalizing states revisited: projects and processes of nationalizations in post-Soviet states. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 34(11), 1785–1814. https://doi.org/10.1080/01419870.2011.579137

Budach, G. (2009). Multilingual education in Germany: discourses, practices, and experiences in two-way immersion. In M. E. Torres-Guzmán & Joel Gómez (Eds.), Global perspectives on multilingualism: unity in diversity (pp. 106–133). Teachers College Press.

Cook, V. A., & Hemming, P. J. (2011). Education spaces: Embodied dimensions and dynamics. Social & Cultural Geography, 12(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649365.2011.542483

de Jong, E. J., & Bearse, C. I. (2014). Dual language programs as a strand within a secondary school: Dilemmas of school organization and the TWI mission. International Journal of Bilingual Education And Bilingualism, 17(1), 15–31. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2012.725709

de Jong, E. J. & Howard, E. (2009). Integration in two-way immersion education: Equalising linguistic benefits for all students. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 12(1), 81–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802149531

Delfi (02.02.2017). President Kaljulaid: On tohutu lapse aja ja ressursi raiskamine, kui me ei õpeta talle lasteaias selgeks veel ühte keelt. Postimees. https://www.postimees.ee/4001829/president-kaljulaid-on-tohutu-lapse-aja-ja-ressursi-raiskamine-kui-me-ei-opeta-talle-lasteaias-selgeks-veel-uhte-keelt.

Eesti statistika. (2020). Millised rahvused elavad Eestis? https://www.stat.ee/et/uudised/millised-rahvused-elavad-eestis.

Gadsden, V. L., Davis, J. E., & Artiles, A. J. (2009). Introduction: risk, equity, and schooling: Transforming the discourse. Review of Research in Education, 33(1), vii–xi. https://doi.org/10.3102/0091732X08330002

Garena, L. (2011). Parental voice and involvement in cultural context: Understanding rationales, values and motivational constructs in a dual immersion setting. Urban Education, 46(3), 342–370. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042085910377512

Gulson, K. N., & Symes, C. (2007). Knowing one’s place: Educational theory, policy, and the spatial turn. In K.N. Gulson & C. Symes (Eds.), Spatial theories of education: policy and geography matters (pp. 1–16). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203940983

Haridus- ja Noorteamet. (2021, May 26). Keelekümblusasutuste võrgustik laieneb. https://harno.ee/uudised/keelekumblusasutuste-vorgustik-laieneb.

Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium. (n.d.). 2016/2017. õppeaasta arvudes. Haridus ja Teadusministeerium. https://www.hm.ee/sites/default/files/2016-2017-oppeaasta_arvudes.pdf.

Hertz-Lazarowitz, R., Mor-Sommerfeld, A., Zelniker, A., & Azaiza, F. (2008). From ethnic segregation to bilingual education: What can bilingual education do for the future of the Israeli society? Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, 6(2), 142–156. https://doi.org/10.1177/1746197907072123

Hope, M. A., & Montgomery, C. (2016). Creating spaces for autonomy: The architecture of learning and thinking in Danish schools and universities. In N. Noddings & H. E. Lees (Eds.), The Palgrave International Handbook of Alternative Education, 305–319. Palgrave. https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-41291-1_20

Horton, J., & Kraftl, P. (2014). Cultural geographies: An introduction. Routledge.

Jairus, L. (2016, February 18). Uudiseid Vikerkaarest. Tapa Valla Ajaleht, 2.

Kangur, M. (2021, December 27). Estonia’s education is accessible to everyone – thanks to social support and an adaptable system. Estonian World. https://estonianworld.com/knowledge/estonias-education-is-accessible-to-everyone-thanks-to-social-support-and-an-adaptable-system/.

Kraftl, P., & Adey, P. (2008). Architecture/Affect/Inhabitation: geographies of being-in buildings. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 98(1), 213–231. https://doi.org/10.1080/00045600701734687

Kultuuriministeerium. (2015). Keelteoskus ja keelte praktiline kasutamine: faktileht. Eesti integratsiooni monitoring. Kultuuriministeerium. https://www.ibs.ee/wp-content/uploads/Eesti_integratsiooni_monitooring_20151.pdf.

Kwan, M.-P. (2013). Beyond space (as we knew it): Toward temporally integrated geographies of segregation, health, and accessibility. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 103(5), 1078–1086. https://doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2013.792177

Kööp, K. (2013). Estonia: socio-historic and political influences on the early childhood education and care system. In J. Georgeson & J. Payler (Eds.), International perspectives on early childhood education and care (pp. 64–75). Open University Press.

Larsen, M. A., & Beech, J. (2014). Spatial theorizing in comparative and international education research. Comparative Education Review, 58(2), 191–214. https://doi.org/10.1086/675499

Lee, J. S., & Jeoing, E. (2013). Korean-English dual language immersion: Perspectives of students, parents and teachers. Language, Culture, and Curriculum, 26(1), 89–107. https://doi.org/10.1080/07908318.2013.765890

Lember, U. 2016. Temporal horizons in two generations of Russian–Estonian families during late socialism. In R. Nugin, A. Kannike, & M. Raudsepp. (Eds.), Generations in Estonia: contemporary perspectives on turbulent times (pp. 159–187). Approaches to Culture Theory 5. University of Tartu Press.

Lindholm-Leary, K. (2012). Successes and challenges of dual language education. Theory Into Practice, 51(4), 256–262. https://doi.org/10.1080/00405841.2012.726053

Lopéz, M. M. (2013). Mothers choose: reasons for enrolling their children in a two-way immersion program. Bilingual Research Journal, 36(2), 208–227. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2013.818595

Marian, V., Shook, A., & Schroeder, S. R. (2013). Bilingual two-way immersion programs benefit academic achievement. Bilingual Research Journal, 36(2), 167–186. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2013.818075

Massey, D. (1995). Places and their pasts. History Workshop Journal, 39(1), 182–192. https://doi.org/10.1093/hwj/39.1.182

Masso, A., & Soll, M. (2014). Change in language of instruction in Russian medium schools: Multileval analysis of attitudes and language proficiency. Journal of Baltic Studies, 45(4), 517–544. https://doi.org/10.1080/01629778.2014.937818

Menken, K., & Solorza, C. (2015). Principals as linchpins in bilingual education: The need for prepared school leaders. International Journal Of Bilingual Education And Bilingualism, 6(1), 169–179. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2014.937390

Milcev, V.V. (2013). Building bridges at the earliest age through the Mozaik Model multicultural preschool education in Macedonia. In C. McGlynn, M. Zembylas & Z. Bekerman (Eds.), Integrated education in conflicted societies (pp. 121–145). Palgrave MacMillan. https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137280985_9

Ortiz, A. A., & Fránquiz, M. E. (2016). Co-editors’ introduction: Nuanced understandings of emergent bilinguals and dual language program implementation. Bilingual Research Journal, 39(2), 87–90. https://doi.org/10.1080/15235882.2016.1177778

Parkes, J. (2008). Who chooses dual language education for their children and why. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 11(6), 635–660. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050802149267

Potowski, K. (2007). Language and identity in a dual immersion school. Multilingual Matters Ltd. https://doi.org/10.21832/9781853599453

Queirós, M. (2016). Edward Soja: Geographical Imaginations from the Margins to the Core. Planning Theory & Practice, 17, 154–160. https://doi.org/10.1080/14649357.2015.1130447

Rose, J., & Johnson, C.W. (2020). Contextualizing reliability and validity in qualitative research: Toward more rigorous and trustworthy qualitative social science in leisure research. Journal of Leisure Research, 51(4), 432–451. https://doi.org/10.1080/00222216.2020.1722042

Ruíz, R. (1984). Orientations in language planning. NABE Journal, 8(2), 15–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/08855072.1984.10668464

Saldaña, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). Sage.

Schwartz, M., & Palviainen, Å. (2016). Twenty-first-century preschool bilingual education: Facing advantages and challenges in cross-cultural contexts. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 19(6), 603–613. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2016.1184616

Selliov, R. (2016). Eesti keelest erineva emakeelega põhikooli lõpetajate eesti keele oskus [The Estonian-language ability of Basic School graduates with a mother tongue other than Estonian]. Tartu: Haridus- ja Teadusministeerium.

Singer, J., & Lenhoff, S. W. (2022). Race, geography, and school choice policy: a critical analysis of Detroit students’ suburban school choices. AERA Open, 8(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/23328584211067202

Soll, M., Salvet, S., & Masso, A. (2015). Changes in language policy in Estonia: selfdescriptions of Russian-speaking students. Trames, 19(69), 221–247. https://doi.org/10.3176/tr.2015.3.02

Speek, M. (2015, October 2). Eesti keele oskus kui inimõigus [Estonian language ability as a human right]. Õpetajate Leht. https://opleht.ee/2015/10/eesti-keele-oskus-kuiinimoigus/.

Tankersley, D. (2001). Bombs or bilingual programmes? Dual-language immersion, transformative education and community building in Macedonia. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 4(2), 107–124. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050108667722

Torm, M. (2009). Pre-school education. In A. Krūze, I. Kestere, V. Sirk & O. Tijūnėlienė (Eds.), History of education and pedagogical thought in the Baltic countries up to 1940: An overview (pp. 71–80). Raka.

Tõnurist, A. (2015, Dec. 11). Paljurahvuseline Eesti. Sirp http://www.sirp.ee/s1-artiklid/varia/paljurahvuseline-eesti/.

Ugaste, A., & Õun, T. (n.d.) History and current situation in the Estonian early childhood education. Vaadatud http://sokl.uef.fi/verkkojulkaisut/varhais/ugaste_oun.pdf.

Vavrus, F. (2016). Topographies of power: A critical historical geography of schooling in Tanzania. Comparative Education, 52(2), 136–156. https://doi.org/10.1080/03050068.2015.1112567

Verschik, A. (2005). The language situation in Estonia. The Journal of Baltic Studies, 36(3), 283–316. https://doi.org/10.1080/01629770500000111

Verschik, A. (2010). Contacts of Russian in the post-Soviet space. Applied Linguistics Review, 1(2010), 85–127. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110222654.85

Whiting, E. F., & Feinauer, E. (2011). Reasons for enrollment at a Spanish-English two way immersion charter school among highly motivated parents from a diverse community. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 14(6), 631–651. https://doi.org/10.1080/13670050.2011.560931

Wiese, A.-M. (2004). Bilingualism and biliteracy for all? Unpacking two-way immersion at second grade. Language And Education, 18(1), 69–92. https://doi.org/10.1080/09500780408666868

Wikipedia (n.d.). Eesti rahvastik. Wikipedia. https://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eesti_rahvastik#Rahvuslik_koostis.

Kuis viidata
Brown, K. (2022). Kahesuunalise keelekümblusprogrammi kasutuselevõtt ja arendus Eesti lasteaedades ruumilisest vaatenurgast. Ressursid ja riskid. Eesti Haridusteaduste Ajakiri. Estonian Journal of Education, 10(2), 203-227. https://doi.org/10.12697/eha.2022.10.2.07b