Õpetamistegevused ja õpilaste tekstimõistmine üleminekul esimesest kooliastmest teise astmesse

Krista Uibu, Mairi Männamaa

Abstract


Tekstimõistmine on seotud verbaalse võimekusega, info kodeerimise ja integreerimisega ning sõnatähenduse tundmisega. Õpetajad kasutavad erinevaid õpetamistegevusi, et toetada õpilaste keelelist, sh tekstimõistmise arengut. Uurimuse eesmärk oli välja selgitada õpetajate õpetamistegevuste (mehaanilise õpetamise, arusaamise arendamise, teadmiste rakendamise) mõju õpilaste tekstimõistmisele üleminekul esimesest kooliastmest teise astmesse. Töös hinnati klassiõpetajate (N = 48) õpetamistegevusi ja nende muutust 3. ja 4. klassis ning õpetamistegevuste seoseid õpilaste (N = 609) tekstimõistmise ja verbaalse võimekuse muutusega 4. ja 5. klassis. Analüüsimisel kasutati nii rühma- kui ka indiviidikeskseid meetodeid. Õpetamistegevuste eelistuste alusel eristusid õpetajate profiilirühmad ning tekstimõistmise komponentide ja verbaalse võimekuse alusel õpilaste rühmad. Selgus, et tekstimõistmise testi tulemused olid stabiilselt halvemad õpilastel, kes olid verbaalselt vähem võimekad ja kelle õpetajad eelistasid kõiki õpetamistegevusi vähe. Samas esines sarnaseid õpetamistegevuste kombinatsioone erinevates õpilaste profiilirühmades. Arendamaks õpilaste tekstimõistmisoskust, on oluline, et õpetajad arvestaksid õpilaste verbaalse võimekusega ja kasutaksid õpetamistegevusi kooskõlas laste keelelise arenguga. 

Summary


Keywords


tekstimõistmine, verbaalne võimekus, õpetamistegevused, pikiuurimus

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.12697/eha.2014.2.1.05

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